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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2080-945X
Erstveröffentlichung
17 May 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 38 (2015): Heft 1 (June 2015)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2080-945X
Erstveröffentlichung
17 May 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

8 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Application of PCR – RFLP markers for identification of genetically delimited groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex (Jungermanniopsida, Calypogeiaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 1 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Currently, two subspecies are formally recognized within Calypogeia fissa: C. fissa subsp. fissa occurring in Europe and C. fissa subsp. neogea known from North America. Genetic studies have revealed a complex structure of this species. Within the European part of distribution, three genetically distinct groups PS, PB and G are distinguished. The combination of the SCAR marker Cal04 and PCR-RFLP markers with three restriction enzymes (SmaI, TaqI and TspGWI) allowed the recognition of all groups within the C. fissa complex. The TaqI enzyme recognizing the restriction sites in the PCR product of SCAR marker Ca104 turned out to be the best marker

Keywords

  • Bryophyta
  • liverworts
  • complex species
  • Calypogeia
  • PCR-RFLP
  • SCAR
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Synanthropization of dendroflora near main roads in Białystok (NE Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 9 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the species composition of the dendroflora near four main roads in the city of Białystok, taking into regard their geographical and historical origin. The wildlife inventory was conducted in the vegetation season of 2011. The inventory revealed presence of a total of 837 trees and bushes representing 36 species and 18 families. The most abundant trees were those from the family Aceraceae (63.8%), while the most abundant bushes were those representing Rosaceae (48.9%). The contribution of native species (65.7%) was found to be about twice as high as that of alien ones (34.3%). The dominant species among the native trees was Acer platanoides L., while the principal bush species was Crataegus monogyna Jacq. The alien tree species were most commonly represented by Acer negundo L., and bushes - by Ligustrum vulgare L. Spontaneously settled trees and bushes were clearly dominant (59.9%) over those originating from plantations (40.1%). Among the native species of local origin, the prevailing species were synanthropic spontaneophytes (52%), including Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata Mill. Anthropophytes were more abundantly represented by diaphytes (22.7%), followed by kenophytes (10.4%). The most abundant species among diaphytes was Ligustrum vulgare, and among kenophytes - Acer negundo.

Keywords

  • urban infrastructure
  • four roads
  • inventory
  • dendroflora
  • synanthropic flora
  • valorization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The alien flora of the Rzeszów Foothills

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 25 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the synanthropic flora of the Rzeszów Foothills (south-eastern Poland). Floristic studies were carried out in years 2007-2013 using the cartogram method in the ATPOL system (2×2 km square grid). Here we present the numerical data (number of species in each historical-geographical group, families most frequently represented by anthropophytes), show the proportion of specific growth forms and describe habitat preferences. The Rzeszów Foothills region had already been shown as strongly impacted by anthropogenic pressures. The total number of vascular plant species detected was equal to 1115; among them, the synanthropes represent about 30%. Also the index of synanthropy was calculated to confirm strong anthropogenic transformation of the studied area. In the presented study, 47 invasive plant species were discovered in the region. Moreover, the role and distribution of the most interesting and invasive of the synanthropic species was analyzed based on their negative impact on the native flora. We also identified plant species with high invasive potential and indicated causes of their appearance and spread.

Keywords

  • synanthropic flora
  • vascular plant
  • anthropophytes
  • invasive plants
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 37 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

Keywords

  • invasive plant species
  • phytocoenoses
  • oxbow lakes
  • distribution
  • south-western Poland
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Morphological and cytological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. and Euthamia Nutt.) from south-western Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 41 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Correlations between the morphology and cytology of invasive species and the effectiveness of invasion are among the most interesting questions in invasion ecology. Amongst exceptionally successful worldwide plant invaders, species of goldenrod (Solidago and Euthamia) are considered. The main aim of the study was to compare the morphology (concerning life traits) and cytology of the selected goldenrods occurring in south-western Poland with the effectiveness of their invasion. The results of the study, conducted in south-western Poland, showed that life traits of invasive Solidago and Euthamia taxa were clearly not connected with the effectiveness of invasion. The most widespread species, S. gigantea and S. altissima, had the highest ramets and uncommon species such as Euthamia graminifolia and S. virgaurea had short ramets. However, S. canadensis, which is tall, is also uncommon. The most frequent species (S. gigantea) produced smaller inflorescence than less frequent species (S. altissima, S. canadensis and Euthamia graminifolia). The spread of particular taxa was also not connected with the ploidy level and DNA content.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • chromosome number
  • DNA content
  • invasive plant species
  • life traits
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 51 - 56

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

Keywords

  • raised bog vegetation
  • alien species
  • habitat conditions
  • anthropogenic transformations
  • eutrophication
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien and invasive species in plant communities of the Vistula and Brennica rivers gravel bars (Western Carpathians, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 57 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Gravel bars are the initial habitats, inseparably connected to the mountain streams. On the one hand, they are an unstable substrate, influenced by the overflows and high waters; however, they are also exposed to strong sunlight and heat. This situation determines specific vegetation which, due to dynamic changes in the habitat, has a pioneer character. What is more, gravel bars are areas where many river migratory species and many random species appear. Among them, there are also synanthropic species. In years 2011-2012, floristic and phytosociological studies were conducted in the Silesian Beskids. The goal of these studies was to recognize the vegetation of the gravel bars of the Vistula and the Brennica rivers - from their springs in the Silesian Beskids to the point where the Brennica River flows into the Vistula River in the Silesian Foothills. The studied section of the two rivers is regulated. Particular attention was paid to the synanthropic species that pose a threat to the native flora. In 9 recognized types of plant communities, 293 vascular plant species were recognized. More than 15% of the flora were alien species (45) and 22 of them were considered to be invasive. The most common invasive species that were spotted included: Impatiens glandulifera, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Reynoutria japonica. Plant communities with the biggest number and share of alien species were Plantago major-Barbarea vulgaris community and Phalaridetum arundinaceae.

Keywords

  • synanthropization
  • vegetation
  • Silesian Beskids
  • Silesian Foothills
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nature monitoring: a tool for the evaluation of the preservation of synanthropic habitats

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 63 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the results of nature monitoring in synanthropic habitats. It shows the organizational aspects of monitoring, a survey procedure, including its assessment for use in synanthropic habitats, and the key findings of the research, including the evaluation of the conservation status of habitats covered by the monitoring and influencing factors’ effects. Observations of segetal and ruderal habitats were carried out in 2013 within the Kampinos National Park, according to the recommendations specified in the State Environmental Monitoring Programme, with specific adjustment to the monitored habitats. We used, for example, modified indices for specific structures and functions, e.g., by introducing the index of “archaeophytes”, which was also adopted as a cardinal index for synanthropic habitats. The obtained results show the detailed information, collected during monitoring, on the current status of synanthropic habitats. They allowed to evaluate conservation status, threats and conservation prospects for these habitats. This is the first proposal for the standardized monitoring of synanthropic habitats in Poland.

Keywords

  • biodiversity monitoring
  • conservation management
  • methodological framework
  • low-intensity agriculture
  • protected area
  • rural areas
  • synanthropic communities
  • Kampinos National Park
8 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Application of PCR – RFLP markers for identification of genetically delimited groups of the Calypogeia fissa complex (Jungermanniopsida, Calypogeiaceae)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 1 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Currently, two subspecies are formally recognized within Calypogeia fissa: C. fissa subsp. fissa occurring in Europe and C. fissa subsp. neogea known from North America. Genetic studies have revealed a complex structure of this species. Within the European part of distribution, three genetically distinct groups PS, PB and G are distinguished. The combination of the SCAR marker Cal04 and PCR-RFLP markers with three restriction enzymes (SmaI, TaqI and TspGWI) allowed the recognition of all groups within the C. fissa complex. The TaqI enzyme recognizing the restriction sites in the PCR product of SCAR marker Ca104 turned out to be the best marker

Keywords

  • Bryophyta
  • liverworts
  • complex species
  • Calypogeia
  • PCR-RFLP
  • SCAR
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Synanthropization of dendroflora near main roads in Białystok (NE Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 9 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the species composition of the dendroflora near four main roads in the city of Białystok, taking into regard their geographical and historical origin. The wildlife inventory was conducted in the vegetation season of 2011. The inventory revealed presence of a total of 837 trees and bushes representing 36 species and 18 families. The most abundant trees were those from the family Aceraceae (63.8%), while the most abundant bushes were those representing Rosaceae (48.9%). The contribution of native species (65.7%) was found to be about twice as high as that of alien ones (34.3%). The dominant species among the native trees was Acer platanoides L., while the principal bush species was Crataegus monogyna Jacq. The alien tree species were most commonly represented by Acer negundo L., and bushes - by Ligustrum vulgare L. Spontaneously settled trees and bushes were clearly dominant (59.9%) over those originating from plantations (40.1%). Among the native species of local origin, the prevailing species were synanthropic spontaneophytes (52%), including Acer platanoides and Tilia cordata Mill. Anthropophytes were more abundantly represented by diaphytes (22.7%), followed by kenophytes (10.4%). The most abundant species among diaphytes was Ligustrum vulgare, and among kenophytes - Acer negundo.

Keywords

  • urban infrastructure
  • four roads
  • inventory
  • dendroflora
  • synanthropic flora
  • valorization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The alien flora of the Rzeszów Foothills

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 25 - 36

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze the synanthropic flora of the Rzeszów Foothills (south-eastern Poland). Floristic studies were carried out in years 2007-2013 using the cartogram method in the ATPOL system (2×2 km square grid). Here we present the numerical data (number of species in each historical-geographical group, families most frequently represented by anthropophytes), show the proportion of specific growth forms and describe habitat preferences. The Rzeszów Foothills region had already been shown as strongly impacted by anthropogenic pressures. The total number of vascular plant species detected was equal to 1115; among them, the synanthropes represent about 30%. Also the index of synanthropy was calculated to confirm strong anthropogenic transformation of the studied area. In the presented study, 47 invasive plant species were discovered in the region. Moreover, the role and distribution of the most interesting and invasive of the synanthropic species was analyzed based on their negative impact on the native flora. We also identified plant species with high invasive potential and indicated causes of their appearance and spread.

Keywords

  • synanthropic flora
  • vascular plant
  • anthropophytes
  • invasive plants
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Invasive vascular plant species of oxbow lakes in south-western Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 37 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Natural water reservoirs are very valuable floristic sites in south-western Poland. Among them, the most important for the preservation of biodiversity of flora are oxbow lakes. The long-term process of human pressure on habitats of this type caused disturbances of their biological balance. Changes in the water regime, industrial development and chemisation of agriculture, especially in the period of the last two hundred years, led to systematic disappearances of localities of many plant species connected with rare habitats and also to the appearance of numerous invasive plant species. They are: Azolla filiculoides, Echinocystis lobata, Erechtites hieraciifolia, Impatiens glandulifera, I. parviflora, Reynoutria japonica, Solidago canadensis, S. gigantea and S. graminifolia. Field works were conducted in years 2005-2012.

Keywords

  • invasive plant species
  • phytocoenoses
  • oxbow lakes
  • distribution
  • south-western Poland
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Morphological and cytological diversity of goldenrods (Solidago L. and Euthamia Nutt.) from south-western Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 41 - 49

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Correlations between the morphology and cytology of invasive species and the effectiveness of invasion are among the most interesting questions in invasion ecology. Amongst exceptionally successful worldwide plant invaders, species of goldenrod (Solidago and Euthamia) are considered. The main aim of the study was to compare the morphology (concerning life traits) and cytology of the selected goldenrods occurring in south-western Poland with the effectiveness of their invasion. The results of the study, conducted in south-western Poland, showed that life traits of invasive Solidago and Euthamia taxa were clearly not connected with the effectiveness of invasion. The most widespread species, S. gigantea and S. altissima, had the highest ramets and uncommon species such as Euthamia graminifolia and S. virgaurea had short ramets. However, S. canadensis, which is tall, is also uncommon. The most frequent species (S. gigantea) produced smaller inflorescence than less frequent species (S. altissima, S. canadensis and Euthamia graminifolia). The spread of particular taxa was also not connected with the ploidy level and DNA content.

Keywords

  • biological invasions
  • chromosome number
  • DNA content
  • invasive plant species
  • life traits
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Synanthropization of the Baltic-type raised bog “Roby” (NW Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 51 - 56

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Raised and transitional peat bogs, despite their considerable resistance to synanthropization, as a result of anthropogenic transformations are exposed to the colonisation by alien species. One of them is the peatland “Roby”, where, in the years 2007-2009 and 2014, floristic, phytosociological and soil studies were carried out in order to record the signs of ongoing synanthropization. Conducted observations and analyses indicated that the expansion of willows has taken place and at present they occupy a large part of the bog, encroaching into bog birch forest and successfully competing with Myrica gale. Progressive peat mineralisation and constructed surfaced roads within the bog, contributed to the appearance and wide distribution of synanthropic species, such as: Urtica dioica, Impatiens parviflora and Spiraea salicifolia. Raised bog communities and their characteristic species occur on a few fragments of the bog, in north-western part, where water regime is shaped mainly by precipitation and peat deposit is fairly well-preserved. At the same time, in the patches of these communities, a distinct unfavourable increase in the share of Molinia caerulea is observed.

Keywords

  • raised bog vegetation
  • alien species
  • habitat conditions
  • anthropogenic transformations
  • eutrophication
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien and invasive species in plant communities of the Vistula and Brennica rivers gravel bars (Western Carpathians, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 57 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Gravel bars are the initial habitats, inseparably connected to the mountain streams. On the one hand, they are an unstable substrate, influenced by the overflows and high waters; however, they are also exposed to strong sunlight and heat. This situation determines specific vegetation which, due to dynamic changes in the habitat, has a pioneer character. What is more, gravel bars are areas where many river migratory species and many random species appear. Among them, there are also synanthropic species. In years 2011-2012, floristic and phytosociological studies were conducted in the Silesian Beskids. The goal of these studies was to recognize the vegetation of the gravel bars of the Vistula and the Brennica rivers - from their springs in the Silesian Beskids to the point where the Brennica River flows into the Vistula River in the Silesian Foothills. The studied section of the two rivers is regulated. Particular attention was paid to the synanthropic species that pose a threat to the native flora. In 9 recognized types of plant communities, 293 vascular plant species were recognized. More than 15% of the flora were alien species (45) and 22 of them were considered to be invasive. The most common invasive species that were spotted included: Impatiens glandulifera, Heracleum mantegazzianum and Reynoutria japonica. Plant communities with the biggest number and share of alien species were Plantago major-Barbarea vulgaris community and Phalaridetum arundinaceae.

Keywords

  • synanthropization
  • vegetation
  • Silesian Beskids
  • Silesian Foothills
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Nature monitoring: a tool for the evaluation of the preservation of synanthropic habitats

Online veröffentlicht: 29 Oct 2015
Seitenbereich: 63 - 76

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The article presents the results of nature monitoring in synanthropic habitats. It shows the organizational aspects of monitoring, a survey procedure, including its assessment for use in synanthropic habitats, and the key findings of the research, including the evaluation of the conservation status of habitats covered by the monitoring and influencing factors’ effects. Observations of segetal and ruderal habitats were carried out in 2013 within the Kampinos National Park, according to the recommendations specified in the State Environmental Monitoring Programme, with specific adjustment to the monitored habitats. We used, for example, modified indices for specific structures and functions, e.g., by introducing the index of “archaeophytes”, which was also adopted as a cardinal index for synanthropic habitats. The obtained results show the detailed information, collected during monitoring, on the current status of synanthropic habitats. They allowed to evaluate conservation status, threats and conservation prospects for these habitats. This is the first proposal for the standardized monitoring of synanthropic habitats in Poland.

Keywords

  • biodiversity monitoring
  • conservation management
  • methodological framework
  • low-intensity agriculture
  • protected area
  • rural areas
  • synanthropic communities
  • Kampinos National Park

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