In the nanotechnology era, nanotechnology applications have been intensifying their prospects to embrace all the vigorous sectors persuading human health and animal. The safety and concerns regarding the widespread use of engineered nanomaterials (NMA) and their potential effect on human health still require further clarification. Literature elucidated that NMA exhibited significant adverse effects on various molecular and cellular alterations. Epigenetics is a complex process resulting in the interactions between an organism’s environment and genome. The epigenetic modifications, including histone modification and DNA methylation, chromatin structure and DNA accessibility alteration, regulate gene expression patterns. Disturbances of epigenetic markers induced by NMA might promote the sensitivity of humans and animals to several diseases. Also, this paper focus on the epigenetic regulators of some dietary nutrients that have been confirmed to stimulate the epigenome and, more exactly, DNA histone modifications and non-histone proteins modulation by acetylation, and phosphorylation inhibition, which counteracts oxidative stress generations. The present review epitomizes the recent evidence of the potential effects of NMA on histone modifications, in addition to in vivo and in vitro cytosine DNA methylation and its toxicity. Furthermore, the part of epigenetic fluctuations as possible translational biomarkers for uncovering untoward properties of NMA is deliberated.

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