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Volumen 3 (2013): Heft 1 (August 2013)

Volumen 2 (2013): Heft 1 (April 2013)

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2255-9159
ISSN
2255-9140
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Jan 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 3 (2013): Heft 1 (August 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2255-9159
ISSN
2255-9140
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Jan 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Open Access

Power Factor Corrector Based on Parallel Quasi- Resonant Pulse Converter with Fast Current Loop

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 5 - 11

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problems, devoted to power quality and particularly power factor correction, are of great importance nowadays. The key requirements, which should be satisfied according to the energy efficiency paradigm, are not limited only by high quality of the output voltage (low total harmonic distortion), but also assume minimal power losses (high efficiency) in the power factor corrector (PFC). It could be satisfied by the use of quasi-resonant pulse converter (QRPC) due to its high efficiency at high switching frequency instead of the classical pulse-width modulated (PWM) boost converter. A dynamic model of QRPC with zero current switching (ZCS) is proposed. This model takes into account the main features of QRPC-ZCS as a link of a PFC closed-loop system (discreteness, sharp changes of parameters over switching period, input voltage impact on the gain). The synthesized model is also valid for conventional parallel pulse converter over an active interval of commutation. The regulator for current loop of PFC was synthesized based on digital filter using proposed model by the criterion of fast acting.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Control system synthesis
  • closed loop systems
  • digital filters
  • power conversion
  • zero current switching
Open Access

Conducted EMI of Switching Frequency Modulated Boost Converter

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 12 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) of boost converter with switching frequency modulation (SFM) is theoretically analyzed in details. In the analysis line impedance stabilization network parameters, power inductor and input filtering capacitor parameters are taken into account. The analysis shows that the conducted EMI attenuation due to the use of SFM depends not only on modulation index as it is assumed in numerous research papers, but also on central switching frequency. Useful expressions to numerically calculate SFM boost converter conducted EMI spectrum and attenuation due to the use of triangular and sawtooth modulation waveforms are derived. Additionally experimental verification of the theoretical results is performed using a superheterodyne spectrum analyzer. Moreover a procedure for the choice of optimum SFM parameters (modulation waveform, frequency deviation and modulation frequency) to get maximum conducted EMI attenuation is proposed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electromagnetic interference
  • switched-mode power supply
  • frequency modulation
Open Access

Constant Current Models of Brushless DC Motor

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 19 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Two constant current models of Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motor (PM BLDC) are presented in the paper. In the first part of the paper principle of operation, basic properties and mathematical equations describing PM BLDC models are given. Then, two different constant current models of PM BLDC motor are considered: In the first model, PM BLDC motor is approximated with dc motor; in the second model, modified constant current model is applied with additional block, which is used to take into account the impact of inductance on torque-speed characteristics. In order to verify these models, torque-speed characteristics have been determined and compared for different motor supply voltages. After running a series of simulation and laboratory tests, we have found that this modified model (which makes allowance for the influence of inductance on torque-speed characteristics) ensures obtaining torque-speed characteristics identical to those of the real motor. Therefore, this model may be recommended for those simulation tests which do not consider effects occurring inside the electronic commutator-motor circuit. However, approximation of PM BLDC motor with dc motor is not recommended in computer tests.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Permanent magnet machines
  • brushless machines
  • analytical models
  • mathematical model
  • MATLAB
Open Access

Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting Method and its Algorithms for Parallel Solution of Magnetic Field Problems

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 25 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Because of the exponential increase of computational resource requirement for numerical field simulations of more and more complex physical phenomena and more and more complex large problems in science and engineering practice, parallel processing appears to be an essential tool to handle the resulting large-scale numerical problems. One way of parallelization of sequential (singleprocessor) finite element simulations is the use of domain decomposition methods. Domain decomposition methods (DDMs) for parallel solution of linear systems of equations are based on the partitioning of the analyzed domain into sub-domains which are calculated in parallel while doing appropriate data exchange between those sub-domains. In this case, the non-overlapping domain decomposition method is the Lagrange multiplier based Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) method. This paper describes one direct solver and two parallel solution algorithms of FETI method. Finally, comparative numerical tests demonstrate the differences in the parallel running performance of the solvers of FETI method. We use a single-phase transformer and a three-phase induction motor as twodimensional static magnetic field test problems to compare the solvers

Keywords

  • High performance computing
  • parallel processing
  • finite element analysis
  • magnetic fields
Open Access

Modeling of Losses Due to Inter-Laminar Short-Circuit Currents in Lamination Stacks

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 31 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The cores of electrical machines are generally punched and laminated to reduce the eddy current losses. These manufacturing processes such as punching and cutting deform the electrical sheets and deteriorate its magnetic properties. Burrs are formed due to plastic deformation of electrical sheets. Burr formed due to punching on the edges of laminated sheets impairs the insulation of adjacent sheet and make random galvanic contacts during the pressing of stacked sheets. The effect of circulating current occurs if the burrs occur on the opposite edges of the stacks of laminated sheets and incase of bolted or wielded sheets, induced current return through it. This induced current causes the additional losses in electrical machine. The existence of surface current on the boundary between two insulated regions causes discontinuity of tangential component of magnetic field. Hence, based on this principle, the boundary layer model was developed to study the additional losses due to galvanic contacts formed by burred edges. The boundary layer model was then coupled with 2-D finite element vector potential formulation and compared with fine mesh layer model. Fine mesh layer model consists of finely space discretized 950028 second order triangular elements. The losses were computed from two models and were obtained similar at 50 Hz. The developed boundary layer model can be further used in electrical machines to study additional losses due to galvanic contacts at the edges of stator cores.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Air gaps
  • eddy currents
  • finite element analysis
  • permeability
Open Access

Formula Synthesis of Maximal Mechanical Torque on Volume for Cylindrical Magnetic Coupler

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 37 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper the influence of basic design parameters (proportionality coefficient β and permanent magnets height h) on the mechanical torque for cylindrical magnetic coupler with rounded permanent magnets is researched. Such cylindrical magnetic couplers are often used in pumps and liquid mixers. At the beginning the design parameters and their relevance are explained. The mechanical torque is calculated applying the software QuickField. In the data analysis and for the coupler comparison the division of maximal mechanical torque on volume is taken as the main characteristic. Because of the planned optimization for the calculated variants there were synthesized few formulas, from which the most suitable were found (for all researched design parameters’ ranges). The formulas are synthesized using a program, which is created by Oskars Onzevs. The program for the formula synthesis is based on regression models, and the basic principles of it are explained. All the calculations for experimental and formula data are made for magnetic coupler’s design with one pole pair number p that is equal to three.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Data analysis
  • design optimization
  • finite element analysis
  • magnetic devices
  • permanent magnet machines
Open Access

Finite Element Analysis of Modular Pulse Width Modulation Converters with JAMG Software

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 44 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper is devoted to half-bridge versatile power modules which can compose various converters. Successful use of such modules is possible if their construction is optimal from the electromagnetic and thermal points of view. The first purpose can be achieved utilizing bus-bars in the system of conductors. This ensures reduction of stray inductance, losses and module dimensions, as well as increase of switching frequency. Calculation of stray inductances is not an easy task which, however, can be successfully done with dedicated Finite Element Method (FEM) calculation software, for example JMAG. It can also be used for thermal calculations. In the given paper this method is applied to the analysis of a novel optimized design of the half-bridge module with concentrated DC-bus capacitors. The benefits of the module are shown with the help of simulation as well as experimentally. It is, however, stated that physical parameters of the module could be improved by splitting the DCbus capacitors. The obtained design is more compact, but, as it was verified by means of simulation, also attractive from other points of view (EMC, voltage spikes, losses etc.). This design, therefore, can be recommended for future research.

Keywords

  • Pulse width modulation converters
  • electronics packaging
  • electromagnetic interference
  • finite element analysis
7 Artikel
Open Access

Power Factor Corrector Based on Parallel Quasi- Resonant Pulse Converter with Fast Current Loop

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 5 - 11

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The problems, devoted to power quality and particularly power factor correction, are of great importance nowadays. The key requirements, which should be satisfied according to the energy efficiency paradigm, are not limited only by high quality of the output voltage (low total harmonic distortion), but also assume minimal power losses (high efficiency) in the power factor corrector (PFC). It could be satisfied by the use of quasi-resonant pulse converter (QRPC) due to its high efficiency at high switching frequency instead of the classical pulse-width modulated (PWM) boost converter. A dynamic model of QRPC with zero current switching (ZCS) is proposed. This model takes into account the main features of QRPC-ZCS as a link of a PFC closed-loop system (discreteness, sharp changes of parameters over switching period, input voltage impact on the gain). The synthesized model is also valid for conventional parallel pulse converter over an active interval of commutation. The regulator for current loop of PFC was synthesized based on digital filter using proposed model by the criterion of fast acting.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Control system synthesis
  • closed loop systems
  • digital filters
  • power conversion
  • zero current switching
Open Access

Conducted EMI of Switching Frequency Modulated Boost Converter

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 12 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) of boost converter with switching frequency modulation (SFM) is theoretically analyzed in details. In the analysis line impedance stabilization network parameters, power inductor and input filtering capacitor parameters are taken into account. The analysis shows that the conducted EMI attenuation due to the use of SFM depends not only on modulation index as it is assumed in numerous research papers, but also on central switching frequency. Useful expressions to numerically calculate SFM boost converter conducted EMI spectrum and attenuation due to the use of triangular and sawtooth modulation waveforms are derived. Additionally experimental verification of the theoretical results is performed using a superheterodyne spectrum analyzer. Moreover a procedure for the choice of optimum SFM parameters (modulation waveform, frequency deviation and modulation frequency) to get maximum conducted EMI attenuation is proposed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Electromagnetic interference
  • switched-mode power supply
  • frequency modulation
Open Access

Constant Current Models of Brushless DC Motor

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 19 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Two constant current models of Permanent Magnet Brushless Direct Current Motor (PM BLDC) are presented in the paper. In the first part of the paper principle of operation, basic properties and mathematical equations describing PM BLDC models are given. Then, two different constant current models of PM BLDC motor are considered: In the first model, PM BLDC motor is approximated with dc motor; in the second model, modified constant current model is applied with additional block, which is used to take into account the impact of inductance on torque-speed characteristics. In order to verify these models, torque-speed characteristics have been determined and compared for different motor supply voltages. After running a series of simulation and laboratory tests, we have found that this modified model (which makes allowance for the influence of inductance on torque-speed characteristics) ensures obtaining torque-speed characteristics identical to those of the real motor. Therefore, this model may be recommended for those simulation tests which do not consider effects occurring inside the electronic commutator-motor circuit. However, approximation of PM BLDC motor with dc motor is not recommended in computer tests.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Permanent magnet machines
  • brushless machines
  • analytical models
  • mathematical model
  • MATLAB
Open Access

Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting Method and its Algorithms for Parallel Solution of Magnetic Field Problems

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 25 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Because of the exponential increase of computational resource requirement for numerical field simulations of more and more complex physical phenomena and more and more complex large problems in science and engineering practice, parallel processing appears to be an essential tool to handle the resulting large-scale numerical problems. One way of parallelization of sequential (singleprocessor) finite element simulations is the use of domain decomposition methods. Domain decomposition methods (DDMs) for parallel solution of linear systems of equations are based on the partitioning of the analyzed domain into sub-domains which are calculated in parallel while doing appropriate data exchange between those sub-domains. In this case, the non-overlapping domain decomposition method is the Lagrange multiplier based Finite Element Tearing and Interconnecting (FETI) method. This paper describes one direct solver and two parallel solution algorithms of FETI method. Finally, comparative numerical tests demonstrate the differences in the parallel running performance of the solvers of FETI method. We use a single-phase transformer and a three-phase induction motor as twodimensional static magnetic field test problems to compare the solvers

Keywords

  • High performance computing
  • parallel processing
  • finite element analysis
  • magnetic fields
Open Access

Modeling of Losses Due to Inter-Laminar Short-Circuit Currents in Lamination Stacks

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 31 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The cores of electrical machines are generally punched and laminated to reduce the eddy current losses. These manufacturing processes such as punching and cutting deform the electrical sheets and deteriorate its magnetic properties. Burrs are formed due to plastic deformation of electrical sheets. Burr formed due to punching on the edges of laminated sheets impairs the insulation of adjacent sheet and make random galvanic contacts during the pressing of stacked sheets. The effect of circulating current occurs if the burrs occur on the opposite edges of the stacks of laminated sheets and incase of bolted or wielded sheets, induced current return through it. This induced current causes the additional losses in electrical machine. The existence of surface current on the boundary between two insulated regions causes discontinuity of tangential component of magnetic field. Hence, based on this principle, the boundary layer model was developed to study the additional losses due to galvanic contacts formed by burred edges. The boundary layer model was then coupled with 2-D finite element vector potential formulation and compared with fine mesh layer model. Fine mesh layer model consists of finely space discretized 950028 second order triangular elements. The losses were computed from two models and were obtained similar at 50 Hz. The developed boundary layer model can be further used in electrical machines to study additional losses due to galvanic contacts at the edges of stator cores.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Air gaps
  • eddy currents
  • finite element analysis
  • permeability
Open Access

Formula Synthesis of Maximal Mechanical Torque on Volume for Cylindrical Magnetic Coupler

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 37 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In this paper the influence of basic design parameters (proportionality coefficient β and permanent magnets height h) on the mechanical torque for cylindrical magnetic coupler with rounded permanent magnets is researched. Such cylindrical magnetic couplers are often used in pumps and liquid mixers. At the beginning the design parameters and their relevance are explained. The mechanical torque is calculated applying the software QuickField. In the data analysis and for the coupler comparison the division of maximal mechanical torque on volume is taken as the main characteristic. Because of the planned optimization for the calculated variants there were synthesized few formulas, from which the most suitable were found (for all researched design parameters’ ranges). The formulas are synthesized using a program, which is created by Oskars Onzevs. The program for the formula synthesis is based on regression models, and the basic principles of it are explained. All the calculations for experimental and formula data are made for magnetic coupler’s design with one pole pair number p that is equal to three.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Data analysis
  • design optimization
  • finite element analysis
  • magnetic devices
  • permanent magnet machines
Open Access

Finite Element Analysis of Modular Pulse Width Modulation Converters with JAMG Software

Online veröffentlicht: 05 Sep 2013
Seitenbereich: 44 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper is devoted to half-bridge versatile power modules which can compose various converters. Successful use of such modules is possible if their construction is optimal from the electromagnetic and thermal points of view. The first purpose can be achieved utilizing bus-bars in the system of conductors. This ensures reduction of stray inductance, losses and module dimensions, as well as increase of switching frequency. Calculation of stray inductances is not an easy task which, however, can be successfully done with dedicated Finite Element Method (FEM) calculation software, for example JMAG. It can also be used for thermal calculations. In the given paper this method is applied to the analysis of a novel optimized design of the half-bridge module with concentrated DC-bus capacitors. The benefits of the module are shown with the help of simulation as well as experimentally. It is, however, stated that physical parameters of the module could be improved by splitting the DCbus capacitors. The obtained design is more compact, but, as it was verified by means of simulation, also attractive from other points of view (EMC, voltage spikes, losses etc.). This design, therefore, can be recommended for future research.

Keywords

  • Pulse width modulation converters
  • electronics packaging
  • electromagnetic interference
  • finite element analysis

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