Open Access

Anthocyanins of Fruits and Vegetables - Their Occurrence, Analysis and Role in Human Nutrition


Anthocyanins are one of the largest and most important group of water-soluble pigments in most species in the plant kingdom. They are accumulated in cell vacuoles and are largely responsible for diverse pigmentation from orange to red, purple and blue in flowers, fruits, such as: blackberry, red and black raspberries, blueberries, bilberries, cherries, currants, blood orange, elderberries, grapes, and vegetables such as: red onion, radish, red cabbage, red lettuce, egg-plant, red-skinned potato and purple sweet potato. Anthocyanins in fruits and vegetables are present in glycosylated forms. The qualitative and quantitative determination of anthocyanins in plant can be performed by classical (spectro-photometric) or contemporary methods - HPLC coupled with a various types of mass spectrometers or NMR apparatus. Anthocyanins are widely ingested by humans, mainly due to consumption of fruits, vegetables and red wines. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of anthocyanins for individuals has been estimated from several milligrams to hundreds of milligrams per person. Anthocyanins as well as other flavonoids occuring in fruits, and vegetables are protective against a variety of diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Also the visual acuity can be markedly improved through administration of anthocyanin pigments to animals and humans.

Publication timeframe:
2 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, Plant Science, other