1. bookVolume 114 (2017): Issue 3 (March 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-737X
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Polybrominated flame retardants in sewage sludge and sediments (Review)

Published Online: 23 May 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 114 (2017) - Issue 3 (March 2017)
Page range: 153 - 166
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2353-737X
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This paper is a wide review of literature concerning the presence of flame retardants in sediments, treated wastewater, sewage sludge and the possibilities of their biodegradation. These compounds are widely applied in, for example, the textile and electronics industries. Flame retardants (FRs) are hydrophobic with very low solubility in water; however, they are released slowly during the washing of clothing, and as a result of the discarding of waste electronic products, etc. FRs show low mobility in the environment and can accumulate in wastewater, sewage sludge, in sediments in the beds of rivers and lakes, and in soil. Total concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) ranged from 0.59 to 48.000 ng/g d.w and decaBDE (BDE 209) concentrations from 0.4 to 47,400 ng/g d.w. BDE 209 dominated the congener profile.

Keywords

[1] Abramowicz D.A., Aerobic and anaerobic biodegradation of PCBs: A review, Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, Vol. 10, 1990, 241–251.10.3109/07388559009038210Search in Google Scholar

[2] Alaee M., Arias P., Sjodin A., Bergman A., An overview of commercially used brominated flame retardants, their applications, their use patterns in different countries/regions and possible modes of release, Environment International, Vol. 29, 2003, 683–689.10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00121-1Search in Google Scholar

[3] Alaee M., Wenning R.J., The significance of brominated flame retardants in the environment: current understanding, issues and challenges, Chemosphere, Vol. 46, 2002, 579–582.10.1016/S0045-6535(01)00224-7Search in Google Scholar

[4] Arbeli A., Ronen Z., Enrichment of a microbial culture capable of reductive debromination of the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol-A, and identification of the intermediate metabolites produced in the process, Biodegradation, Vol. 14, 2003, 385–395.10.1023/A:1027304222436Search in Google Scholar

[5] Baron E., Santin G., Eljarrat E., Barcelo D., Occurrence of classic and emerging halogenated flame retardants in sediment and sludge from Ebro and Llobregat river basins (Spain), Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 265, 2014, 288–295.10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.10.06924295901Search in Google Scholar

[6] Bezares-Cruz J., Jafvert C.T., Hua I., Solar photodecomposition of decabromodiphenyl ether: products and quantum yield, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, 4149–4156.10.1021/es049608o15352454Search in Google Scholar

[7] Chen S.J., Feng A.H., He M.J., Chen M.Y., Luo X.J., Mai B.X., Current levels and composition profiles of PBDEs and alternative flame retardants in surface sediments from the Pearls see note in text p. 7 River Delta, southern China: comparison with historical data, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 444, 2013, 205–211.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.11.10423277320Search in Google Scholar

[8] Chokwe T.B., Okonkwo J.O., Sibali L.L., Ncube E.J., An integrated method for the simultaneous determination of alkylphenol ethoxylates and brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge samples by ultrasonic-assisted extraction, solid phase clean-up, and GC-MS analysis, Microchemical Journal, Vol. 123, 2015, 230–236.10.1016/j.microc.2015.07.001Search in Google Scholar

[9] Covaci A., Harrad S., Abdallah M.A.-E., Ali N., Law R.J., Herzke D., de Wit C.A., Novel brominated flame retardants: A review of their analysis, environmental fate and behavior, Environment International, Vol. 37, 2011, 532–556.10.1016/j.envint.2010.11.00721168217Search in Google Scholar

[10] Cristale J., Lacorte, S., Development and validation of a multiresidue method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers, new brominated and organophosphorus flame retardants in sediment, sludge and dust, Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1305, 2013, 267–275.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Cristale J., Vazquez A.G., Barata C., Lacorte S., Priority and emerging flame retardants in rivers: Occurrence in water and sediment, Daphnia magna toxicity and risk assessment, Environment International, Vol. 59, 2013, 232–243.10.1016/j.envint.2013.06.01123845937Search in Google Scholar

[12] Davis E.F., Klosterhaus S.L., Stapleton H.M., Measurement of flame retardants and triclosan in municipal sewage sludge and biosolids, Environment International, Vol. 40, 2012, 1–7.10.1016/j.envint.2011.11.008Search in Google Scholar

[13] Davis J.W., Gonsior S.J., Markham D.A., Friederich U., Hunziker R.W., Ariano J.M., Biodegradation and Product Identification of [14C]Hexabromocyclododecane in Wastewater Sludge and Freshwater Aquatic Sediment, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 40, 2006, 5395–5401.10.1021/es060009mSearch in Google Scholar

[14] Davis J.W., Gonsior S.J., Marty G., Ariano J., The transformation of hexabromocyclododecane in aerobic and anaerobic soils and aquatic sediments, Water Research, Vol. 39, 2005, 1075–1084.10.1016/j.watres.2004.11.024Search in Google Scholar

[15] Eljarrat E., Barcelo D., Sample handling and analysis of brominated flame retardants in soil and sludge samples, Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 23, 2004, 727–736.10.1016/j.trac.2004.07.009Search in Google Scholar

[16] Eljarrat E., Labandeira A., Martinez A., Fabrellas B., Barcelo B., Occurrence of the ‘‘new” brominated flame retardant, decabromodiphenyl ethane, in sewage sludge from Spain, Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 67, 2005, 459–461.Search in Google Scholar

[17] Fabrellas B., Larrazabal D., Martinez M.A., Eljarrat E., Barcelo D., Presence of brominated diphenyl ethers in Spanish sewage sludges: Important contribution of deca-BDE, Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 66, 2004, 3755–3760.Search in Google Scholar

[18] Feng A.H., Chen S.J., Chen M.Y., He M.J., Luo X.J., Mai B.X., Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in riverine and estuarine sediments of the Pearl River Delta in southern China, with emphasis on spatial variability in diastereoisomer- and enantiomer-specific distribution of HBCD, Marine Pollution Bulletin, Vol. 64, 2012, 919–925.10.1016/j.marpolbul.2012.03.008Search in Google Scholar

[19] Gearhart J., Posselt H., Dempsey D., Costner P., Griffith C., Juska C., Toxic at any speed. Chemicals in cars and the need for safe alternatives, Ecology center report, 2006, http://pureti.com/content/documents/Ecology-Center-ReportToxic-At-Any-Speed.pdf (access: 22.06.2016).Search in Google Scholar

[20] Gerecke A.C., Giger W., Hartmann P.C., Heeb N.V., Kohler H.-P.E., Schmid P., Zennegg M., Kohler M., Anaerobic degradation of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge, Chemosphere, Vol. 64, 2006, 311–317.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.12.016Search in Google Scholar

[21] Gerecke A.C., Hartmann P C., Heeb N.V., Kohler H.P.E., Giger W., Schimid P., Zennegg M., Kohler M. Anaerobic degradation of decabromodiphenyl ether, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 39, 2005, 1078–1083.10.1021/es048634jSearch in Google Scholar

[22] Gevao B., Muzaini S., Helaleh M., Occurrence and concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge from three wastewater treatment plants in Kuwait, Chemosphere vol. 71, 2008, 242–247.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.09.043Search in Google Scholar

[23] Gorga M., Insa S., Petrovic M., Barcelo D., Analysis of endocrine disrupters and related compounds in sediments and sewage sludge using on-line turbulent flow chromatography-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1352, 2014, 29–37.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Hale R.C., Alaee M., Manchester-Neesvig J.B., Stapleton H.M., Ikonomou M.G., Polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in the North American environment, Environment International, Vol. 29, 2003, 771–779.10.1016/S0160-4120(03)00113-2Search in Google Scholar

[25] Harrad S., Ibarra C., Diamond M., Melymuk L., Robson M., Douwes J., Roosens L., Dirtu A.C., Covaci A., Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in domestic indoor dust from Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom and United States, Environment International, Vol. 34, 2008, 232–238.10.1016/j.envint.2007.08.00817897716Search in Google Scholar

[26] Hellstrom T., Brominated flame retardants (PBDE and PBB) in sludge – a problem?, The Swedish Water and Wastewater Association, Report No M 113 (eng), April 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[27] Hites R.A., Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the environment and in people: A meta-analysis of concentrations, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, 945–956.10.1021/es035082g14998004Search in Google Scholar

[28] Hunziker R.W., Gonsior S.J., MacGregor J.A., Desjardins D., Ariano J., Friederich U., Fate and effect of hexabromocyclododecane in the environment, Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 66, 2004, 2275–2280.Search in Google Scholar

[29] Hlouskova V., Lankova D., Kalachova K., Hradkova P., Poustka J., Hajslova J., Pulkrabova J., Brominated flame retardants and perfluoroalkyl substances in sediments from the Czech aquatic ecosystem, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 470–471, 2014, 407–416.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.09.07424140701Search in Google Scholar

[30] Ilyas M., Sudaryanto A., Setiawan I.E., Riyadi A.S., Isobe T., Tanabe S., Characterization of polychlorinated biphenyls and brominated flame retardants in sludge, sediment and fish from municipal dumpsite at Surabaya, Indonesia, Chemosphere, Vol. 93, 2013, 1500–1510.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.07.04824054131Search in Google Scholar

[31] Kierkegaard A., PBDEs in the Environment: time trends, bioaccumulation and the identification of their successor, decabromodiphenyl ethane, Ph.D. thesis, Department of Applied Environmental Science, Stockholm University, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Klosterhaus S.L., Stapleton H.M., La Guardia M.J., Greig D.J., Brominated and chlorinated flame retardants in San Francisco Bay sediments and wildlife, Environment International, Vol. 47, 2012, 56–65.10.1016/j.envint.2012.06.00522766500Search in Google Scholar

[33] Knoth W., Mann W., Meyer R., Nebhuth J., Polybrominated diphenyl ether in sewage sludge in Germany, Chemosphere, Vol. 67, 2007, 1831–1837.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.11317208275Search in Google Scholar

[34] Kupper T., de Alencastro L.F., Gatsigazi R., Furrer R., Grandjean D., Taradellas J., Concentrations and specific loads of brominated flame retardants in sewage sludge, Chemosphere, Vol. 71, 2008, 1173–1180.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.10.01918035395Search in Google Scholar

[35] La Guardia M.J., Hale R.C., Harvey E., Evidence of Debromination of Decabromodiphenyl Ether (BDE-209) in Biota from a Wastewater Receiving Stream, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 41, 2007, 6664–6670.10.1021/es070728g17969678Search in Google Scholar

[36] La Guardia M.J., Hale R.C., Harvey E., Mainor T.M., Ciparis, S., In situ accumulation of HBCD, PBDEs, and several alternative flame-retardants in the bivalve (Corbicula fluminea) and gastropod (Elimia proxima), Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 46, 2012, 5798–5805.10.1021/es300423822571713Search in Google Scholar

[37] Law R.J., Allchin C.R., de Boer J., Covaci A., Herzke D., Lepom P., Morris S., Tronczynski J., de Wit C.A., Levels and trends of brominated flame retardants in the European environment, Chemosphere, Vol. 64, 2006, 187–208.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.12.00716434081Search in Google Scholar

[38] Lee S., Song G.-J., Kannan K., Moon H.-B., Occurrence of PBDEs and other alternative brominated flame retardants in sludge from wastewater treatment plants in Korea, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 470–471, 2014, 1422–1429.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.07.11823993837Search in Google Scholar

[39] Mascolo G., Locaputo V., Mininni G., New perspective on the determination of flame retardants in sewage sludge by using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with different ion sources, Journal of Chromatography A. Vol. 1217, 2010, 4601–4611.Search in Google Scholar

[40] McAvoy D.C., Pittinger C.A., Willis A.M., Biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) in anaerobic digester sludge, sols and freshwater sediments, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, Vol. 131, 2016, 143–150.10.1016/j.ecoenv.2015.07.00926212340Search in Google Scholar

[41] McCormick J.M., Paiva M.S., Haggblom M.M., Cooper K.R., White L.A., Embryonic exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A and its metabolites, bisphenol A and tetrabromobisphenol A dimethyl ether disrupts normal zebrafish (Danio rerio) development and matrix metalloproteinase expression, Aquatic Toxicology, Vol. 100 (3), 2010, 255–262.10.1016/j.aquatox.2010.07.019583932420728951Search in Google Scholar

[42] McCrindle R., Chittim B., Konstantinov A., Kolic T., McAlees A., MacPherson K., Reiner E., Potter D., Tashiro C., Yeo B., Native and mass labeled [13C14]-decabromodiphenylethane: characterization and use in determination of DBDPE in sewage sludge, Organohalogen Compounds, Vol. 66, 2004, 3744–3750.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Meng X.Z., Xiang N., Yu L., Zhang J., Chen L., Dai X., Exploring the bioaccessibility of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in sewage sludge, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 207, 2015, 1–5.10.1016/j.envpol.2015.08.04326327497Search in Google Scholar

[44] Moon H.B., Yoon S.P., Jung R.H., Choi M., Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) as a source of sediment contamination by toxic organic pollutants and fecal sterols in a semi-enclosed bay in Korea, Chemosphere, Vol. 73, 2008, 880–889.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.07.03818727999Search in Google Scholar

[45] Morris S., Allchin C.R., Zegers B.N., Haftka J.J.H., Boon J.P., Belpaire C., Leonards P.E.G., Van Leeuwenm S.P.J., De Boer J., Distribution and fate of HBCD and TBBPA brominated flame retardants in North Sea estuaries and aquatic food webs, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, 5497–5504.10.1021/es049640i15575264Search in Google Scholar

[46] Morris P.J., Quensen J.F., Tiedje J.M., Boyd S.A., Reductive debromination of the commercial polybrominated biphenyl mixture Firemaster BP6 by anaerobic microorganisms from sediments, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 58, 1992, 3249–3256.10.1128/aem.58.10.3249-3256.19921830871332608Search in Google Scholar

[47] Morris P.J., Quensen J.F., Tiedje J.M., Boyd S.A., An assessment of the reductive debromination of polybrominated biphenyls in the Pine River Reservoir, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 27, 1993, 1580–1586.10.1021/es00045a013Search in Google Scholar

[48] North K.D., Tracking polybrominated diphenyl ether releases in wastewater treatment plant effluent, Palo Alto, California, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 38, 2004, 4484–4488.10.1021/es049627y15461153Search in Google Scholar

[49] Novak P., Zuliani T., Milacic R., Scancar J., Development of an analytical method for the determination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge by the use of gas chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, Analytica Chimica Acta, Vol. 915, 2016, 27–35.10.1016/j.aca.2016.02.02226995637Search in Google Scholar

[50] Peverly A.A., O’Sullivan C., Liu L.-Y., Venier M., Martinez A., Hornbuckle K.C., Hites R.A., Chicago’s Sanitary and Ship Canal sediment: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and organophosphate esters, Chemosphere, Vol. 134, 2015, 380–386.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.04.065634226725981316Search in Google Scholar

[51] Pulkrabova J., Hajslova J., Poustk J., Hradkova P., Brominated flame retardants in river sediments and sewage sludges collected in the Czech Republic, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Ricklund N., Kierkegaard A., McLachlan M.S., An international survey of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (deca-BDE) in sewage sludge samples, Chemosphere, Vol. 73, 2008, 1799–1804.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.08.04718922559Search in Google Scholar

[53] Ricklund N., Kierkegaard A., McLachlan M.S., Wahlberg C., Mass balance of decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) and decabromodiphenyl ether (deca BDE) in a WWTP, Chemosphere, Vol. 74, 2008, 389–394.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.09.05418977512Search in Google Scholar

[54] Robock K.R., Korytar P., Alvarez-Cohen L., Pathways for the Anaerobic Microbial Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, 2008, 2845–2852.10.1021/es072091718497133Search in Google Scholar

[55] Rodenburg L.A., Meng Q., Yee D., Greenfield B.K., Evidence for photochemical and microbial debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ether flame retardants in San Francisco Bay sediment, Chemosphere, Vol. 106, 2014, 36–43.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.12.08324485321Search in Google Scholar

[56] Rodriguez-Rodriguez C.E., Baron E., Gago-Ferrero P., Jelic A., Llorca M., Farre M., Diaz-Cruz M.S., Eljarrat E., Petrovic M., Caminal G., Barcelo D., Vicent T., Removal of pharmaceuticals, polybrominated flame retardants and UV-filters from sludge by the fungus Trametes versicolor in bioslurry reactor, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 233–234, 2012, 235–243.10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.07.02422840500Search in Google Scholar

[57] Ronen Z., Abeliovich, A., Anaerobic–aerobic process for microbial degradation of tetrabromobisphenol A, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Vol. 66(6), 2000, 2372–2377.10.1128/AEM.66.6.2372-2377.200011053510831413Search in Google Scholar

[58] Sellstrom U., Kierkegaard A., de Wit C., Jansson B., Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hexabromocyclododecane in sediment and fish from a Swedish river, Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, Vol. 17, 1998, 1065–1072.10.1002/etc.5620170612Search in Google Scholar

[59] Shi T., Chen S.J., Luo X.J., Zhang X.L., Tang C.M., Luo Y., Ma Y.J., Wu J.P., Peng X.Z., Mai B.X., Occurrence of brominated flame retardants other than polybrominated diphenyl ethers in environmental and biota samples from southern China, Chemosphere, Vol. 74, 2009, 910–916.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2008.10.04719059630Search in Google Scholar

[60] Stiborova H., Vrkoslavova J., Pulkrabova J., Poustka J., Hajslova J., Demnerova K., Dynamics of brominated flame retardants removal in contaminated wastewater sewage sludge under anaerobic conditions, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 553, 2015, 439–445.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.13126179781Search in Google Scholar

[61] Tan X.X., Luo X.J., Zheng X.B., Li Z.R., Sun R.X., Mai B.X., Distribution of organophosphorus flame retardants in sediments from the Pearl River Delta in South China, Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 544, 2016, 77–84.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.11.08926657357Search in Google Scholar

[62] Tokarz J.A.3rd, Ahn Mi-Y., Leng J., Filley T.R., Nies, L., Reductive Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Anaerobic Sediment and a Biomimetic System, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 42, 2008, 1157–1164.10.1021/es071989t18351087Search in Google Scholar

[63] de la Torre A., Sverko E., Alaee M., Martinez M.A., Concentrations and sources of Dechlorane Plus in sewage sludge, Chemosphere, Vol. 82, 2011, 692–697.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2010.10.09721122888Search in Google Scholar

[64] Venkatesan A.K., Halden R.U., Brominated flame retardants in U.S. biosolids from the EPA national sewage sludge survey and chemical persistence in outdoor soil mesocosms, Water Research, Vol. 55, 2014, 133–142.10.1016/j.watres.2014.02.021401327024607311Search in Google Scholar

[65] Voordeckers J.W., Fennell D.E., Jones K., Haggblom M.M., Anaerobic biotransformation of tetrabromobisphenol A, tetrachlorobisphenol A, and bisphenol A in estuarine sediments, Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 36, 2002, 696–701.10.1021/es011081h11878385Search in Google Scholar

[66] Wang Y., Jiang G., Lam P.K.S., Li A., Polybrominated diphenyl ether in the East Asian environment: a critical review, Environment International, Vol. 33, 2007, 963–973.10.1016/j.envint.2007.03.01617638602Search in Google Scholar

[67] Wang Y., Zhang Q., Lv J., Li A., Liu H., Li G., Jiang G., Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and organochlorine pesticides in sewage sludge of wastewater treatment plants in China, Chemosphere, Vol. 68, 2007, 1683–1691.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.03.06017509654Search in Google Scholar

[68] de Wit C.A., Nylund K., Eriksson U., Haglund M., Kierkegaard A., Asplund L., Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA, Proceedings of the 4th International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants, Amsterdam, Netherlands.Search in Google Scholar

[69] Xiang N., Chen L., Meng X.-Z., Dai X., Occurrence of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in sewage sludge from Shanghai: Implications for source and environmental burden, Chemosphere, Vol. 118, 2015, 207–212.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.08.05825240774Search in Google Scholar

[70] Yang C.W., Chen W.Z., Chang B.V., Biodegradation of tetrabromobisphenol-A in sludge amended soil, Ecological Engineering, Vol. 91, 2016, 143–147.10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.02.037Search in Google Scholar

[71] Zhen X., Tang J., Xie Z., Wang R., Huang G., Zheng Q., Zhang K., Sun Y., Tian C., Pan X., Li J., Zhang G., Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and alternative brominated flame retardants (aBFRs) in sediments from four bays of the Yellow Sea, North China, Environmental Pollution, Vol. 213, 2016, 386–394.10.1016/j.envpol.2016.02.04226942686Search in Google Scholar

[72] Zhu B., Lam J.C.W., Yang S., Lam P.K.S., Conventional and emerging halogenated flame retardants (HFRs) in sediment of Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, East China, Chemosphere, Vol. 93, 2013, 555–560.10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.06.05223859425Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo