Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 12 (2019): Heft 4 (December 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Heft 3 (November 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Heft 2 (October 2019)

Volumen 12 (2019): Heft 1 (September 2019)

Volumen 11 (2018): Heft 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Heft 3 (October 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Heft 2 (August 2018)

Volumen 11 (2018): Heft 1 (May 2018)

Volumen 10 (2017): Heft 4 (December 2017)

Volumen 10 (2017): Heft 3 (November 2017)

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Volumen 10 (2017): Heft 1 (September 2017)

Volumen 9 (2016): Heft 3-4 (December 2016)

Volumen 9 (2016): Heft 2 (June 2016)

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Volumen 8 (2015): Heft 4 (December 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Heft 3 (September 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Heft 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 8 (2015): Heft 1 (March 2015)

Volumen 7 (2014): Heft 4 (December 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 7 (2014): Heft 1 (March 2014)

Volumen 6 (2013): Heft 4 (December 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Heft 3 (September 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Heft 2 (June 2013)

Volumen 6 (2013): Heft 1 (March 2013)

Volumen 5 (2012): Heft 4 (December 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Heft 3 (September 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Heft 2 (June 2012)

Volumen 5 (2012): Heft 1 (March 2012)

Volumen 4 (2011): Heft 4 (December 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Heft 3 (September 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Heft 2 (June 2011)

Volumen 4 (2011): Heft 1 (March 2011)

Volumen 3 (2010): Heft 4 (December 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Heft 3 (September 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Heft 2 (June 2010)

Volumen 3 (2010): Heft 1 (March 2010)

Volumen 2 (2009): Heft 4 (December 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Heft 3 (September 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Heft 2 (June 2009)

Volumen 2 (2009): Heft 1 (March 2009)

Volumen 1 (2008): Heft 3-4 (December 2008)

Volumen 1 (2008): Heft 2 (September 2008)

Volumen 1 (2008): Heft 1 (June 2008)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1337-9569
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Jun 2009
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 12 (2019): Heft 1 (September 2019)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1337-9569
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Jun 2009
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The pathway of lead through the mother’s body to the child

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 6

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Placenta, the organ on which great attention is concentrated during pregnancy, represents an ineffective barrier to the transfer of hazardous heavy metals, mainly lead, into the foetus. The presence of lead in the placenta is an environmental hazard for a person’s future. Due to hormonal changes, lead is released during pregnancy into the bloodstream of the mother from deposits in the bones and in the teeth, where it has accumulated for years as a result of a contaminated environment. Since lead is a neurotoxic metal, exposure to lead during prenatal and postnatal development can cause serious neurocognitive damage and hence the development of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a developing human. Our work provides an overall picture of the “toxic pathway“ of lead through the mother’s body, the risks arising from its transplacental transfer and its accumulation in the developing foetus as well as effective prevention to protect all newborns.

Schlüsselwörter

  • human placenta
  • lead
  • calcium
  • neurotoxicity
  • ADHD
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-clinical safety evaluation of a novel pharmaceutical salt, rosuvastatin ethanolamine, in Wistar rats

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 7 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Rosuvastatin, a second generation 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl Glutaryl Coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor, is widely used for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Rosuvastatin ethanolamine, developed by Cadila Healthcare Ltd., is a novel, chemically stable, and pharmaceutically acceptable salt, having better physiochemical properties than commercially available Rosuvastatin salt. The objective of the present study is to evaluate safety, tolerability, and toxicokinetic profile of novel salt. Therefore, four weeks repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity and toxicokinetic study of Rosuvastatin ethanolamine was carried out. The drugs were administered once daily at salt corrected dose of 15, 40, and 100 mg/kg for four weeks. No signs of toxicity were observed during repeated (four weeks) oral administrations of Rosuvastatin ethanolamine in rats up to 40 mg/kg. Single male mortality was observed at 100 mg/kg dose. Microscopy finding in liver was minimal to mild bile ductular proliferation, single cell necrosis, and hepatocellular vacuolation of cytoplasm with associated statistically significant serum elevation of transaminase enzymes; AST, ALT, ALP, and/or liver functional marker; total bilirubin with at ≥40 mg/kg. The systemic exposures (AUC0–24 and Cmax) were not markedly different between males and females, or between the administration periods (except high dose, where exposure on day 28 was approximately 2 to 3 fold higher than that of day 1. In conclusion, Rosuvastatin ethanolamine exhibited toxicities to liver as the target organ at ≥40 mg/kg in this study. These adverse effects with associated exposures should be taken into consideration for the future assessing of potential Rosuvastatin toxicities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Rosuvastatin ethanolamine
  • toxicity study
  • toxicokinetic study
  • Wistar rat
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluating the perception of farmers towards pesticides and the health effect of pesticides: A cross-sectional study in the oil palm plantations of Papar, Malaysia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 15 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Agriculture is an important occupation in Malaysia that generates a major portion of the national revenue. Similar to the rest of the world, pesticides are used to boost agricultural production in Malaysian farms. However, chemical pesticides are associated with human health hazard and are not environment-friendly as they persist in nature for long periods of time. Therefore, pesticide use should be reduced and farmers should be trained on correct and/or alternative ways of pesticide use. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 19 palm oil plantations in the Sabah district of Malaysia and evaluated the perception of the workers towards pesticide use and awareness regarding the health effects post-pesticide exposure. Analysis of the survey shows that most of the workers among the 270 respondents were 30-year-old males with average education, and belonged to the low income group. Majority opined that they were aware of the health hazards of pesticide use and suffered from symptoms (with mean duration of three days) such as vomiting, diarrhea, skin irritation, and dizziness. Surprisingly, the opinion was almost equally divided on whether they perceived pesticides to be the cause of their health problems, and a major percentage did not avail medical help. Most of the workers responded that they did not receive any training in pesticide handling and used partial personal protective equipment (glasses, hats, shirt, and gloves) during working hours. Interestingly, a large percentage responded that they would not read the safety material even if it was provided. These observations clearly highlight the urgency of improving the awareness, education, and attitude of these plantation workers towards the short- and long-term effects of pesticide use. They should also be educated about alternative and eco-friendly ways of farming. Finally, the plantation management should intervene and proactively advocate the use of safe farming practices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chemical pesticides
  • human health hazard
  • neurobehavioral alterations
  • plantation management
  • Malaysia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Acute and subacute toxicity of Ammi visnaga on rats

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 26 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ammi visnaga (Av) is a source of khellin where a tea made from the fruit of this plant was used as herbal medicine for kidney stones in Egypt. In the present research, the acute and subacute toxicity studies with oral intake of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg of Av seed ethanolic extract in rats were done. In acute toxicity test, 4 groups of rats (n = 6/group: 3 males and 3 females) were chosen and the first control group received tap water, while the other three groups received Av seed ethanolic extract dissolved in tap water at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, 72 rats (36 males and 36 females) were divided into 4 major groups; group I received tap water (control group), while animals in groups II, III, and IV (test groups) received oral intake of Av seed ethanolic extract dissolved in tap water at doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg bwt, respectively. Each of this major group was subdivided consequently into 3 subgroups (n = 6/group: 3 males and 3 females) where brain tissue, blood sample, body and organs weights were recorded at the beginning and then after two and four weeks of the experiment for the determination of hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, testis and ovary). With regard to acute toxicity, Av seed ethanolic extract did not induce any toxic effects or death or any organ toxicity. In subacute toxicity study; oral intake with Av seed ethanolic extract did not reveal any change in body and organs weights, hematological parameters, serum glucose and cholesterol, brain neurotransmitters, liver and kidney functions, male and female hormones. In conclusion, Av seed ethanolic extract is nontoxic to liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, testis and ovary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apiaceae
  • acute toxicity
  • subacute toxicity
  • rats
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Experimental study of imiprotrin allergic potency in case of inhalation

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 36 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Probable changes were studied in rats’ immune status under experimental conditions with inhalation route of type I pyrethroid–imiprotrin administration, which is the main component of a number of household insecticidal agents. The drug at a concentration of 45.0 mg/m3 interrupts immunological homeostasis in experimental animals. Nonspecific cellular component parameters of immune system have changed significantly. Imiprotrin is capable of inducing delayed hypersensitivity. Imiprotrin induces sensibilization under experimental conditions in more than half of the experimental animals, but the magnitude of the reactions to the intradermal administration of the drug has no probable differences, which allows imiprotin to be attributed to substances with moderate sensibilization potential

Schlüsselwörter

  • imiprotrin
  • immunological homeostasis
  • laboratory rats
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Short communication: Chlorpromazine causes a time-dependent decrease of lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 41 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is still a commonly prescribed antipsychotic which causes poorly understood idiosyncratic toxicity such as cholestasis, phospholipidosis and steatosis. CPZ has diverse cellular targets and exerts various toxicity mechanisms whose exploration is necessary to understand CPZ side effects. We report here that CPZ causes a decrease of total lipid content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the same dose range as that used on mammalian cells. The observed lipid decrease was obvious after 4 and 9 hours of treatment, and disappeared after 24 hours due to cells adaptation to the chemical stress. The inhibitory effect of CPZ was antagonized by the antioxidant N-acetyl L-cysteine and is likely caused by the parent compound. The obtained results demonstrate that yeast model is valid to investigate the involved CPZ toxicity mechanisms, particularly in terms of lipids alteration. This would contribute to understand CPZ side effects in simple model and reduce experimentation on animals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • phenothiazine
  • chlorpromazine toxicity
  • lipids
  • oxidative stress
6 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The pathway of lead through the mother’s body to the child

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 6

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Placenta, the organ on which great attention is concentrated during pregnancy, represents an ineffective barrier to the transfer of hazardous heavy metals, mainly lead, into the foetus. The presence of lead in the placenta is an environmental hazard for a person’s future. Due to hormonal changes, lead is released during pregnancy into the bloodstream of the mother from deposits in the bones and in the teeth, where it has accumulated for years as a result of a contaminated environment. Since lead is a neurotoxic metal, exposure to lead during prenatal and postnatal development can cause serious neurocognitive damage and hence the development of an Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in a developing human. Our work provides an overall picture of the “toxic pathway“ of lead through the mother’s body, the risks arising from its transplacental transfer and its accumulation in the developing foetus as well as effective prevention to protect all newborns.

Schlüsselwörter

  • human placenta
  • lead
  • calcium
  • neurotoxicity
  • ADHD
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Non-clinical safety evaluation of a novel pharmaceutical salt, rosuvastatin ethanolamine, in Wistar rats

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 7 - 14

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Rosuvastatin, a second generation 3-Hydroxy-3-Methyl Glutaryl Coenzyme-A reductase inhibitor, is widely used for the management of hypercholesterolemia. Rosuvastatin ethanolamine, developed by Cadila Healthcare Ltd., is a novel, chemically stable, and pharmaceutically acceptable salt, having better physiochemical properties than commercially available Rosuvastatin salt. The objective of the present study is to evaluate safety, tolerability, and toxicokinetic profile of novel salt. Therefore, four weeks repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity and toxicokinetic study of Rosuvastatin ethanolamine was carried out. The drugs were administered once daily at salt corrected dose of 15, 40, and 100 mg/kg for four weeks. No signs of toxicity were observed during repeated (four weeks) oral administrations of Rosuvastatin ethanolamine in rats up to 40 mg/kg. Single male mortality was observed at 100 mg/kg dose. Microscopy finding in liver was minimal to mild bile ductular proliferation, single cell necrosis, and hepatocellular vacuolation of cytoplasm with associated statistically significant serum elevation of transaminase enzymes; AST, ALT, ALP, and/or liver functional marker; total bilirubin with at ≥40 mg/kg. The systemic exposures (AUC0–24 and Cmax) were not markedly different between males and females, or between the administration periods (except high dose, where exposure on day 28 was approximately 2 to 3 fold higher than that of day 1. In conclusion, Rosuvastatin ethanolamine exhibited toxicities to liver as the target organ at ≥40 mg/kg in this study. These adverse effects with associated exposures should be taken into consideration for the future assessing of potential Rosuvastatin toxicities.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Rosuvastatin ethanolamine
  • toxicity study
  • toxicokinetic study
  • Wistar rat
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluating the perception of farmers towards pesticides and the health effect of pesticides: A cross-sectional study in the oil palm plantations of Papar, Malaysia

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 15 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Agriculture is an important occupation in Malaysia that generates a major portion of the national revenue. Similar to the rest of the world, pesticides are used to boost agricultural production in Malaysian farms. However, chemical pesticides are associated with human health hazard and are not environment-friendly as they persist in nature for long periods of time. Therefore, pesticide use should be reduced and farmers should be trained on correct and/or alternative ways of pesticide use. In this cross-sectional study, we surveyed 19 palm oil plantations in the Sabah district of Malaysia and evaluated the perception of the workers towards pesticide use and awareness regarding the health effects post-pesticide exposure. Analysis of the survey shows that most of the workers among the 270 respondents were 30-year-old males with average education, and belonged to the low income group. Majority opined that they were aware of the health hazards of pesticide use and suffered from symptoms (with mean duration of three days) such as vomiting, diarrhea, skin irritation, and dizziness. Surprisingly, the opinion was almost equally divided on whether they perceived pesticides to be the cause of their health problems, and a major percentage did not avail medical help. Most of the workers responded that they did not receive any training in pesticide handling and used partial personal protective equipment (glasses, hats, shirt, and gloves) during working hours. Interestingly, a large percentage responded that they would not read the safety material even if it was provided. These observations clearly highlight the urgency of improving the awareness, education, and attitude of these plantation workers towards the short- and long-term effects of pesticide use. They should also be educated about alternative and eco-friendly ways of farming. Finally, the plantation management should intervene and proactively advocate the use of safe farming practices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • chemical pesticides
  • human health hazard
  • neurobehavioral alterations
  • plantation management
  • Malaysia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Acute and subacute toxicity of Ammi visnaga on rats

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 26 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ammi visnaga (Av) is a source of khellin where a tea made from the fruit of this plant was used as herbal medicine for kidney stones in Egypt. In the present research, the acute and subacute toxicity studies with oral intake of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg of Av seed ethanolic extract in rats were done. In acute toxicity test, 4 groups of rats (n = 6/group: 3 males and 3 females) were chosen and the first control group received tap water, while the other three groups received Av seed ethanolic extract dissolved in tap water at doses of 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg, and general behavior, adverse effects, and mortality were recorded for up to 14 days. In subacute toxicity study, 72 rats (36 males and 36 females) were divided into 4 major groups; group I received tap water (control group), while animals in groups II, III, and IV (test groups) received oral intake of Av seed ethanolic extract dissolved in tap water at doses of 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg bwt, respectively. Each of this major group was subdivided consequently into 3 subgroups (n = 6/group: 3 males and 3 females) where brain tissue, blood sample, body and organs weights were recorded at the beginning and then after two and four weeks of the experiment for the determination of hematological, biochemical and histopathological changes in tissues (liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, testis and ovary). With regard to acute toxicity, Av seed ethanolic extract did not induce any toxic effects or death or any organ toxicity. In subacute toxicity study; oral intake with Av seed ethanolic extract did not reveal any change in body and organs weights, hematological parameters, serum glucose and cholesterol, brain neurotransmitters, liver and kidney functions, male and female hormones. In conclusion, Av seed ethanolic extract is nontoxic to liver, kidney, brain, spleen, heart, testis and ovary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Apiaceae
  • acute toxicity
  • subacute toxicity
  • rats
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Experimental study of imiprotrin allergic potency in case of inhalation

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 36 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Probable changes were studied in rats’ immune status under experimental conditions with inhalation route of type I pyrethroid–imiprotrin administration, which is the main component of a number of household insecticidal agents. The drug at a concentration of 45.0 mg/m3 interrupts immunological homeostasis in experimental animals. Nonspecific cellular component parameters of immune system have changed significantly. Imiprotrin is capable of inducing delayed hypersensitivity. Imiprotrin induces sensibilization under experimental conditions in more than half of the experimental animals, but the magnitude of the reactions to the intradermal administration of the drug has no probable differences, which allows imiprotin to be attributed to substances with moderate sensibilization potential

Schlüsselwörter

  • imiprotrin
  • immunological homeostasis
  • laboratory rats
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Short communication: Chlorpromazine causes a time-dependent decrease of lipids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Online veröffentlicht: 20 Feb 2020
Seitenbereich: 41 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Chlorpromazine (CPZ) is still a commonly prescribed antipsychotic which causes poorly understood idiosyncratic toxicity such as cholestasis, phospholipidosis and steatosis. CPZ has diverse cellular targets and exerts various toxicity mechanisms whose exploration is necessary to understand CPZ side effects. We report here that CPZ causes a decrease of total lipid content in Saccharomyces cerevisiae at the same dose range as that used on mammalian cells. The observed lipid decrease was obvious after 4 and 9 hours of treatment, and disappeared after 24 hours due to cells adaptation to the chemical stress. The inhibitory effect of CPZ was antagonized by the antioxidant N-acetyl L-cysteine and is likely caused by the parent compound. The obtained results demonstrate that yeast model is valid to investigate the involved CPZ toxicity mechanisms, particularly in terms of lipids alteration. This would contribute to understand CPZ side effects in simple model and reduce experimentation on animals.

Schlüsselwörter

  • phenothiazine
  • chlorpromazine toxicity
  • lipids
  • oxidative stress

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