1. bookVolume 52 (2019): Issue 2 (May 2019)
Journal Details
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
© 2020 Sciendo

The Influence of Competencies of Managers on Job Satisfaction of Employees in the Hotel Industry

Published Online: 09 Jul 2019
Page range: 81 - 94
Received: 18 Sep 2018
Accepted: 10 Mar 2019
Journal Details
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
© 2020 Sciendo

Background and purpose: The importance of soft-skills that managers can use to promote job satisfaction of employees is well known. Previous research has shown several different ways how managers can influence job satisfaction of employees, mostly in the form of external factors. Very little research is available on internal factors. This led us to the following research question: How managers’ competencies influence job satisfaction of employees?


Ariffin, A. A. M., & Maghzi, A. (2012). A preliminary study on customer expectations of hotel hospitality: Influences of personal and hotel factors. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 191-198, https://10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.04.012Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong, M., & Taylor, S. (2014). Armstrong‘s Handbook of Human Resource Management Practice: Kogan Page Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

Boyatzis, R. E. (1982). The Competent Manager: A Model for Effective Performance: John Wiley & Sons.Boyatzis, R. E. (2008). Competencies in the 21st century. Journal of Management Development, 27(1), 5-12.Search in Google Scholar

Bratton, J., & Gold, J. (2012). Human Resource Management: Theory and Practice: Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Çetin, M., Karabay, M. E., & Efe, M. N. (2012). The effects of leadership styles and the communication competency of bank managers on the employee‘s job satisfaction: the case of Turkish banks. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 58, 227-235, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.99610.1016/j.sbspro.2012.09.996Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Christen, M., Iyer, G., & Soberman, D. (2006). Job satisfaction, job performance, and effort: A reexamination using agency theory. Journal of Marketing, 70(1), 137-150, https://doi/10.1509/jmkg.2006.70.1.13710.1509/jmkg.2006.70.1.137Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Christou, E. (2002). Revisiting competencies for hospitality management: Contemporary views of the stake-holders. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Education, 14(1), 25-32, https://doi.org/10.1080/10963758.2002.1069672110.1080/10963758.2002.10696721Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chung-Herrera, B. G., Enz, C. A., & Lankau, M. J. (2003). A competencies model: Grooming future hospitality leaders. Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, 44(3), 17-25, https://10.1177/001088040304400302Search in Google Scholar

Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Earlbaum Associates. Hillsdale, NJ, 20-26.Search in Google Scholar

Collins, J. C., & Porras, J. I. (2005). Built to Last: Successful Habits of Visionary Companies: Random House.Search in Google Scholar

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16(3), 297-334, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0231055510.1007/BF02310555Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dunleavy, J., Milton, P., & Crawford, C. (2010). The search for competence in the 21st century. Quest Journal 2010, 2.Search in Google Scholar

Ellickson, M. C., & Logsdon, K. (2002). Determinants of job satisfaction of municipal government employees. Public Personnel Management, 31(3), 343-358, https://doi.org/10.1177/00910260020310030710.1177/009102600203100307Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Furnham, A. (1994). Personality at Work: The Role of Individual Differences in the Workplace: Psychology Press.Search in Google Scholar

Golubovskaya, M., Robinson, R. N., & Solnet, D. (2017). The meaning of hospitality: do employees understand? International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 29(5), 1282-1304. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-11-2015-066710.1108/IJCHM-11-2015-0667Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hannan, M. T., & Freeman, J. (1977). The population ecology of organizations. American Journal of Sociology, 82(5), 929-964, https://doi.org/10.1086/22642410.1086/226424Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hartle, F. (1995). How to Re-engineer Your Performance Management Process: Kogan Page.Search in Google Scholar

Hulin, C. L., & Judge, T. A. (2003). Job attitudes. Handbook of Psychology: Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 12, 255-276, https://doi.org/10.1002/0471264385.wei121110.1002/0471264385.wei1211Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jang, J., & George, R. T. (2012). Understanding the influence of polychronicity on job satisfaction and turnover intention: A study of non-supervisory hotel employees. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(2), 588-595, https://10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.08.004Search in Google Scholar

Kara, D., Uysal, M., Sirgy, M. J., & Lee, G. (2013). The effects of leadership style on employee well-being in hospitality. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 34, 9-18, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2013.02.00110.1016/j.ijhm.2013.02.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kim, W. G., & Brymer, R. A. (2011). The effects of ethical leadership on manager job satisfaction, commitment, behavioral outcomes, and firm performance. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30(4), 1020-1026, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.00810.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.008Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ko, W.-H. (2012). The relationships among professional competence, job satisfaction and career development confidence for chefs in Taiwan. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 1004-1011. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.12.00410.1016/j.ijhm.2011.12.004Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kong, H., Cheung, C., & Song, H. (2012). From hotel career management to employees’ career satisfaction: The mediating effect of career competency. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 76-85, https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.00210.1016/j.ijhm.2011.03.002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Königová, M., Urbancová, H., & Fejfar, J. (2012). Identification of managerial competencies in knowledge-based organizations. Journal of Competitiveness, 4(1), 129-142, https://10.7441/joc.2012.01.10Search in Google Scholar

Lam, W., & Chen, Z. (2012). When I put on my service mask: Determinants and outcomes of emotional labor among hotel service providers according to affective event theory. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(1), 3-11, https://10.1016/j.ijhm.2011.04.009Search in Google Scholar

Lee, C. H., & Bruvold, N. T. (2003). Creating value for employees: investment in employee development. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14(6), 981-1000, https://doi.org/10.1080/095851903200010617310.1080/0958519032000106173Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Locke, E. (1976). The Nature and Causes of Job Satisfaction. Handbook of industry and organizational psychology. Chicago: Ed. In: Rand McNally College.Search in Google Scholar

Lok, P., & Crawford, J. (2004). The effect of organisational culture and leadership style on job satisfaction and organisational commitment: A cross-national comparison. Journal of management development, 23(4), 321-338, https://doi.org/10.1108/0262171041052978510.1108/02621710410529785Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Luthar, B., & Trdina, A. (2015). Nation, gender, class: celebrity culture and the performance of identity in the balkans. Slavic Review, 74(2), 265-287, https://doi.org/10.1017/s003767790000142x10.1017/s003767790000142xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

McClelland, D. C. (1973). Testing for competence rather than for“ intelligence.“. American Psychologist, 28(1), 1, https://doi.org/10.1037/h003409210.1037/h0034092Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

McClelland, D. C. (1998). Identifying competencies with behavioral-event interviews. Psychological Science, 9(5), 331-339, https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.0006510.1111/1467-9280.00065Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

McPhail, R., Patiar, A., Herington, C., Creed, P., & Davidson, M. (2015). Development and initial validation of a hospitality employees’ job satisfaction index: Evidence from Australia. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 27(8), 1814-1838, https://10.1108/IJCHM-03-2014-0132Search in Google Scholar

Mihalič, R. (2008). Povečajmo zadovoljstvo in pripadnost zaposlenih [Increasing job satisfaction and engagement of employees]. In: Škofja Loka: Mihalič in partner.Search in Google Scholar

Moolman, H. J., & Wilkinson, A. (2014). Essential generic attributes for enhancing the employability of hospitality management graduates. Turizam: Znanstveno-Stručni Časopis, 62(3), 257-276.Search in Google Scholar

Müller, R., & Turner, R. (2010). Leadership competency profiles of successful project managers. International Journal of Project Management, 28(5), 437-448, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijproman.2009.09.00310.1016/j.ijproman.2009.09.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Noe, R. A., Hollenbeck, J. R., Gerhart, B., & Wright, P. M. (2006). Human Resource Management: Gaining a Competitive Advantage: McGraw Hill.Search in Google Scholar

Nogueira Novaes Southgate, A., & Mondo, T. S. (2017). Perceptions of job satisfaction and distributive justice: A case of Brazilian F&B hotel employees. Turizam: Znanstveno-Stručni Časopis, 65(1), 87-101.Search in Google Scholar

Okpara, J. O., & Wynn, P. (2008). The impact of ethical climate on job satisfaction, and commitment in Nigeria: Implications for management development. Journal of Management Development, 27(9), 935-950, https://doi.org/10.1108/0262171081090128210.1108/02621710810901282Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pan, F. C. (2015). Practical application of importance-performance analysis in determining critical job satisfaction factors of a tourist hotel. Tourism Management, 46, 84-91, https://10.1016/j.tourman.2014.06.004Search in Google Scholar

Paulauskaite, D., Powell, R., Coca-Stefaniak, J. A., & Morrison, A. M. (2017). Living like a local: Authentic tourism experiences and the sharing economy. International Journal of Tourism Research, 19(6), 619-628, https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.213410.1002/jtr.2134Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Potočnik Topler, J. (2017). Communication Skills in the Tourism Sector: The Speech Culture of Tour Guides. Tourism Culture & Communication, 17(3), 217-223, https://doi.org/10.3727/109830417X1505745766165910.3727/109830417X15057457661659Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Prahalad, C. K., & Hamel, G. (2006). The Core Competence of the Corporation. In Strategische unternehmungsplanung—strategische unternehmungsführung (pp. 275-292): Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Rangus, M., & Brumen, B. (2016). Development of tourism resarch. Teorija in Praksa, 53(4), 929.Search in Google Scholar

Rich, B. L., Lepine, J. A., & Crawford, E. R. (2010). Job engagement: Antecedents and effects on job performance. Academy of management journal, 53(3), 617-635. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2010.5146898810.5465/AMJ.2010.51468988Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Santos, M. C., Veiga, C., & Águas, P. (2016). Tourism services: facing the challenge of new tourist profiles. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 8(6), 654-669.Search in Google Scholar

Sarwar, S., & Abugre, J. (2013). The influence of rewards and job satisfaction on employees in the service industry. The Business & Management Review, 3(2), 22.Search in Google Scholar

Snell, S. A., Morris, S. S., & Bohlander, G. W. (2015). Managing Human Resources: Nelson Education.Search in Google Scholar

Spector, P. E. (1997). Job Satisfaction: Application, Assessment, Causes, and Consequences (Vol. 3): Sage publications.Search in Google Scholar

Spowart, J. (2011). Hospitality Students‘ Competencies: Are They Work Ready? Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 10(2), 169-181, https://doi.org/10.1080/15332845.2011.53694010.1080/15332845.2011.536940Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Spruill, M. C. (1976). A comparison of chi-square goodness-of-fit tests based on approximate Bahadur slope. The Annals of Statistics, 4(2), 409-412, http://dx.doi.org/10.1214/aos/117634341810.1214/aos/1176343418Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

STAT.SI. (2013). Active population by Labour Force Survey - annually. Retrieved from http://pxweb.stat.si/pxweb/Database/Demographics/07_labour_force/02_07008_active_pop_ADS/02_07621_active_pop_ADS_yearly/02_07621_active_pop_ADS_yearly.aspSearch in Google Scholar

Tomaževič, N., Seljak, J., & Aristovnik, A. (2014). Factors influencing employee satisfaction in the police service: the case of Slovenia. Personnel Review, 43(2), 209-227, https://doi.org/10.1108/PR-10-2012-017610.1108/PR-10-2012-0176Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tongchaiprasit, P., & Ariyabuddhiphongs, V. (2016). Creativity and turnover intention among hotel chefs: The mediating effects of job satisfaction and job stress. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 55, 33-40, https://10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.02.009Search in Google Scholar

Torres, N. E., & Kline, S. (2013). From customer satisfaction to customer delight: Creating a new standard of service for the hotel industry. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 25(5), 642-659.Search in Google Scholar

Turnšek, M., & Ladkin, A. (2017). Nova pravila igre za delavce? Airbnb in platformna ekonomija. [Changing Employment in the Sharing Economy: The Case of Airbnb]. Javnost-The Public, 24(SUP 1), S82-S99, https://doi.org/10.1080/13183222.2017.141157010.1080/13183222.2017.1411570Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tutuncu, O., & Kozak, M. (2007). An investigation of factors affecting job satisfaction. International Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Administration, 8(1), 1-19.Search in Google Scholar

Ulrich, D., Brockbank, W., Yeung, A. K., & Lake, D. G. (1995). Human resource competencies: An empirical assessment. Human Resource Management, 34(4), 473-495, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hrm.393034040210.1002/hrm.3930340402Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Uran Maravić, M., Križaj, D., & Lesjak, M. (2015). Innovation in Slovenian tourism organisations. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 21(1), 51-62.Search in Google Scholar

Valentine, S. R. (2001). Men and women supervisors‘ job responsibility, job satisfaction, and employee monitoring. Sex Roles, 45(3), 179-197, https://doi.org/10.1023/a:101354971071110.1023/a:1013549710711Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

van Klink, M. R. d., & Boon, J. (2003). Competencies: The triumph of a fuzzy concept. International Journal of Human Resources Development and Management, 3(2), 125-137, https://doi.org/10.1504/ijhrdm.2003.00241510.1504/ijhrdm.2003.002415Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Voon, M. L., Lo, M. C., Ngui, K. S., & Ayob, N. B. (2011). The influence of leadership styles on employees’ job satisfaction in public sector organizations in Malaysia. International Journal of Business, Management and Social Sciences, 2(1), 24-32.Search in Google Scholar

Vroom, V. H. (1957). Manage People, not Personnel: Motivation and Performance Appraisal: Harvard Business Press.Search in Google Scholar

Wong, S. C., & Lee, P. C. (2017). Competencies of training professionals in the Hong Kong hotel industry. Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism, 1-17, https://doi.org/10.1080/15332845.2017.126687210.1080/15332845.2017.1266872Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yeh, C. M. (2013). Tourism involvement, work engagement and job satisfaction among frontline hotel employees. Annals of Tourism Research, 42, 214-239, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2013.02.00210.1016/j.annals.2013.02.002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo