1. bookVolume 97 (2022): Issue 1 (December 2022)
Journal Details
First Published
31 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

“We Should Not Have the Same Restrictions as Everybody Else:” Southeastern US CrossFit Coaches’ Perceptions of COVID-19 Restrictions

Published Online: 30 Dec 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 97 (2022) - Issue 1 (December 2022)
Page range: 77 - 93
Received: 24 Sep 2022
Accepted: 16 Dec 2022
Journal Details
First Published
31 Dec 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Andone, D., Benson, L., & Vera, A. (2020, April 24). Georgia business owners are conflicted as the state reopens hair salons, gyms and bowling alleys. CNN. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/24/us/georgia-coronavirus-reopening-businesses-friday/index.html Search in Google Scholar

Arato, J., Claussen, K., & Heath, J. B. (2020, October 1). The perils of pandemic exceptionalism. American Journal of International Law, 114(4), 627. https://doi.org/10.1017/ajiI.2020.67 Search in Google Scholar

Ballotpedia (2020). States that did not issue stay-at-home orders in response to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, 2020. Retrieved from https://ballotpedia.org/States_that_did_not_issue_stay-at-home_orders_in_response_to_the_coronavirus_(COVID-19)_pandemic,_2020 Search in Google Scholar

Beasley, V. L., Arthur, R., Eklund, R. C., Coffee, P., & Arthur, C. (2021). A thematic analysis of social identity and injury in CrossFit®. Sport, Exercise, and Performance Psychology, 10(2), 327–343. https://doi.org/10.1037/spy0000220.supp10.1037/spy0000220.supp Search in Google Scholar

Beers, E. (2013). Welcome to the fold. CrossFit Journal. Retrieved from http://library.crossfit.com/free/pdf/CFJ_Worked_Beers2.pdf. Search in Google Scholar

Bieler, D. & McGregor, J. (2020, June 9) CrossFit founder retires amid consumer demand for corporate action against racism. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/2020/06/08/crossfit-founder-jokes-about-george-floyd-reebok-gyms-drop-brand/ Search in Google Scholar

Belluz, J. (2018, December 13). CrossFit is amassing an army of doctors trying to disrupt health care. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/science-and-health/2018/12/13/18095546/crossfit-greg-glassman-doctors-health-care-prevention Search in Google Scholar

Bendaoud, M. (2021). Does targeting always mean retrenchment? Housing assistance “exceptionalism” in Canadian welfare state. Administration & Society, 53(3), 439–467. https://doi.org/10.1177/009539972094799210.1177/0095399720947992 Search in Google Scholar

Benton, A. (2015). HIV exceptionalism: Development through disease in Sierra Leone. University of Minnesota Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bluestein, G. (2020, April 28) Poll: Georgians back shelter-in-place, oppose rollback of restrictions. The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Retrieved from https://www.ajc.com/news/state--regional-govt--politics/poll-georgians-back-shelter-place-oppose-rollback-restrictions/I1UrChsuYwyd4BOnqSnEiL/ Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. Harvard University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bratland-Sanda, S., Mathisen, T. F., Sundgot-Borgen, C., Sundgot-Borgen, J., Tangen, J. O. (2020). The impact of Covid-19 pandemic lockdown during spring 2020 on personal trainers’ working and living conditions. Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, 2, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.3389/fspor.2020.58970210.3389/fspor.2020.589702773967733345164 Search in Google Scholar

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2021). Conceptual and design thinking for thematic analysis. Qualitative Psychology, 9(1), 3-26–26. https://doi.org/10.1037/qup000019610.1037/qup0000196 Search in Google Scholar

Braun, V., Clarke, V. & Weate, P. (2016). Using thematic analysis in sport and exercise research. In B. Smith & A. C. Sparkes (Eds.), Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 191–205). Routledge Search in Google Scholar

Budryk, Z. (2020, July 23). DeSantis approval on handling of coronavirus plunges: poll. The Hill. Retrieved from https://thehill.com/homenews/state-watch/508738-desantis-approval-on-virus-plunges-poll Search in Google Scholar

Campbell, N. (2020) Gatekeepers, agency and rhetoric: an academic’s reflexive ethnography of ‘doing’ a (failed) adaptive CrossFit project, Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(4), 612–630, https://doi.org/10.1080/2159676X.2019.164572710.1080/2159676X.2019.1645727 Search in Google Scholar

Claudino, J. G., Gabbett, T. J., Bourgeois, F., Souza, H., de, S., Miranda, R. C., Mezêncio, B., Soncin, R., Cardoso Filho, C. A., Bottaro, M., Hernandez, A. J., Amadio, A. C., & Serrão, J. C. (2018). CrossFit overview: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sports Medicine – Open, 4(1) 11. https//doi.org/10.1186/s40798-018-0124-5.10.1186/s40798-018-0124-5582690729484512 Search in Google Scholar

Community gym coalition.(n.d.) Community gyms and fitness studios need help to survive. Reytieved from https://gymscoalition.org/ Search in Google Scholar

Coyne, P., & Woodruff, S. J. (2020). Examining the influence of CrossFit participation on body image, self-esteem, and eating behaviours among women. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 20(3), 1314–1325. Search in Google Scholar

Crockett, M. C., & Butryn, T. (2018). Chasing Rx: A spatial ethnography of the CrossFit gym. Sociology of Sport Journal, 35(2), 98–107. https://doi.org/10.1123/ssj.2017-011510.1123/ssj.2017-0115 Search in Google Scholar

CrossFit, Inc. v. National Strength and Conditioning Association, 14CV1191 JLS (KSC), (S.D. Cal. 2016). Retrieved from https://law.justia.com/cases/federal/district-courts/california/casdce/3:2014cv01191/442865/212/ Search in Google Scholar

Datu, J. A. D., & Fincham, F. D. (2022). Gratitude, relatedness needs satisfaction, and negative psychological outcomes during the COVID-19 pandemic: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.2336410.1002/jclp.23364934823535491717 Search in Google Scholar

Davalos, J. (2021, January 19). How Covid-19 has permanently changed the fitness industry. Bloomberg.Com. Retrieved from https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-01-19/fitness-industry-may-never-return-to-its-old-ways-after-covid-19 Search in Google Scholar

Dawson, M. (2017). CrossFit: Fitness cult or reinventive institution. International Review for Sociology of Sport, 52(3), 361–379.10.1177/1012690215591793 Search in Google Scholar

DeMartini, A., & Belasik, W. (2020). CrossFit partner work: Strength building for SDP. Journal of Sport for Development, 8(15), 40–49. Retrieved from https://jsfd.org/2020/07/31/crossfit-partner-work-strength-building-for-sdp/ Search in Google Scholar

DeMartini, A.L., Kao, P.H., McNiff Villemaire, J. (2022). Small college sport management students: A population & performance case study. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 31, 100382, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2022.100382.10.1016/j.jhlste.2022.100382 Search in Google Scholar

DeMartini, A.L. & Willett, J. (2022). Southeastern US CrossFit coaches’ legal consciousness regarding COVID-19 restrictions. Journal of Legal Aspects of Sport, 32, 177–197. Retrieved from https://journals.iupui.edu/index.php/jlas/article/view/26378/2436310.18060/26378 Search in Google Scholar

Demopoulos, A. (2020, June 9). CrossFit gym owners in mutiny over CEO Greg Glassman’s George Floyd tweet: As CrossFit affiliate gyms remove the brand name from their businesses to stand against CEO Greg Glassman’s tweet about George Floyd, many wonder how the brand will survive. Daily Beast (New York). https://www.thedailybeast.com/crossfit-gym-owners-in-mutiny-over-ceo-greg-glassmans-george-floyd-tweet Search in Google Scholar

Dominski, F. H., Serafim, T. T., Siqueira, T. C., & Andrade, A. (2021). Psychological variables of CrossFit participants: a systematic review. Sport Sciences for Health, 17(1), 21–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11332-020-00685-910.1007/s11332-020-00685-9745635832904532 Search in Google Scholar

Donaghue, N., & Allen, M. (2016). “People don’t care as much about their health as they do about their looks:” Personal trainers as intermediaries between aesthetic and health-based discourses of exercise participation and weight management. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14(1), 42–56. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2015.101608610.1080/1612197X.2015.1016086 Search in Google Scholar

Edmonds, S.E. (2020) Geographies of (Cross)fitness: an ethnographic case study of a CrossFit box, Qualitative Research in Sport, Exercise and Health, 12(2), 192–206, https://doi.org10.1080/2159676X.2019.1602559 Search in Google Scholar

Fernandez, K. (2021, August). How many gyms survived the devastation that was 2020? International Health, Racquet and Sportsclub Association (IHRSA). https://www.ihrsa.org/improve-your-club/industry-news/how-many-gyms-survived-the-devastation-that-was-2020/ Search in Google Scholar

Fla. Exec. Order No. 20–71 (March 20, 2020) Search in Google Scholar

Fla. Exec. Order No. 20–123 (May 14, 2020) Search in Google Scholar

Fla. Exec. Order No. 20–139 (June 5, 2020) Search in Google Scholar

Ga. Exec. Order No., (April 2, 2020).10.31512/19819250.2019.20.02.01-04 Search in Google Scholar

Ga. Exec. Order No., (April 23, 2020) Search in Google Scholar

Ga. Exec. Order No.,, May 12, 2020).10.31782/IJCRR.2020.12121 Search in Google Scholar

Garrison, N.A., Brothers, K.B., Goldenberg, A.J. & Lynch, J.A. (2019) Genomic contextualism: Shifting the rhetoric of genetic exceptionalism. The American Journal of Bioethics, 19(1), 51–63, htpps://doi.org/10.1080/15265161.2018.154430410.1080/15265161.2018.1544304639776630676903 Search in Google Scholar

Gebru, A. A., Birhanu, T., Wendimu, E., Ayalew, A. F., Mulat, S., Abasimel, H. Z., Kazemi, A., Tadesse, B. A., Gebru, B. A., Deriba, B. S., Zeleke, N. S., Girma, A. G., Munkhbat, B., Yusuf, Q. K., Luke, A. O., & Hailu, D. (2021). Global public health significances, healthcare perceptions of communities, treatments, prevention and control methods of COVID-19. Human Antibodies, 29(2), 129–137. https://doi.org/10.3233/HAB-20042210.3233/HAB-20042232865184 Search in Google Scholar

Geier, M. T., & Morris, J. (2022). The impact of a gratitude intervention on mental well-being during COVID-19: A quasi--experimental study of university students. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being,1–12. https://doi.org/10.1111/aphw.1235910.1111/aphw.12359911120535384320 Search in Google Scholar

Glassman, G. (2004, March). What is CrossFit? CrossFit Journal. Retrieved from https://journal.crossfit.com/article/what-is-crossfit-2 Search in Google Scholar

Glebova, E., Zare, F., Desbordes, M., & Géczi, G. (2022). COVID-19 sport transformation: New challenges and new Opportunities. Physical Culture & Sport. Studies & Research, 95(1), 54–67. https://doi.org/10.2478/pcssr-2022-001110.2478/pcssr-2022-0011 Search in Google Scholar

Gillin, S., Thornton, K., Ray, M., Marr, L., Dawson, M., Mallin, M., Emery, M. S., Eades, M., Eades, M.D., Foucher, J., Cardoso, B., Rockett, S., Jenkins, N., Cowling, M., Nwabueze, N., West, A., Jasbick, R., Thornton, J., Crichton, D., Newton, D., Moriarty, C. (2020, December 30). Guidelines for CrossFit gyms from the CrossFit medical advisory panel and CrossFit doctors. CrossFit.com. Retrieved from https://www.crossfit.com/covid-guidelines/ Search in Google Scholar

Guest, G., Namey, E., Chen, M (2020) A simple method to assess and report thematic saturation in qualitative research. Plos One, 15(5), e0232076. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.023207610.1371/journal.pone.0232076720000532369511 Search in Google Scholar

Hahner, L. A., & Varda, S. J. (2014). Yarn bombing and the aesthetics of exceptionalism. Communication & Critical/Cultural Studies, 11(4), 301–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/14791420.2014.95945310.1080/14791420.2014.959453 Search in Google Scholar

Hart, M. (2021, July 20). Does CrossFit have a future? The New Yorker. Retrieved from https://www.newyorker.com/sports/sporting-scene/does-crossfit-have-a-future Search in Google Scholar

Heinrich, K., Carlisle, T., Kehler, A. & Cosgrove, S. (2017). Mapping coaches’ views of participation in CrossFit to the integrated theory of health behavior change and sense of community. Family & Community Health, 40, 24–27. https://doi.org/10.1097/FCH.000000000000013310.1097/FCH.0000000000000133552620927870750 Search in Google Scholar

Helm, B. (2013, July). CrossFit doesn’t want your money. Inc. https://www.inc.com/burt-helm/crossfit-business-model.html Search in Google Scholar

Heywood, L. (2016). ‘We’re in this together:’ Neoliberalism and the disruption of the coach/athlete hierarchy in Cross-Fit.” Sports Coaching Review, 5(1), 116–129. https://doi.org/10.1080/21640629.2016.1198581.10.1080/21640629.2016.1198581 Search in Google Scholar

Hjort, M. (2021). The epiphanic moments of COVID-19: the revelation of painful national truths. Cultural Studies, 35(2/3), 505–513. https://doi.org/10.1080/09502386.2021.189802510.1080/09502386.2021.1898025 Search in Google Scholar

Holton, J.A. (2007), “The coding process and its challenges”, in Bryant, A. and Charmaz, K. (Eds), The SAGE Handbook of Grounded Theory, SAGE Publications, pp. 265–289, https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848607941.n13.10.4135/9781848607941.n13 Search in Google Scholar

Huebner, M., Ma, W., & Rieger, T. (2021). Weightlifting during the COVID-19 Pandemic –A transnational study regarding motivation, barriers, and coping of master athletes. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(17). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph1817934310.3390/ijerph18179343843127534501933 Search in Google Scholar

Hughes, J. P., Efstratiou, A., Komer, S. R., Baxter, L. A., Vasiljevic, M., & Leite, A. C. (2022). The impact of risk perceptions and belief in conspiracy theories on COVID-19 pandemic-related behaviours. Plos One, 17(2), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.026371610.1371/journal.pone.0263716882436935134100 Search in Google Scholar

James, E. P., & Gill, R. (2018). Neoliberalism and the communicative labor of CrossFit. Communication and Sport, 6(6), 703–727. https://doi.org/10.1177/216747951773703610.1177/2167479517737036 Search in Google Scholar

Jankowska, J. (2021). Fitness culture in the era of COVID-19. new reality, new challenges. Perspective of personal trainers. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 21, 1225–1233. https://doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2021.s215610.7752/jpes.2021.s2156 Search in Google Scholar

Joskin, P. (2021, December 22). New SafeACTiVE report – Second cycle results showing low levels of COVID 19 risk in European fitness clubs. EuropeActive. Retrieved from https://www.europeactive.eu/news/new-safeactive-report-%E2%80%93-second-cycle-results-showing-low-levels-covid-19-risk-european-fitness Search in Google Scholar

Kalil, L. (2022, January 9). CrossFit affiliates increase by nearly 1,400 in 2021, Home office plans to see upward curve continue in 2022. Morning Chalk Up. https://morningchalkup.com/2022/01/09/crossfit-affiliates-increase-by-nearly-1400-in-2021-home-office-plans-to-see-upward-curve-continue-in-2022/ Search in Google Scholar

Kaur, H., Singh, T., Arya, Y. K., & Mittal, S. (2020). Physical fitness and exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic: A qualitative enquiry. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 590172. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.59017210.3389/fpsyg.2020.590172767342533250827 Search in Google Scholar

Kilgore, L. (2015). Locking It down. CrossFit Journal. Retrieved from http://library.crossfit.com/free/pdf/CFJ_2015_06_Licensing_Kilgore.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Koh, W. (2022). A real American hero: WWE wrestling from American exceptionalism to commercial transnationalism. Television & New Media, 23(1), 61–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/152747642096472210.1177/1527476420964722 Search in Google Scholar

Landsverk, G., & Warren, K. (2020, July 24). Incoming CrossFit CEO Eric Roza has signed a contract to buy 100% of the fitness company from controversial founder Greg Glassman. Business Insider. Retrieved from https://www.businessinsider.com/crossfit-incoming-ceo-eric-roza-contract-2020-7 Search in Google Scholar

Lautner, S. C., Patterson, M. S., Spadine, M. N., Boswell, T. G. & Heinrich, K. M. (2021), Exploring the social side of CrossFit: a qualitative study, Mental Health and Social Inclusion, 25(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1108/MHSI-08-2020-005110.1108/MHSI-08-2020-0051 Search in Google Scholar

Lenskyj, H. (2018). Sport exceptionalism and the Court of Arbitration for Sport. Journal of Criminological Research, Policy and Practice, 4(1), 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1108/JCRPP-01-2018-000210.1108/JCRPP-01-2018-0002 Search in Google Scholar

Malcom, N. L., Edmonds, S., Gipson, C., Hauff, C., & Bennett, H. (2021). Negotiating the funhouse: CrossFit women and the looking glass athlete. Women in Sport & Physical Activity Journal, 29(2), 95–105.10.1123/wspaj.2020-0052 Search in Google Scholar

Mann, N. (2021). Classrooms into courtrooms, Houston Law Review, 59, 363. Retrieved from https://houstonlawreview.org/article/30082-classrooms-into-courtrooms Search in Google Scholar

Mannix, L. (2014, November 10). CrossFit craze a free market success story. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from https://www.smh.com.au/business/the-economy/crossfit-craze-a-free-market-success-story-20141110-11jipm.html Search in Google Scholar

Maslic, V. (2019). CrossFit Sarajevo: Positioning against dominant ethnonational narratives. Journal of Sport for Development, 7(12), 59–77. Retrieved from https://www.sportanddev.org/sites/default/files/downloads/volume7.issue12.compilation-1.pdf Search in Google Scholar

McCarthy, B. (2021). Reinvention Through CrossFit: Branded Transformation Documentaries. Communication & Sport, 9(1), 150–165. https://doi.org/10.1177/216747951985228810.1177/2167479519852288 Search in Google Scholar

McCrisken, T.B. (2002). Exceptionalism. In A. DeConde, R.D. Burns & F. Logevall (Eds). Encyclopedia of American foreign policy (Second edition, pp. 64–65). Charles Scribner’s Sons. Search in Google Scholar

Mestel, S. (2020, December 23). CrossFit is feeling the weight of its gym owners downplaying COVID 19. BuzzFeed News. Retrieved from https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/spensermestel/crossfit-coronavirus-covid Search in Google Scholar

Moustakas, L., Szumilewicz, A., Mayo, X., Thienemann, E., & Grant, A. (2020). Foresight for the fitness sector: Results from a European Delphi study and its relevance in the time of COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23). https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph1723894110.3390/ijerph17238941773089133271932 Search in Google Scholar

Musselman, C. (2019). Training for the “unknown and unknowable”: CrossFit and evangelical temporality. Religions, 10(11), 624. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel1011062410.3390/rel10110624 Search in Google Scholar

Musto, M. (2019). Brilliant or bad: The gendered social construction of exceptionalism in early adolescence. American Sociological Review, 84(3), 369–393. https://doi.org/10.1177/000312241983756710.1177/0003122419837567 Search in Google Scholar

Nash, M. (2017). ‘Let’s work on your weaknesses’: Australian CrossFit coaching, masculinity and neoliberal framings of ‘health’ and ‘fitness.’ Sport in Society, 21, 1432–1453. https://doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2017.139056510.1080/17430437.2017.1390565 Search in Google Scholar

Nelson-Coffey, S. K., O’Brien, M. M., Braunstein, B. M., Mickelson, K. D., & Ha, T. (2021). Health behavior adherence and emotional adjustment during the COVID-19 pandemic in a US nationally representative sample: The roles of prosocial motivation and gratitude. Social science & medicine (1982), 284, 114243. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2021.11424310.1016/j.socscimed.2021.114243975641434315121 Search in Google Scholar

Ozanian, M. (2015, February 25). How CrossFit became a $4 billion brand. Forbes.com. Retrieved from https://www.forbes.com/sites/mikeozanian/2015/02/25/how-crossfit-became-a-4-billion-brand/?sh=6f1658ba1f96 Search in Google Scholar

Perkins, J. (2020, April 16). What IHRSA has been lobbying for during the economic crisis. International Health, Racquet and Sportsclub Association. Retrieved from https://www.ihrsa.org/improve-your-club/industry-news/what-ihrsa-has-been-lobbying-for-during-the-economic-crisis/# Search in Google Scholar

Piotrowski, D., & Piotrowska, A. I. (2021). Operation of gyms and fitness clubs during the COVID-19 pandemic – financial, legal, and organisational conditions. Journal of Physical Education & Sport, 21, 1021–1028. Search in Google Scholar

Redwood-Brown, A., Ralston, G. W., & Wilson, J. (2021). Incidence, severity and perceived susceptibility of COVID-19 in the UK CrossFit population. BMC Sports Science, Medicine and Rehabilitation, 13(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13102-021-00318-910.1186/s13102-021-00318-9841965334488886 Search in Google Scholar

Restad, H. E. (2015). American exceptionalism: An idea that made a nation and remade the world. Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Ritchie, J., Lewis, J., & Elam, G. (2003). Designing and selecting samplings. In J. Ritchie & J. Lewis (Eds.), Qualitative research practice: A guide for social science students and researchers (pp. 77–108). Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Royse, A. (2021, February 12) Wait, can they save CrossFit? Rocket Community Fitness. Retrieved from https://www.rocketcommunityfitness.com/post/wait-can-they-save-crossfit Search in Google Scholar

Saldana, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Sahlberg, J. (2012, July). CrossFit gyms gain muscle nationwide. The Sacramento Bee, p.1D. Search in Google Scholar

Saran, D. (2020, June 9). In defense of Greg Glassman. The Abject Lesson. Retrieved from https://www.theabjectlesson.com/2020/06/09/in-defense-of-greg-glassman/ Search in Google Scholar

Sarat, A. (1990). The law is all over: Power, resistance and the legal consciousness of the welfare poor. Yale Journal of Law & the Humanities, 2(2), 343–379. https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/yjlh/vol2/iss2/6 Search in Google Scholar

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B., Burroughs, H., & Jinks, C. (2018). Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality & quantity, 52(4), 1893–1907. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11135-017-0574-810.1007/s11135-017-0574-8599383629937585 Search in Google Scholar

Schrijnder, S., van Amsterdam, N., & McLachlan, F. (2021). “These chicks go just as hard as us!” (Un)doing gender in a Dutch CrossFit gym. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 56(3), 382–398. https://doi.org/10.1177/101269022091352410.1177/1012690220913524 Search in Google Scholar

Scott, J. (2020). IHRSA president weighs in on industry’s push to combat COVID fears. Athletic Business, 44(9), 10–11. Search in Google Scholar

Simons, H. (2009). Dispelling myths in case study research. In Case study research in practice (pp. 162–170). SAGE Publications, Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446268322.10.4135/9781446268322 Search in Google Scholar

Smith Maguire, J. (2008). The personal is professional. International Journal of Cultural Studies, 11(2), 211–229. https://doi.org/10.1177/1367877908089265.10.1177/1367877908089265 Search in Google Scholar

Stake, R. E. (1978). The case study method in social inquiry. Educational Researcher, 7(2), 5–8. https://doi.org/10.3102/0013189X00700200510.3102/0013189X007002005 Search in Google Scholar

Stone, W. (2020, September 2). Making gyms safer: Why the virus is less likely to spread there than in a bar. Georgia Public Broadcasting. https://www.gpb.org/news/shots-health-news/2020/09/02/making-gyms-safer-why-the-virus-less-likely-spread-there-in-bar Search in Google Scholar

Syropoulos, S. & Markowitz, E.M. (2021). Prosocial responses to COVID-19: Examining the role of gratitude, fairness and legacy motives, Personality and Individual Differences, 171, 110488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110488.10.1016/j.paid.2020.110488904580735502308 Search in Google Scholar

Tait, A.A. (2019). The law of high-wealth exceptionalism. Alabama Law Review, 71, 981–1037. https://www.law.ua.edu/lawreview/files/2020/06/2-Tait-981-1037.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, C. J., & Isisag, A. (2022). Beyond existential and neoliberal explanations of consumers’ embodied risk-taking: CrossFit as an articulation of reflexive modernization. Journal of Consumer Culture, 22(2), 311–330. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540521106205810.1177/14695405211062058 Search in Google Scholar

Veiga, O. L., Romero-Caballero, A., Valcarce-Torrente, M., Kercher, V. M., & Thompson, W. (2022). Evolución de las encuestas del fitness en España y a nivel mundial: un análisis de los últimos 5 años [Evolution of Spanish and Worldwide fitness trends: a five-year analysis]. Retos: Nuevas Perspectivas de Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, 43, 388–397. Search in Google Scholar

Warren, M., Kaufman, E., Wright, J., Kenny, C. (2020, April 23). With lobbying push, gyms get on Phase One of Trump’s reopening plan. Retrieved from https://www.cnn.com/2020/04/23/politics/gyms-reopening-lobbying-coronavirus-trump-phase-one/index.html Search in Google Scholar

Waryasz, G. R., Suric, V., Daniels, A. H., Gil, J. A., & Eberson, C. P. (2016). CrossFit® instructor demographics and practice trends. Orthopedic reviews, 8(4), 6571. https://doi.org/10.4081/or.2016.657110.4081/or.2016.6571513675327994826 Search in Google Scholar

Weintrobe, S. (2021). Psychological roots of the climate crisis: Neoliberal exceptionalism and the culture of uncare. Bloomsbury Academic. Retrieved from https://lccn.loc.gov/202005811610.5040/9781501372902 Search in Google Scholar

Wenger, J. B., & Zaber, M. A. (2021) Who is middle class? RAND Corporation, 2021. https://doi.org/10.7249/PEA1141-310.7249/PEA1141-3 Search in Google Scholar

WGRZ Staff (2020, November 25). Orchard Park gym owner fined after being visited by Erie County Sheriff’s, health officials. WRGZ-TV. Retrieved from https://www.wgrz.com/article/news/local/orchard-park-gym-owner-sayshe-was-fined-after-being-visited-by-erie-county-sheriffs-health-officials/71-f5b573e4-37a3-46b6-b1d9-76e2a1287c0b Search in Google Scholar

Whiteman-Sandland, J., Hawkins, J., & Clayton, D. (2018). The role of social capital and community belongingness for exercise adherence: An exploratory study of the CrossFit gym model. Journal of Health Psychology, 23(12), 1545–1556. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910531666413210.1177/135910531666413227553606 Search in Google Scholar

Wischhover, C. (2020, June 12). Why CrossFit devotees leaving the brand behind is such a big deal. Vox. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/the-goods/2020/6/12/21289151/crossfit-greg-glassman-black-lives-matter-box-katrindavidsdottir-games-reebok Search in Google Scholar

Woolf, J., & Lawrence, H. (2017). Social identity and athlete identity among CrossFit members: an exploratory study on the CrossFit Open. Managing Sport & Leisure, 22(3), 166–180. https://doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2017.141577010.1080/23750472.2017.1415770 Search in Google Scholar

Wright, L., Burton, A., McKinlay, A., Steptoe, A., & Fancourt, D. (2022). Public opinion about the UK government during COVID-19 and implications for public health: A topic modeling analysis of open-ended survey response data. PLoS ONE, 17(4), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.026413410.1371/journal.pone.0264134900962535421112 Search in Google Scholar

Yinger, M. (2021, March). CrossFit and Community Gyms Coalition continue fight to support gyms. CrossFit. https://www.crossfit.com/battles/crossfit-and-community-gyms-coalition-continue-fight-to-support-gyms Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo