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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2255-9159
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Jan 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 6 (2014): Heft 1 (October 2014)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2255-9159
Erstveröffentlichung
31 Jan 2013
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

6 Artikel
Open Access

Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Problems with Random Geometry

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In electromagnetic problems, the problem geometry may not always be exactly known. One example of such a case is a rotating machine with random-wound windings. While spectral stochastic finite element methods have been used to solve statistical electromagnetic problems such as this, their use has been mainly limited to problems with uncertainties in material parameters only. This paper presents a simple method to solve both static and time-harmonic magnetic field problems with source currents in random positions. By using an indicator function, the geometric uncertainties are effectively reduced to material uncertainties, and the problem can be solved using the established spectral stochastic procedures. The proposed method is used to solve a demonstrative single-conductor problem, and the results are compared to the Monte Carlo method. Based on these simulations, the method appears to yield accurate mean values and variances both for the vector potential and current, converging close to the results obtained by time-consuming Monte Carlo analysis. However, further study may be needed to use the method for more complicated multi-conductor problems and to reduce the sensitivity of the method on the mesh used.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eddy currents
  • Finite element analysis
  • Stochastic systems
  • Random variables
Open Access

Design Optimization with Geometric Programming for Core Type Large Power Transformers

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 13 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A good transformer design satisfies certain functions and requirements. We can satisfy these requirements by various designs. The aim of the manufacturers is to find the most economic choice within the limitations imposed by the constraint functions, which are the combination of the design parameters resulting in the lowest cost unit. One of the earliest application of the Geometric Programming [GP] is the optimization of power transformers. The GP formalism has two main advantages. First the formalism guarantees that the obtained solution is the global minimum. Second the new solution methods can solve even large-scale GPs extremely efficiently and reliably. The design optimization program seeks a minimum capitalized cost solution by optimally setting the transformer's geometrical and electrical parameters. The transformer's capitalized cost chosen for object function, because it takes into consideration the manufacturing and the operational costs. This paper considers the optimization for three winding, three phase, core-form power transformers. This paper presents the implemented transformer cost optimization model and the optimization results.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Design Optimization
  • Heuristic Algorithms
  • Mathematical programming
  • Power Engineering Computing
  • Power transformers
Open Access

Co-Simulation of an Inverter Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Co-simulation is a method which makes it possible to study the electric machine and its drive at once, as one system. By taking into account the actual inverter voltage waveforms in a finite element model instead of using only the fundamental, we are able to study the electrical machine's behavior in more realistic scenario. The recent increase in the use of variable speed drives justifies the research on such simulation techniques. In this paper we present the co-simulation of an inverter fed permanent magnet synchronous machine. The modelling method employs an analytical variable speed drive model and a finite element electrical machine model. By linking the analytical variable speed drive model together with a finite element model the complex simulation model enables the investigation of the electrical machine during actual operation. The methods are coupled via the results. This means that output of the finite element model serves as an input to the analytical model, and the output of the analytical model provides the input of the finite element model for a different simulation, thus enabling the finite element simulation of an inverter fed machine. The resulting speed and torque characteristics from the analytical model and the finite element model show a good agreement. The experiences with the co-simulation technique encourage further research and effort to improve the method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Finite element analysis
  • Permanent magnet motors
  • Simulation
  • Variable speed drives
Open Access

Control of Electric Drives in the Best Efficiency Region of Pumping System

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 26 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper concentrates on improving the efficiency of the pumping system in which pumps are run by variable speed drives. The method is applicable to system consisting of several centrifugal pumps. Problems arising from running the pumps outside the optimal efficiency region are discussed. Common principles of operation and control of typical boosting pumping station are represented. Methods of regulation of productivity of the system are described. The proposed method is based on prediction of future efficiency of pumps before making adjustments of pumping system productivity. The proposed method is basing on tracking the working point of pump on efficiency graph. Monitoring the location of working point vs. efficiency graph enables to evaluate its current and future distances from the best efficiency point of the pump. Knowing the current number of running pumps it is possible to predict the location of working point after adjustment of productivity of the system. Ability to predict the increase or decrease of efficiency enables to enhance the adjustment of productivity of the system. Methods of graphical analysis of working state of the pumping system are representing topic for future research.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fluid flow control
  • Pumps
  • State estimation
  • Variable speed drives
Open Access

Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 32 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AC-AC power converters
  • Phase measurement
  • Frequency measurement
  • Digital circuits
  • Analog circuits
Open Access

Electromagnetic Compatibility Studies: LTE BS vs. Aeronautical Radionavigation Services in 694-790 MHz Frequency Band

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 38 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the sharing analysis of the 694–790 MHz frequency band for Mobile services IMT and Aeronautical radio-navigation services (ARNS) using SEAMCAT (established by CEPT) software based on the statistical simulation (Monte-Carlo) method. In 2012 the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) decided to allocate the 694–790 MHz frequency band (the so-called 700 MHz band) to mobile services IMT (excluding aeronautical mobile) after WRC-15 conference. But this agreement raises electromagnetic compatibility problems, which should be solved until WRC-15 [1]. This study was carried out in two phases: first applying theoretical analysis, then statistical Monte-Carlo simulations with SEAMCAT software tool in order to verify results obtained in theoretical approach. Analytical calculations shows that the required protection distances between ARNS stations and the MS base stations are 132 km. The obtained results from SEAMCAT simulations indicate that separation distance should be above 100 km. These results illustrate that the systems are not electromagnetically compatible. The possible mitigation technic could be antenna pattern correction.

Key words

  • Aircraft navigation
  • Base stations
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • Interchannel interference
  • Radio spectrum management
6 Artikel
Open Access

Spectral Stochastic Finite Element Method for Electromagnetic Problems with Random Geometry

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 5 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In electromagnetic problems, the problem geometry may not always be exactly known. One example of such a case is a rotating machine with random-wound windings. While spectral stochastic finite element methods have been used to solve statistical electromagnetic problems such as this, their use has been mainly limited to problems with uncertainties in material parameters only. This paper presents a simple method to solve both static and time-harmonic magnetic field problems with source currents in random positions. By using an indicator function, the geometric uncertainties are effectively reduced to material uncertainties, and the problem can be solved using the established spectral stochastic procedures. The proposed method is used to solve a demonstrative single-conductor problem, and the results are compared to the Monte Carlo method. Based on these simulations, the method appears to yield accurate mean values and variances both for the vector potential and current, converging close to the results obtained by time-consuming Monte Carlo analysis. However, further study may be needed to use the method for more complicated multi-conductor problems and to reduce the sensitivity of the method on the mesh used.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Eddy currents
  • Finite element analysis
  • Stochastic systems
  • Random variables
Open Access

Design Optimization with Geometric Programming for Core Type Large Power Transformers

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 13 - 18

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A good transformer design satisfies certain functions and requirements. We can satisfy these requirements by various designs. The aim of the manufacturers is to find the most economic choice within the limitations imposed by the constraint functions, which are the combination of the design parameters resulting in the lowest cost unit. One of the earliest application of the Geometric Programming [GP] is the optimization of power transformers. The GP formalism has two main advantages. First the formalism guarantees that the obtained solution is the global minimum. Second the new solution methods can solve even large-scale GPs extremely efficiently and reliably. The design optimization program seeks a minimum capitalized cost solution by optimally setting the transformer's geometrical and electrical parameters. The transformer's capitalized cost chosen for object function, because it takes into consideration the manufacturing and the operational costs. This paper considers the optimization for three winding, three phase, core-form power transformers. This paper presents the implemented transformer cost optimization model and the optimization results.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Design Optimization
  • Heuristic Algorithms
  • Mathematical programming
  • Power Engineering Computing
  • Power transformers
Open Access

Co-Simulation of an Inverter Fed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 19 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Co-simulation is a method which makes it possible to study the electric machine and its drive at once, as one system. By taking into account the actual inverter voltage waveforms in a finite element model instead of using only the fundamental, we are able to study the electrical machine's behavior in more realistic scenario. The recent increase in the use of variable speed drives justifies the research on such simulation techniques. In this paper we present the co-simulation of an inverter fed permanent magnet synchronous machine. The modelling method employs an analytical variable speed drive model and a finite element electrical machine model. By linking the analytical variable speed drive model together with a finite element model the complex simulation model enables the investigation of the electrical machine during actual operation. The methods are coupled via the results. This means that output of the finite element model serves as an input to the analytical model, and the output of the analytical model provides the input of the finite element model for a different simulation, thus enabling the finite element simulation of an inverter fed machine. The resulting speed and torque characteristics from the analytical model and the finite element model show a good agreement. The experiences with the co-simulation technique encourage further research and effort to improve the method.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Finite element analysis
  • Permanent magnet motors
  • Simulation
  • Variable speed drives
Open Access

Control of Electric Drives in the Best Efficiency Region of Pumping System

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 26 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper concentrates on improving the efficiency of the pumping system in which pumps are run by variable speed drives. The method is applicable to system consisting of several centrifugal pumps. Problems arising from running the pumps outside the optimal efficiency region are discussed. Common principles of operation and control of typical boosting pumping station are represented. Methods of regulation of productivity of the system are described. The proposed method is based on prediction of future efficiency of pumps before making adjustments of pumping system productivity. The proposed method is basing on tracking the working point of pump on efficiency graph. Monitoring the location of working point vs. efficiency graph enables to evaluate its current and future distances from the best efficiency point of the pump. Knowing the current number of running pumps it is possible to predict the location of working point after adjustment of productivity of the system. Ability to predict the increase or decrease of efficiency enables to enhance the adjustment of productivity of the system. Methods of graphical analysis of working state of the pumping system are representing topic for future research.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Fluid flow control
  • Pumps
  • State estimation
  • Variable speed drives
Open Access

Low-Cost Voltage Zero-Crossing Detector for AC-Grid Applications

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 32 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Renewable energy sources and energy storage devices are becoming more popular. Some of them like small hydropower turbines, wind turbines and diesel generators produce AC voltage with different frequency and voltage than the main grid. For them power electronics converters are necessary. Power electronics converters presented in industry use two or three level energy conversion, although direct AC to AC converters exist, but one of the main problems is the switch commutation when current or voltage is crossing the zero point. Zero crossing sensors are used to solve this problem. They consist of current or voltage measurement unit and zero crossing detector. Different approaches are used for zero crossing: hardware or software. Hardware approach is simple but it has low precision. Software approach has high precision but it is complicated and expensive. In this paper a simple low cost high precision approach is presented. It takes all advantages from both approaches. While tested with two types of microcontrollers the precision of experimental measurement is 25 μs - 40 μs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AC-AC power converters
  • Phase measurement
  • Frequency measurement
  • Digital circuits
  • Analog circuits
Open Access

Electromagnetic Compatibility Studies: LTE BS vs. Aeronautical Radionavigation Services in 694-790 MHz Frequency Band

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Oct 2014
Seitenbereich: 38 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the sharing analysis of the 694–790 MHz frequency band for Mobile services IMT and Aeronautical radio-navigation services (ARNS) using SEAMCAT (established by CEPT) software based on the statistical simulation (Monte-Carlo) method. In 2012 the World Radiocommunication Conference (WRC-12) decided to allocate the 694–790 MHz frequency band (the so-called 700 MHz band) to mobile services IMT (excluding aeronautical mobile) after WRC-15 conference. But this agreement raises electromagnetic compatibility problems, which should be solved until WRC-15 [1]. This study was carried out in two phases: first applying theoretical analysis, then statistical Monte-Carlo simulations with SEAMCAT software tool in order to verify results obtained in theoretical approach. Analytical calculations shows that the required protection distances between ARNS stations and the MS base stations are 132 km. The obtained results from SEAMCAT simulations indicate that separation distance should be above 100 km. These results illustrate that the systems are not electromagnetically compatible. The possible mitigation technic could be antenna pattern correction.

Key words

  • Aircraft navigation
  • Base stations
  • Electromagnetic compatibility
  • Interchannel interference
  • Radio spectrum management

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