1. bookVolume 15 (2019): Issue 3 (December 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Proportional Electoral Systems and Number of Parties in Parliament Evidence from Macedonia

Published Online: 01 Feb 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 15 (2019) - Issue 3 (December 2019)
Page range: 459 - 478
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

What is the best electoral system to increase the number of political parties represented in Parliament? This article answers the question using data from all the elections in Macedonia since 2002, and by making simulations of the results according to different electoral systems. In principle, we found that the electoral model that would bring most parties to the Macedonian Parliament is the Droop and Hare used in one electoral district. Moreover, the article answers the question how favourable different electoral systems are to larger/smaller parties. We find that the following is the order of electoral systems from most to least favourable for larger parties: Imperiali highest averages, D’Hondt, Sainte-Laguë, Largest remainders – Imperiali, Danish, Largest remainders – Droop, Largest remainders – Hare.

Keywords

SDSM Electoral Platform for the 2016 Elections, Plan for Life in Macedonia – SDSM, Skopje, (2016), available at: http://zazivot.mk/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/Plan_za_zivot_vo_Make-donija.pdf.Search in Google Scholar

“Malite partii baraat edna izborna edinica i otvoreni listi,” A1On, 18. 8. 2015, available at:https://a1on.mk/archives/521495.Search in Google Scholar

“I Besa i PDP se za edna izborna edinica” Fokus, 29/08/2015, available at: http://fokus.mk/i-besa-i-pdp-se-za-edna-izborna-edinitsa/.Search in Google Scholar

Трајанов предлага една изборна единица, Vecher, 8 јуни 2015, available at: https://vecer.mk/makedonija/trajanov-predlaga-edna-izborna-edinica.Search in Google Scholar

ПРЕДЛОГ НА ЛИДЕРОТ НА ДР-ДПА – МАКЕДОНИЈА ДА БИДЕ ЕДНА ИЗБОРНА ЕДИНИЦА, TV21, Sep 20, 2016, available at: https://tv21.tv/mk/?p=102477.Search in Google Scholar

Сите политички партии се за една изборна единица, освен ВМРО-ДПМНЕ и СДСМ, MKD. MK, 5. 6. 2015, available at: https://www.mkd.mk/makedonija/partii/site-politichki-partii-se-za-edna-izborna-edinica-osven-vmro-dpmne-i-sdsm.Search in Google Scholar

ВЛАДЕЈАЧКАТА ДУИ СО ПРЕДЛОГ Цела Македонија една изборна единица, Vecher, 16 март 2010, available at:https://vecer.mk/makedonija/cela-makedonija-edna-izborna-edinica.Search in Google Scholar

GDU i VMRO-DPMNE da dade podrshka za edna izborna edinica, A1On, 5. 5. 2018, available at: https://a1on.mk/archives/890092.Search in Google Scholar

СДУ: Македонија една изборна единица, NET Press, 12. 01. 2011, available at: http://arhiva.netpress.com.mk/mk/vest.asp?id=81346&kategorija=1&utm_source=daily.mk&utm_medium=daily.mk.Search in Google Scholar

Единствена Македонија: СДСМ има обврска да воведе една изборна единица и да распише предвремени избори, MakFax, 4. 5. 2018, available at: https://makfax.com.mk/makedonija/%-D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%B8%D0%BD%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B2%D0%B5%D0%BD%D0%B0-%D0%BC%D0%B0%D0%BA%D0%B5%D0%B4%D0%BE%D0%BD%D0%B8%D1%98%D0%B0-%D1%81%D0%B4%D1%81%D0%BC-%D0%B8%D0%BC%D0%B0-%D0%BE%D0%B1%D0%B2%D1%80%D1%81/.Search in Google Scholar

Berisha, Dardan (2016): The Politics of Electoral Systems in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design 2 (1).Search in Google Scholar

Cox, Gary W. (1997): Making Votes Count. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9781139174954Search in Google Scholar

Darcy, Robert, Charles D. Hadley, and Jason F. Kirksey (1993): Election Systems and the Representation of Black Women in American State Legislatures. Women and Politics 13 (2): 73–89.10.1300/J014v13n02_04Search in Google Scholar

Data on Women in Parliaments 2019. available at: https://data.ipu.org/women-ranking?month=9&year=2019Search in Google Scholar

Duverger, Maurice (1954): Political Parties. New York: Wiley.Search in Google Scholar

Gallagher, Michael (1991): Proportionality, Disproportionality and Electoral Systems. Electoral Studies 10: 33–51.10.1016/0261-3794(91)90004-CSearch in Google Scholar

Gallagher, M. (1992): Comparing Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Quotas, Thresholds, Paradoxes and Majorities, British Journal of Political Science 22: 469–496.10.1017/S0007123400006499Search in Google Scholar

Lijphart, Aarend (1986): Degrees of Proportionality of Proportional Representation Formulas. In Electoral Laws and Their Political Consequences, ed. Bernard Grofman and Arend Lijphart. New York: Agathon Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lijphart, Aarend (1999): Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lijphart Aarend, Constitutional Design for Divided Societies, Journal of Democracy, 15 (April 2004), 97.10.1353/jod.2004.0029Search in Google Scholar

Moser Robert G. Electoral Systems and the Representation of Ethnic Minorities: Evidence from Russia in Comparative Politics 40 (3) (Apr., 2008): 273–292.10.5129/001041508X12911362382995Search in Google Scholar

Norris, Pippa (1985): Women’s Legislative Participation in Western Europe. West European Politics 8 (4): 90–101.10.1080/01402388508424556Search in Google Scholar

Norris Pippa, Electoral Engineering, Voting Rules and Political behavior Cambridge University Press, 2012Search in Google Scholar

Rae, Douglas (1967): The Political Consequences of Electoral Laws. New Haven, CT: Yale University PressSearch in Google Scholar

Reilly Ben and Andrew Reynolds, Electoral Systems and Conflict in Divided Societies (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999).Search in Google Scholar

Shugart, Matthew Soberg. 1994. Minorities, Represented and Unrepresented in The Impact of Electoral Systems on Minorities and Women in Comparative Perspective, ed. Wilma Rule and Joseph F. Zimmerman. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 31–41.Search in Google Scholar

Taagepera, R.; Shugart, M. S. (1989): Seats and Votes: the Effects and Determinants of Electoral Systems, New Haven and London: Yale UP10.1016/0261-3794(89)90021-8Search in Google Scholar

Taagepera, Rein (2007): Predicting Party Sizes: The Logic of Simple Electoral Systems. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199287741.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Wall Alan and Salih Mohamad, Engineering Electoral Systems: Possibilities and Pitfalls. Netherland Institute for Multiparty Democracy, 8 (2007) available at: http://aceproject.org/ero-en/misc/engineering-electoral-systems-possibilitiesand.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo