1. bookVolume 41 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)
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Book Reviews

Published Online: 18 Dec 2020
Page range: 195 - 202
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
01 Mar 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo
<p><bold><italic>Anthony Elliot</italic></bold></p> <p><italic>The Culture of AI: Everyday Life and the Digital Revolution</italic></p> <p><bold>London: Routledge, 2019, 268 pp.</bold></p> <p><inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_001.png"/></p> <disp-quote> <p>Artificial intelligence (AI) is coming and we better be prepared.</p> </disp-quote> <p>The subtitle of Anthony Elliot's <italic>The Culture of AI: Everyday Life and the Digital Revolution</italic>, recalls <a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_002">Henry Lefebvre's (1947/2000)</a> <italic>Critique of Everyday Life</italic>, a text which had a subversive impact among critical theorists of the time by bringing to the fore aspects of French society neglected in orthodox Marxism. The similarity, however, is misleading, since Elliot discusses the present as a mere preparation for a future, instead of presenting the future itself as a stake among social forces seeking to control of our daily lives through the digital “revolution”.</p> <p>The main argument of the book is that, as a transformation of unprecedented scale and intensity is about to occur, we must be ready to rethink much of our daily lives, starting by acknowledging that, as the books concludes, “we might have, as it were, simply run out of styles of thinking or frameworks for understanding the impact of such changes” (p. 200).</p> <p>This argument is a tricky one because it connects the problem of knowledge (how to know) and the problem of power (what to do) in a problematic way. The essence of the question is nicely expressed by the character Tancredi in <italic>The Leopard</italic> when he says, “If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change” (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_001">di Lampedusa, 1958/1960</a>: 31) (A more literal translation of the Italian text would go as follows: “If we want that everything stays the same, everything has to change”). The main merit and limitation of this book consists of the way its author addresses this problem. The book comprises an introduction and six chapters.</p> <p>In the introduction, Elliot defines AI: <disp-quote> <p>[The term AI is] encompassing any computational system that <italic>can sense</italic> its relevant context and <italic>react intelligently</italic> to data […] when certain degrees of <italic>self-learning</italic>, <italic>self-awareness</italic> and <italic>sentience</italic> are realized [… and] referring to any computational system which <italic>can sense its environment, think, learn and react in response</italic> (and cope with surprises) to such data-sensing [emphasis original].</p> <attrib>(p. 4)</attrib> </disp-quote> </p> <p>The obvious problem with this definition is that it takes the metaphoric transfer of intelligence from human intelligence to artificial “intelligence” at face value. In other words, we are left wondering what self-awareness – “to sense” or “react intelligently” to data – actually means when applied to non-organic systems. Because the difference between human and artificial intelligence remains unclear, the relative value and limitations of each remain indistinct, leaving no conceptual escape from the “technological tsunami sweeping the globe” (p. 16). The rest of the book describe some features of this tsunami.</p> <p>In the first chapter, “The digital universe”, Elliot summarises the main points of his analysis, arguing that in this “universe”, social forms of daily life and “complex digital systems” are interdependent when it comes to issues of “transformation” (p. 26). Elliot grounds his analysis in three traditions: the social theory of Nigel Thrift (p. 43); the study of advanced modernisation and the self (p. 45) in Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, and Ulrich Beck; and what Elliot calls the “critical discourse […] pertaining to reinvention, innovation and experimentation”. According to Elliot, the latter “calls our attention to an emerging branch of social ideologies of self-fashioning, in which instantaneity, plurality, plasticity, speed and short-termism grip the imaginations of women and men throughout the digitalized cities of the West who are riding the next wave of innovation” (p. 49). For Elliot, these three traditions, “provide a framework within which it is possible to begin to think critically about the emergence and spread of a <italic>culture of artificial intelligence</italic> [emphasis original]” (p. 51): <disp-quote> <p>By this I mean the general social process by which everyday life and modern institutions become increasingly influenced and shaped by the digitalized and technical apparatuses of AI.</p> <attrib>(p. 51)</attrib> </disp-quote> </p> <p>The second chapter, “The rise of robotics”, is about the social, economic and political effects of automated work in the global economy, interpreted through Marx's theory of technology, the arguments of “sceptics” and “transformationalists” about the “fourth industrial revolution”, the influence of globalisation, and offshoring of automation and the resulting disruptions.</p> <p>In the third chapter, “Digital life and the self”, Elliot discusses the impact of new technologies on the production of the self “and the daily lives of individuals”, arguing that, rather than producing “an enforced solitude”, “new technology creates both new opportunities and new burdens for the self.” (p. 19.) Adopting a psychoanalytical approach, Elliot argues the case for considering the self as an “information processing system” and “construct[ing] our lives as portable selves, moving across society (online and offline) as if the self is an information processor” (p. 84). The grounds for this suggestion is that, “in this age of smart machines, the key psychoanalytic question is not so much how do we connect but what does it mean for the self when we connect” (p. 84). Elliot dismisses Sherry Turkle's concerns about the new solitude and alienation of the digital age, arguing that digital objects such as social media and “robotic pets” contribute to a “transitional space”, offering people opportunities for “engagement with the wider world rather than a defensive reduction of it” (p. 94). For Elliot, the inability to take advantage of these opportunities should not be blamed on new technologies, but on an individual's life conditions, such as “debilitating emotional imprints from their past or because of the impairment or corrosion of their capacity for processing unthought emotion” (p. 102).</p> <p>In the fourth chapter, “Digital technologies and social interaction”, attention shifts from the individual to the collective impact of new technologies, and Elliot applies Goff-man's “action framework” to the analysis of the institutional organisation of social interaction, the role of chatbots, the impact of co-presence, mobility, desynchronisation, and individualisation on social relationship and Michael Harri's “eclipse of silence”.</p> <p>The fifth chapter, “Modern societies, mobility and artificial intelligence”, discusses the impact of automation on mobility, as this notion applies to its civilian and military dimensions, such as the “Google car” and “drones and killer robots”.</p> <p>In the final chapter, “AI and social futures”, Elliot addresses the future of intimacy, health-care, and democracy in order to argue for the necessity of public policy to develop adequate strategies to handle the complex matrix of risks and opportunities associated with transformations in these domains. As intimacy is not limited to “interpersonal relationships”, but includes also “impersonal objects” and “the cultivation of our connection to technology itself” (p. 162), in healthcare the pace of transformation opens up questions only partially addressed by the debate between “technologists” versus “traditionalists”, and democracy is facing “benefits and burdens” that “question liberal, individualist conceptions of democracy” (p. 184). For Elliot, public policy can address these challenges through three main strategies based on the “digital tooling up of an active and engaged citizenry” (p. 195), the role of government, and the role of the markets. The viability of market solutions, however, requires “systemic corrections” or “structural change” towards “greater transparency and accountability” of the companies involved (p. 197), to avoid the risk that “the transformative potential of complex algorithm” would “reproduce and amplify the biases and other human failings to which some critics argue it is ostensibly resistant” (p. 199).</p> <p><italic>The culture of AI</italic> is a useful book for at least two groups of people: those who are not aware of the transformative potential of AI and related technologies, and those inclined to believe the many promises associated with the corporate marketing of this new “revolution”. Elliot's analysis should open the eyes of these people to the complexities, the uncertainties, and ultimately the serious risks associated with the uncritical embrace of these technologies.</p> <p>For an audience more experienced with a critical intake of the social glitches of technological development, however, Elliot's analysis contains at least a few limitations. The first, as mentioned earlier, is Elliot's definition of AI and the blurring of the difference between human and artificial, life and digital life, and so on.</p> <p>The second limitation consists of the narrative representation of technological development as an independent variable. Maybe it was a choice to focus on and discuss social implications. But this choice becomes problematic when we discuss the nature of this development – the forces and ideolgies supporting it, the practices legitimising it, and so forth – because the nature of this develepment itself is put outside the range of critical scrutiny. Resistance is futile and compliant adaptation is the only choice. Elliot accurately describes the extension and intensity of the transformative power of new technologies but neglects to identify the sources of this power: the social forces, the ideological myths, and ultimately the nature of the interests that feed the seemingly irresistible penetration of new technologies in our lives.</p> <p>These two limitations have at least three implications on the discussion about the “culture of AI”. First, this seems a “culture” in which AI is an independent variable of the equation that generates social change. In dis-cursive terms, this brings about the naturalisation of technological development, that is, the interpretation of technological development as a natural phenomenon – a tsunami – that we can deal with only as far as the effects, but not the causes, are concerned.</p> <p>Second, social conflict and the role of social structure in shaping technological development – a core tenet in the critical theory of technology – are neglected. The “culture of AI” results from technological development construed as a process independent from social forces and impacts a notion of society purged of social conflict. In a critical perspective, this conflict – and not technology per se – is the real engine of social change.</p> <p>Third, the concept of “revolution” is construed to describe a radical change of established ways of life, conventions, institutions, and even ways of knowing, but not a radical subversion of relations of power. This is important because this kind of technological “revolution” ends up not challenging, but strengthening, existing relations of power.</p> <p>Elliot's book is useful reading, however, because it reflects an approach or a culture of AI that is influential among corporate and political elites. Students with critical ambitions should familiarise themselves with it if they want to defend the idea (and its implications!) that technological development and other processes apparently “irresistible” – such as globalisation – are not independent from, but dependent on, social structures, relations of power, and ultimately the competition for control over the distribution of values in society.</p> <list list-type="simple"> <list-item><p><italic>Matteo Stocchetti</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Senior Lecturer, Docent</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Arcada University of Applied Sciences</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Finland</italic></p></list-item></list> <ref-list><div>References</div> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_001"> <mixed-citation>di Lampedusa, G. T. (1960). <italic>The Leopard</italic> (Archibald Colquohoun, Trans.). London: Collins and Harvill. (Original work published 1958)</mixed-citation> <element-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print"> <name><surname>di Lampedusa</surname><given-names>G. T.</given-names></name> <year>1960</year> <source>The Leopard</source> <name><surname>Colquohoun</surname><given-names>Archibald</given-names></name> <comment>Trans.</comment> <publisher-loc>London</publisher-loc> <publisher-name>Collins and Harvill</publisher-name> <comment>(Original work published 1958)</comment> </element-citation> </ref> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_002"> <mixed-citation>Lefebvre, H. (2000). <italic>Critique of everyday life</italic>. New York: Verso. (Original work published 1947)</mixed-citation> <element-citation publication-type="web"> <name><surname>Lefebvre</surname><given-names>H.</given-names></name> <year>2000</year> <source>Critique of everyday life</source> <publisher-loc>New York</publisher-loc> <publisher-name>Verso</publisher-name> <comment>(Original work published 1947)</comment> </element-citation> </ref> </ref-list> </sec> <sec id="j_nor-2020-0023_s_002"><title/> <p><bold><italic>Johan Farkas & Jannick Schou</italic></bold></p> <p><italic>Post-Truth, Fake News and Democracy: Mapping the Politics of Falsehood</italic></p> <p><bold>New York: Routledge, 2020, 178 pp.</bold></p> <p><inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_002.png"/></p> <p>Post-truth, fake news, alternative facts. Terms like these have circulated in public debates, particularly in the last five years, raising concerns about the state of the digital public sphere in many countries. Fundamental epistemological questions such as what is a fact and how can we know if something is true have been given renewed attention. For everyone who has taken an introduction to philosophy of science course when entering the university, these questions are (oddly) familiar.</p> <p>The book <italic>Post-Truth, Fake News and Democracy: Mapping the Politics of Falsehood</italic>, by John Farkas and Jannick Schou, raises these and a host of other, similar questions: Why are contemporary democratic states and societies said to be facing an immense political crisis? How has the seemingly unstoppable barrage of fake news and alternative facts, flooding the gates of democracy and inaugurating an era of post-truth politics, been conceptualised, throughout and linked to wider political issues? What are the dominant normative ideas that continue to inform our current ways of thinking and acting upon questions of truth, democracy, and politics? In short, the book is examining the current discourses on truth.</p> <p><italic>Post-Truth, Fake News and Democracy</italic> is arriving on a wave of books about this topic (one committed by the writer of this review), and Farkas and Schou acknowledge and recognise the abundance of books, articles, and reports trying to decipher the social, political, and economical implications of digital falsehood. The authors also give a nod to “the Sisyphean task of following the shifting boundaries of a continuously moving field” (p. x), and I could not agree more. Since the manuscript was sent to the publisher, several of the trends in the book have developed and evolved. First, the Covid-19 pandemic and the spread of disinformation during the global health crisis has impacted the language used to describe disinformation, such as the tendency to describe the abundance of fake news and disinformation as an “infodemic” – a virus attack that should be wiped out with a “vaccine” to protect us from falsehood. Second, the term information pollution is also used to describe the same phenomena, and just as the world is going through a global environmental crisis, information needs to be “cleaned up” in order to improve the state of the public sphere. Lastly, like in most other books about post-truth and fake news, it is impossible not to mention Donald Trump, the candidate and later president who put the term fake news on the international news agenda and turned it into a strategic weapon against the news media. Politicians’ role in spreading disinformation – and particularly President Donald Trump's as a super spreader of dis-information during the Covid-19 pandemic – has become even more firmly documented by researchers and journalists (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_004">Brennen et al., 2020</a>). This development has culminated with Donald Trump's refusal to acknowledge his campaign's electoral defeat. In short, the attention towards the problems of post-truth, fake news, and disinformation has only increased after the authors finished their manuscript.</p> <p>Nevertheless, Farkas and Schou have succeeded in positioning the book in a more philosophical part of the current debate about digital truth and falsehood, which can ensure this conceptually interesting book a longer shelf life. By applying discourse theory – mainly inspired by Chantal Mouffe, Ernesto Laclau, and Oliver Marchart from what has been called the Essex School of Discourse Analysis – the authors describe their approach as a post-foundational political thought. This approach is supposed to grasp “the political signification of meaning without relying on essentialist and universalistic assumptions about the constitution of society, humanity, nature or truth” (p. 15). From this position, the authors lay out a theoretical foundation to explain why some discourse and social constructs are more dominant than others. The dominance of specific discourse should be seen as an accomplishment established through ongoing processes of hegemony. Thus, social reality can be seen as a battleground between opposing attempts to impose and fixate particular discourse as dominant, self-evident, and natural. Farkas and Schou argue that this is not a defence of relativism – nothing is true and everything is possible. Rather, the book encourages us to juggle many thoughts simultaneously, instead of only dealing with typical dichotomies such as true/false. Yesterday's misinformation is not necessarily today's misinformation, as we have seen during the Covid-19 pandemic when cumulative insights from research have expanded our knowledge of the virus.</p> <p>This book can be read as a complicated balancing act which argues that truth, evidence-based policy, and informed decisions are conditions for democracy, but at the same time, not <italic>sufficient</italic> conditions for democracy. By choosing to address the term truth, the authors have given themselves a more complicated task than if they have chosen the term fact. Fact can come from the cumulative compilation of evidence from research, which in the long term can be turned into knowledge. But facts can also be falsified, disapproved, and rejected based on new evidences. What is true might change over time, in different contexts, and based on new evidences. Truth can be hard to define, but is often understood as something that is in accordance with fact or reality.</p> <p>Still, Farkas and Schou argue that today's situation is less a crisis of truth, and more a crisis of democracy. It is maintained that contemporary democratic states need to create spaces for politics that allow for contestation, disagreement, and pluralism. Instead of glorifying past periods of proclaimed consensus, more should be done to increase representation and participation. The authors outline how rationality has replaced popular sovereignty, consensus has replaced conflict, and the needs of the capitalist market have replaced the will of the political people – all of which are all valuable and worthwhile concerns.</p> <p>Nevertheless, even though it is necessary to problematise observations such as those presented by French President Emanuel Macron – who indirectly said that truth is democracy and democracy is truth – the book could be clearer on how disinformation, fake news, and alternative facts impact democracy. “Defactualisation” can have dramatic consequences for democracy and is a term used by Hannah Arendt, but also by Natalia Roudakova, who has written the book <italic>Losing Pravda: Ethics and The Press in Post-Truth Russia</italic>. Roudakova uses defactualisation to refer to “the world where the disregard of factual truths leads to the suspension of reality” (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003">2017</a>: 217–224).</p> <p>This affects not just the public sphere, but also the institutions tasked with producing public facts, such as journalism, governmental agencies, scientific organisations, and academic institutions. The undermining of the legitimacy of institutions can potentially undermine a shared reality among the public. In turn, this undermines the possibility for democratic accountability, especially through public opinion and the press. In short, information disorder can create democratic decay.</p> <p>Even though the book is upfront about not aiming to address whether democracies are facing a deep-seated “crisis of facts”, or how accurate current debates around truth, deception, and democracy are, it would have strengthened the book if it had this empirical perspective.</p> <p>Nevertheless, Farkas and Schou have brought a barrage of intellectual ammunition to readers who are interested and concerned about the current state of truth in liberal democracies. The conceptual framework of <italic>Post-Truth, Fake News and Democracy</italic> will be valuable for readers looking for a more critical reading and understanding – maybe even a diagnosis – of what is called a post-truth world.</p> <list list-type="simple"> <list-item><p><italic>Bente Kalsnes</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Associate professor, Department of Communication</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Kristiania University College</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Norway</italic></p></list-item></list> <ref-list><div>References</div> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003"> <mixed-citation>Roudakova, N. (2017). <italic>Losing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia</italic>. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.</mixed-citation> <element-citation publication-type="book" publication-format="print"> <name><surname>Roudakova</surname><given-names>N.</given-names></name> <year>2017</year> <source>Losing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia</source> <publisher-loc>Cambridge</publisher-loc> <publisher-name>Cambridge University Press</publisher-name> </element-citation> </ref> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_004"> <mixed-citation>Brennen, S., Simon, F., Howard, P. N., & Nielsen, R. K. (2020, April 7). <italic>Types, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation</italic>. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. <uri>https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/types-sources-and-claims-covid-19-misinformation</uri></mixed-citation> <element-citation publication-type="web"> <name><surname>Brennen</surname><given-names>S.</given-names></name> <name><surname>Simon</surname><given-names>F.</given-names></name> <name><surname>Howard</surname><given-names>P. N.</given-names></name> <name><surname>Nielsen</surname><given-names>R. K.</given-names></name> <year>2020</year> <month>April</month> <day>7</day> <source>Types, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation</source> <publisher-name>Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism</publisher-name> <comment><uri>https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/types-sources-and-claims-covid-19-misinformation</uri></comment> </element-citation> </ref> </ref-list> </sec> <sec id="j_nor-2020-0023_s_003"><title/> <p><bold><italic>Arjen van Dalen, Helle Svensson, Antonis Kalogeropoulos, Erik Albæk, & Claes H. de Vreese</italic></bold></p> <p><italic>Economic News: Informing the Inattentive Audience</italic></p> <p><bold>New York: Routledge, 2019, 214 pp.</bold></p> <p><inline-graphic xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_003.png"/></p> <p><italic>Economic News: Informing the Inattentive Audience</italic> is a highly interesting book that covers an underresearched area. Despite the fact that numerous analyses have already been made of the media coverage of the economy (for an excellent review, see <a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_005">Damstra et al., 2018</a>), the audience – or the media users of economic news – does in general, however, receive far too little attention in research, as already observed by <a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_008">Parker (1997)</a>. Essentially, things haven’t changed since 1997, but van Dalen and his colleagues have made a brave attempt to close this gap by introducing and investigating the interesting phenomena of the inattentive audience to economic news – meaning neither the elite nor the opt-outs, but what in Danish is called ‘the grey mass’.</p> <p>The book consists of eleven chapters, most of which have already been published in leading journals on media and journalism. According to the authors, however, there is a need for tying together these articles into a whole, in order to be “able to articulate the surprising finding of how mainstream media help the inattentive citizen in an economized world” (p. ix). By “economized world”, the authors refer to the fact that economy has a larger say than ever before on society at large, hence increasing the need for following and understanding the general development of the economy in order to be a competent voter, employee, and consumer.</p> <p>The main result in the book is that media helps inattentive media users to form a “correct” perception of the performance of the economy. This causality seems to be even stronger when the economy is doing fine than when it is doing less well. This is a surprising result, as the main result in previous research has been to demonstrate a “bad-new-bias” (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_006">Kollmeyer, 2014</a>) in how the media cover the economy, suggesting that media considers bad news to be the best news stories.</p> <p>Another interesting result is that what matters is not whether media actually helps users understand details of the general economic development or tricky concepts like structural unemployment or labour supply. Rather, it is more important to the inattentive audience that they get a general feeling of the general state of the economy they live in: is it going up or down? This result suggests – much to the surprise of this reader – that the media is doing a pretty good job at equipping weaker media users with adequate knowledge to navigate in an ever more complex society.</p> <p>The authors suggest a couple of possible explanations for this surprising result. First of all, it does not require that much to sense the general state of the economy. Second, what the authors baptize the “mainstreaming” of economic news gives news consumers easier access than previously to create their own feeling of the state of the economy.</p> <p>By “mainstreaming”, the authors imply that economic news stories become part of the general news stream by using the normal criteria of news value (identification and domestication, according to the authors; p. 2). This leads us to a third and complementary explanation: the financial crisis has accelerated the mainstreaming of economic news stories because it has increased the general interest in the state of the economy – even for the inattentive audience. And the mainstreaming has increased the interest of the public in economic news.</p> <p>However, according to the authors, another interesting result contradicts this overall positive message: The media also makes media users more aware of how uncertain the current and future economic development is and will be. It is also shown that a sense of uncertainty makes the expectations of media users to the performance of the economy take a negative turn. As we might expect the future economy to become ever more uncertain, we might also expect the media to report this and, hence, become a current drag on the economy.</p> <p>One of the strengths of the book is that the authors, in the conclusion, make a pressure test (“tryktest” in Danish) of their results. They admit – and try to defend – why social media has been invisible throughout the book. They even raise the discussion of whether a correct picture of how the economy is performing even exists.</p> <p>This last point also indicates a main weakness of the book: In essence, its ontology and epistemology are positivist, as it is essentially assumed that economists understand the economy, and as a consequence, it is also possible for media to present a “correct” picture of the state of the economy. And economists do not disagree or belong to different economic paradigms.</p> <p>How we interpret the economy does, however, depend very much on the economic paradigm applied when the discussion comes to understanding the underlying reasons for the economic development, pinpointing problems or suggesting solutions to remedy these problems. Implicitly, the authors rely on the dominant New Keynesian economic paradigm without ever telling the readers about it. But the state of the economy is not just something factual – it has to be interpreted: which facts should be highlighted? Which should be ignored? What constitutes a major or a minor problem? When is something a possibility or a threat? Economics is not and will never become an objective science.</p> <p>The other main weakness is that the reader is given the impression that, after having read the book, we now know something about the actual consumption of economic news. However, the evidence is at best flimsy. The empirical evidence of actual and individual consumption of economic news is, as in previous research, indicative. We know very little about which economic news stories are actually read, understood, and processed by individual news consumers. Hence, further research on a much more detailed and qualitative level is needed. One possible avenue of research is to use social media to gather data on the actual consumption of mainstream economic news by actual social media users of, for example, Twitter (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_009">Soroka et al., 2017</a>) or Facebook (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_007">Madsen, 2018</a>). Another possible avenue would be to observe individual consumption of economic news combined with qualitative in-depth interviews.</p> <p>As it is now, research is too focused on content analysis of the media coverage of the economy and has an arm's length approach to the individual and actual consumption of economic news and the consequent and actual behaviour of individuals as voters, consumers, employees, and even employers. Nevertheless, by reading this book, one gets an excellent view of the state of art within this field and in addition, a lot of new empirical knowledge on the issues is presented to the reader.</p> <p>Finally, due to my vanity and the fact that we as researchers all too often draw on the work of others in a very superficial and even misleading way, which hinders progress in our joint knowledge of different societal phenomena, let me as an example note that my own work (<a ref-type="bibr" href="#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_007">Madsen, 2018</a>) is briefly mentioned in the conclusion (p. 157). According to van Dalen and colleagues, my paper apparently demonstrates that Facebook changes economic news. It would be more accurate to say that it describes and analyses which type of mainstream economics news Facebook users share, like, and comment upon. It is, furthmore, demonstrated that news about the business cycle does not attract much attention on Facebook. This result actually substantiates the notion of the inattentive audience.</p> <list list-type="simple"> <list-item><p><italic>Poul Thøis Madsen, PhD</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Associate professor, economist Danish School of Media and Journalism</italic></p></list-item> <list-item><p><italic>Denmark</italic></p></list-item></list> <ref-list><div>References</div> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_005"> <mixed-citation>Damstra, A., Boukes, M., & Vliegenthart, R. (2018). The economy. How do the media cover it and what are the effects? A literature review. <italic>Sociology Compass</italic>, <italic>12</italic>(5), e12579. <uri>https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12579</uri></mixed-citation> <element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print"> <name><surname>Damstra</surname><given-names>A.</given-names></name> <name><surname>Boukes</surname><given-names>M.</given-names></name> <name><surname>Vliegenthart</surname><given-names>R.</given-names></name> <year>2018</year> <article-title>The economy. How do the media cover it and what are the effects? A literature review</article-title> <source>Sociology Compass</source> <volume>12</volume> <issue>5</issue> <fpage>e12579</fpage> <comment><uri>https://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12579</uri></comment> </element-citation> </ref> <ref id="j_nor-2020-0023_ref_006"> <mixed-citation>Kollmeyer, C. J. (2004). 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(2017). Negativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media. 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The journal is published by Nordicom, a centre for Nordic media and communication research at the University of Gothenburg, supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe journal adheres to a rigorous double-blind reviewing policy and articles are published on a digital-only, continuous basis. Special thematic issues are also published regularly.  \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e is Open Access and published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International Public licence (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). The journal is included in Scopus, the largest abstract and citation database for peer-reviewed research. All issues and articles published since 2000 can be downloaded free of charge from the Sciendo publishing platform.    \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e is the official journal of NordMedia, which has been the flagship conference of the Nordic media and communication research community since 1973. \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"},{"type":"editorial","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditor-in-chief\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eJonas Ohlsson\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:jonas.ohlsson@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003e\u003cU\u003ejonas.ohlsson@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/U\u003e\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditors\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eJohannes Bjerling\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:johannes.bjerling@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003e\u003cU\u003ejohannes.bjerling@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/U\u003e\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eKarin Zelano\u003cBR\u003e\u003cU\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:karin.zelano@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003ekarin.zelano@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/A\u003e\u003c/U\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eBook review editor\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eMaarit Jaakkola\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:maarit.jaakkola@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003e\u003cU\u003emaarit.jaakkola@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/U\u003e\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eManaging editor\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eJosefine Bové\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:josefine.bove@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003e\u003cU\u003ejosefine.bove@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/U\u003e\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eManuscript editor\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eKristin Clay\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:kristin.clay@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003ekristin.clay@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eNordicom\u003cBR\u003eUniversity of Gothenburg\u003cBR\u003eP.O. Box 713\u003cBR\u003eSE-405 30 Gothenburg\u003cBR\u003eSweden\u003cBR\u003e\u003cA href=\"mailto:editors@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003e\u003cU\u003eeditors@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/U\u003e\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eEditorial board\u003cBR\u003e\u003c/STRONG\u003eMarko Ala-Fossi, University of Tampere, Finland \u003cBR\u003ePéter Bajomi-Lázár, Budapest Business School, Hungary \u003cBR\u003ePiet Bakker, University of Applied Sciences in Utrecht, the Netherlands \u003cBR\u003eAuksė Balčytienė, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania \u003cBR\u003eAnja Bechmann, Aarhus University, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eStina Bengtsson, Södertörn University, Sweden\u003cBR\u003eDaniel Biltereyst, Ghent University, Belgium \u003cBR\u003eBonnie Brennen, Marquette University, Milwaukee, USA \u003cBR\u003eAnker Brink Lund, Copenhagen Business School, Denmark \u003cBR\u003ePeter Bro, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eUlla Carlsson, University of Gothenburg, Sweden \u003cBR\u003eMonica B. Chibita, Uganda Christian University, Uganda \u003cBR\u003eWallace Chuma, University of Cape Town, South Africa \u003cBR\u003ePaul Cobley, Middlesex University, London, UK \u003cBR\u003eFausto Colombo, Catholic University in Milan, Italy \u003cBR\u003eNick Couldry, London School of Economics, UK \u003cBR\u003eLeen D'Haenens, KU Leuven, Belgium \u003cBR\u003eLina Dencik, Cardiff University, UK \u003cBR\u003eKaren Donders, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium \u003cBR\u003eGunn Enli, University of Oslo, Norway \u003cBR\u003eNatalie Fenton, Goldsmiths University of London, UK \u003cBR\u003eRamaswami Harindranath, University of New South Wales, Australia \u003cBR\u003eHalliki Harro-Loit, University of Tartu, Estonia \u003cBR\u003eUwe Hasebrink, University of Hamburg, Germany \u003cBR\u003eAri Heinonen, University of Tampere, Finland \u003cBR\u003eAndreas Hepp, University of Bremen, Germany \u003cBR\u003eAnnette Hill, Lund University, Sweden \u003cBR\u003eStig Hjarvard, University of Copenhagen, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eChristina Holtz-Bacha, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany \u003cBR\u003eValgerdur Johanssdottir, University of Iceland, Iceland \u003cBR\u003eMichael Karlsson, Karlstad University, Sweden \u003cBR\u003eKari Karppinen, University of Helsinki, Finland \u003cBR\u003eAndrew Kenyon, University of Melbourne, Australia \u003cBR\u003eAnders Olof Larsson, Kristiania University College, Oslo, Norway \u003cBR\u003eEpp Lauk, University of Jyväskylä, Finland \u003cBR\u003eChin Chuan Lee, City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong \u003cBR\u003eFrancis L. F. Lee, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong \u003cBR\u003eGregory F. Lowe, Northwestern University, Qatar, Qatar \u003cBR\u003ePeter Lunt, University of Leicester, UK \u003cBR\u003eChrista Lykke Christensen, University of Copenhagen, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eTristan Mattelart, University of Paris-2, France \u003cBR\u003eMargareta Melin, Malmö University, Sweden \u003cBR\u003eHallvard Moe, University of Bergen, Norway \u003cBR\u003eGraham Murdock, Loughborough University, UK \u003cBR\u003eHannu Nieminen, University of Helsinki, Finland \u003cBR\u003eHillel Nossek, Kinneret College on the Sea of Galilee, Israel \u003cBR\u003eHelga Ólafs, University of Iceland, Iceland \u003cBR\u003eKjartan Ólafsson, University of Akureyri, Iceland\u003cBR\u003eDominique Pasquier, Telecom ParisTech, Paris, France\u003cBR\u003eZrinjka Perusko, Zagreb University, Croatia \u003cBR\u003eRobert G. Picard, University of Oxford, UK \u003cBR\u003eManuel Puppis, University of Fribourg, Switzerland \u003cBR\u003eStephen Reese, University of Texas, Austin, USA \u003cBR\u003eKristina Riegert, Stockholm University, Sweden\u003cBR\u003eDavid Ryfe, University of Iowa, USA \u003cBR\u003eInka Salovaara-Moring, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eKim Christian Schrøder, Roskilde University, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eGauti Sigthorsson, University of Roehampton, UK \u003cBR\u003eTanja Sihvonen, University of Vaasa, Finland \u003cBR\u003eSeamus Simpson, University of Salford, Manchester, UK \u003cBR\u003eKristin Skare Orgeret, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway \u003cBR\u003eHelena Sousa, University of Minho, Portugal \u003cBR\u003eJeanette Steemers, King's College, London, UK \u003cBR\u003eSteen Steensen, Oslo Metropolitan University, Norway \u003cBR\u003eJesper Strömbäck, University of Gothenburg, Sweden \u003cBR\u003eTrine Syvertsen, University of Oslo, Norway \u003cBR\u003eBjarki Valtýsson, University of Copenhagen, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eMiguel Vicente-Marino, Universidad de Valladolid, Spain \u003cBR\u003eClaes de Vreese, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands \u003cBR\u003eHerman Wasserman, University of Cape Town, South Africa \u003cBR\u003ePatrik Wikström, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia \u003cBR\u003eIda Willig, Roskilde University, Denmark \u003cBR\u003eTamara Witschge, University of Groningen, the Netherlands\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003ePublisher\u003c/STRONG\u003e\u003cBR\u003eDe Gruyter Poland\u003cBR\u003eBogumiła Zuga 32A Str.\u003cBR\u003e01-811 Warsaw, Poland\u003cBR\u003eT: +48 22 701 50 15 \u003c/P\u003e"},{"type":"submission","language":"English","textformat":null,"content":"\u003cDIV align=justify\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e invites you to submit articles that contribute to a wider understanding of media, mediated communication, and journalism in the Nordic region. Please see our aims \u0026amp; scope for a list of possible topics. \u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e is interdisciplinary and welcomes empirical and theoretical contributions from a worldwide authorship. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eAll articles submitted should be original works and must not be under consideration by other publications. 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allow Word to automatically wrap the text (including for URLs). \u003c/LI\u003e\u003c/UL\u003e \u003cP\u003e  \u003c/P\u003e\u003cBR\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eSubmitting a book review\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review \u003c/EM\u003ewelcomes reviews on academic books within the field of media and communication research written in English, preferably with particular relevance regarding the Nordic countries. \u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review \u003c/EM\u003epublishes two issues per year and aims to include 3–5 book reviews in each issue. Books to be reviewed include academic studies and reports. Academic dissertations are typically not reviewed. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe books are ultimately selected by the reviews editor and the reviews are written on commission, but the editor also welcomes suggestions from aspiring reviewers.  \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eThe optimal length of a book review is between 1,300 and 1,700 words. No subheadings are used. The review also includes an author presentation (name, title, university affiliation). \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eIf you want to review a book, e-mail the book reviews editor, Maarit Jaakkola, for more information:  \u003cA href=\"mailto:maarit.jaakkola@nordicom.gu.se\"\u003emaarit.jaakkola@nordicom.gu.se\u003c/A\u003e \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"}]}],"metrics":{"metric":[{"name":"Cite Score","value":1.2},{"name":"European Reference Index for the Humanities","value":""},{"name":"SCImago Journal Rank","value":0.461},{"name":"Source Normalized Impact per Paper","value":0.893}]},"pricing":null,"publicationFrequency":{"frequency":"2","period":"YEAR"},"contributors":"","serial":null,"publishMonth":"6","publishYear":"2020","tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"keywords":[],"figures":null,"tables":null,"epubLink":null,"pdfLink":null,"coverImage":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005c63ee797941b18f26c6e/cover-image.jpg","coverImageOriginal":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005c63ee797941b18f26c6e/cover-image-original.jpg","pdfFiles":[],"parentObjectId":"6005c63ee797941b18f26c6e","relatedTitles":null,"forAuthors":null,"nextPackageId":null,"prevPackageId":"60c7d01a75030c59037bb27f","parentName":"Volume 41 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)","grandParentId":"6005aff2e797941b18f23bad","grandParentName":"Nordicom Review","publisherName":"Sciendo","publisherLocation":null,"nextMap":{"doi":null},"prevMap":{"id":{"timestamp":1623707674,"date":"2021-06-14T21:54:34.000+00:00"},"doi":"10.2478/nor-2020-0022"},"counter":0,"apaString":"Jaakkola,M.(2020).\u003carticle-title\u003eBook Reviews\u003c/article-title\u003e. Nordicom Review,41(2) 195-202. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.2478/nor-2020-0023'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.2478/nor-2020-0023\u003c/a\u003e","mlaString":"Jaakkola, Maarit. \"Book Reviews\" Nordicom Review, vol.41, no.2, 2020, pp.195-202. \u003ca href='https://doi.org/10.2478/nor-2020-0023'\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.2478/nor-2020-0023\u003c/a\u003e","harvardString":"Jaakkola M. (2020) \u003carticle-title\u003eBook Reviews\u003c/article-title\u003e. 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(Original work published 1947)\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"web\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eLefebvre\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eH.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2000\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eCritique of everyday life\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eNew York\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eVerso\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e(Original work published 1947)\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"},{"refId":"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003","citeString":"Roudakova, N. (2017). Losing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eRoudakova, N. (2017). \u003citalic\u003eLosing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia\u003c/italic\u003e. 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Cambridge, Massachusetts: Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government. http://dev.shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/d25_parker.pdf","doi":null,"mixed-citation":"\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_008\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eParker, R. (1997). Journalism and economics: The tangled webs of profession, narrative, and responsibility in a modern democracy [Discussion Paper D-25]. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard University, John F. 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Negativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media. \u003citalic\u003eCommunication Research\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003e45\u003c/italic\u003e(7), 1078–1098. \u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1177/0093650217725870\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSoroka\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eS.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eDaku\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eM.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eHiaeshutter-Rice\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eD.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eGuggenheim\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eL.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003ePasek\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eJ.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2017\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eNegativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eCommunication Research\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e45\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cissue\u003e7\u003c/issue\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e1078\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e1098\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1177/0093650217725870\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e"}],"pdfUrl":"https://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/6005c63ee797941b18f26c6e/10.2478_nor-2020-0023.pdf?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256\u0026X-Amz-Date=20210616T171902Z\u0026X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host\u0026X-Amz-Expires=18000\u0026X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210616%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request\u0026X-Amz-Signature=e0103d4f7123cf5a093a9a8af36626c4eab13942609669f729844fa6b19ed2ba","authorNotes":null,"publishMonth":"12","publishYear":"2020","receivedDate":null,"acceptedDate":null,"ePubDate":"2020-12-18T00:00:00.000+00:00","ePubDateText":"18 December 2020","pPubDate":null,"pPubDateText":null,"issueDate":"2020-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","coverDate":"2020-06-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","tableCount":null,"figureCount":null,"refCount":null,"articleCategories":"","titleGroup":"{\"article-title\":\"Book Reviews\"}","fundingGroup":null,"abstractContent":[],"figures":[],"tableContent":{},"tables":null,"articleContent":"\u003cdiv\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_s_001\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003e\u003citalic\u003eAnthony Elliot\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eThe Culture of AI: Everyday Life and the Digital Revolution\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003eLondon: Routledge, 2019, 268 pp.\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cinline-graphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_001.png\"/\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cdisp-quote\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eArtificial intelligence (AI) is coming and we better be prepared.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003c/disp-quote\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe subtitle of Anthony Elliot's \u003citalic\u003eThe Culture of AI: Everyday Life and the Digital Revolution\u003c/italic\u003e, recalls \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_002\"\u003eHenry Lefebvre's (1947/2000)\u003c/a\u003e \u003citalic\u003eCritique of Everyday Life\u003c/italic\u003e, a text which had a subversive impact among critical theorists of the time by bringing to the fore aspects of French society neglected in orthodox Marxism. The similarity, however, is misleading, since Elliot discusses the present as a mere preparation for a future, instead of presenting the future itself as a stake among social forces seeking to control of our daily lives through the digital “revolution”.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe main argument of the book is that, as a transformation of unprecedented scale and intensity is about to occur, we must be ready to rethink much of our daily lives, starting by acknowledging that, as the books concludes, “we might have, as it were, simply run out of styles of thinking or frameworks for understanding the impact of such changes” (p. 200).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis argument is a tricky one because it connects the problem of knowledge (how to know) and the problem of power (what to do) in a problematic way. The essence of the question is nicely expressed by the character Tancredi in \u003citalic\u003eThe Leopard\u003c/italic\u003e when he says, “If we want things to stay as they are, things will have to change” (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_001\"\u003edi Lampedusa, 1958/1960\u003c/a\u003e: 31) (A more literal translation of the Italian text would go as follows: “If we want that everything stays the same, everything has to change”). The main merit and limitation of this book consists of the way its author addresses this problem. The book comprises an introduction and six chapters.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn the introduction, Elliot defines AI:\n\u003cdisp-quote\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e[The term AI is] encompassing any computational system that \u003citalic\u003ecan sense\u003c/italic\u003e its relevant context and \u003citalic\u003ereact intelligently\u003c/italic\u003e to data […] when certain degrees of \u003citalic\u003eself-learning\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003eself-awareness\u003c/italic\u003e and \u003citalic\u003esentience\u003c/italic\u003e are realized [… and] referring to any computational system which \u003citalic\u003ecan sense its environment, think, learn and react in response\u003c/italic\u003e (and cope with surprises) to such data-sensing [emphasis original].\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cattrib\u003e(p. 4)\u003c/attrib\u003e\n\u003c/disp-quote\u003e\n\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe obvious problem with this definition is that it takes the metaphoric transfer of intelligence from human intelligence to artificial “intelligence” at face value. In other words, we are left wondering what self-awareness – “to sense” or “react intelligently” to data – actually means when applied to non-organic systems. Because the difference between human and artificial intelligence remains unclear, the relative value and limitations of each remain indistinct, leaving no conceptual escape from the “technological tsunami sweeping the globe” (p. 16). The rest of the book describe some features of this tsunami.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn the first chapter, “The digital universe”, Elliot summarises the main points of his analysis, arguing that in this “universe”, social forms of daily life and “complex digital systems” are interdependent when it comes to issues of “transformation” (p. 26). Elliot grounds his analysis in three traditions: the social theory of Nigel Thrift (p. 43); the study of advanced modernisation and the self (p. 45) in Anthony Giddens, Zygmunt Bauman, and Ulrich Beck; and what Elliot calls the “critical discourse […] pertaining to reinvention, innovation and experimentation”. According to Elliot, the latter “calls our attention to an emerging branch of social ideologies of self-fashioning, in which instantaneity, plurality, plasticity, speed and short-termism grip the imaginations of women and men throughout the digitalized cities of the West who are riding the next wave of innovation” (p. 49). For Elliot, these three traditions, “provide a framework within which it is possible to begin to think critically about the emergence and spread of a \u003citalic\u003eculture of artificial intelligence\u003c/italic\u003e [emphasis original]” (p. 51):\n\u003cdisp-quote\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBy this I mean the general social process by which everyday life and modern institutions become increasingly influenced and shaped by the digitalized and technical apparatuses of AI.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cattrib\u003e(p. 51)\u003c/attrib\u003e\n\u003c/disp-quote\u003e\n\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe second chapter, “The rise of robotics”, is about the social, economic and political effects of automated work in the global economy, interpreted through Marx's theory of technology, the arguments of “sceptics” and “transformationalists” about the “fourth industrial revolution”, the influence of globalisation, and offshoring of automation and the resulting disruptions.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn the third chapter, “Digital life and the self”, Elliot discusses the impact of new technologies on the production of the self “and the daily lives of individuals”, arguing that, rather than producing “an enforced solitude”, “new technology creates both new opportunities and new burdens for the self.” (p. 19.) Adopting a psychoanalytical approach, Elliot argues the case for considering the self as an “information processing system” and “construct[ing] our lives as portable selves, moving across society (online and offline) as if the self is an information processor” (p. 84). The grounds for this suggestion is that, “in this age of smart machines, the key psychoanalytic question is not so much how do we connect but what does it mean for the self when we connect” (p. 84). Elliot dismisses Sherry Turkle's concerns about the new solitude and alienation of the digital age, arguing that digital objects such as social media and “robotic pets” contribute to a “transitional space”, offering people opportunities for “engagement with the wider world rather than a defensive reduction of it” (p. 94). For Elliot, the inability to take advantage of these opportunities should not be blamed on new technologies, but on an individual's life conditions, such as “debilitating emotional imprints from their past or because of the impairment or corrosion of their capacity for processing unthought emotion” (p. 102).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn the fourth chapter, “Digital technologies and social interaction”, attention shifts from the individual to the collective impact of new technologies, and Elliot applies Goff-man's “action framework” to the analysis of the institutional organisation of social interaction, the role of chatbots, the impact of co-presence, mobility, desynchronisation, and individualisation on social relationship and Michael Harri's “eclipse of silence”.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe fifth chapter, “Modern societies, mobility and artificial intelligence”, discusses the impact of automation on mobility, as this notion applies to its civilian and military dimensions, such as the “Google car” and “drones and killer robots”.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eIn the final chapter, “AI and social futures”, Elliot addresses the future of intimacy, health-care, and democracy in order to argue for the necessity of public policy to develop adequate strategies to handle the complex matrix of risks and opportunities associated with transformations in these domains. As intimacy is not limited to “interpersonal relationships”, but includes also “impersonal objects” and “the cultivation of our connection to technology itself” (p. 162), in healthcare the pace of transformation opens up questions only partially addressed by the debate between “technologists” versus “traditionalists”, and democracy is facing “benefits and burdens” that “question liberal, individualist conceptions of democracy” (p. 184). For Elliot, public policy can address these challenges through three main strategies based on the “digital tooling up of an active and engaged citizenry” (p. 195), the role of government, and the role of the markets. The viability of market solutions, however, requires “systemic corrections” or “structural change” towards “greater transparency and accountability” of the companies involved (p. 197), to avoid the risk that “the transformative potential of complex algorithm” would “reproduce and amplify the biases and other human failings to which some critics argue it is ostensibly resistant” (p. 199).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eThe culture of AI\u003c/italic\u003e is a useful book for at least two groups of people: those who are not aware of the transformative potential of AI and related technologies, and those inclined to believe the many promises associated with the corporate marketing of this new “revolution”. Elliot's analysis should open the eyes of these people to the complexities, the uncertainties, and ultimately the serious risks associated with the uncritical embrace of these technologies.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFor an audience more experienced with a critical intake of the social glitches of technological development, however, Elliot's analysis contains at least a few limitations. The first, as mentioned earlier, is Elliot's definition of AI and the blurring of the difference between human and artificial, life and digital life, and so on.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe second limitation consists of the narrative representation of technological development as an independent variable. Maybe it was a choice to focus on and discuss social implications. But this choice becomes problematic when we discuss the nature of this development – the forces and ideolgies supporting it, the practices legitimising it, and so forth – because the nature of this develepment itself is put outside the range of critical scrutiny. Resistance is futile and compliant adaptation is the only choice. Elliot accurately describes the extension and intensity of the transformative power of new technologies but neglects to identify the sources of this power: the social forces, the ideological myths, and ultimately the nature of the interests that feed the seemingly irresistible penetration of new technologies in our lives.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThese two limitations have at least three implications on the discussion about the “culture of AI”. First, this seems a “culture” in which AI is an independent variable of the equation that generates social change. In dis-cursive terms, this brings about the naturalisation of technological development, that is, the interpretation of technological development as a natural phenomenon – a tsunami – that we can deal with only as far as the effects, but not the causes, are concerned.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eSecond, social conflict and the role of social structure in shaping technological development – a core tenet in the critical theory of technology – are neglected. The “culture of AI” results from technological development construed as a process independent from social forces and impacts a notion of society purged of social conflict. In a critical perspective, this conflict – and not technology per se – is the real engine of social change.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThird, the concept of “revolution” is construed to describe a radical change of established ways of life, conventions, institutions, and even ways of knowing, but not a radical subversion of relations of power. This is important because this kind of technological “revolution” ends up not challenging, but strengthening, existing relations of power.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eElliot's book is useful reading, however, because it reflects an approach or a culture of AI that is influential among corporate and political elites. Students with critical ambitions should familiarise themselves with it if they want to defend the idea (and its implications!) that technological development and other processes apparently “irresistible” – such as globalisation – are not independent from, but dependent on, social structures, relations of power, and ultimately the competition for control over the distribution of values in society.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003clist list-type=\"simple\"\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eMatteo Stocchetti\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eSenior Lecturer, Docent\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eArcada University of Applied Sciences\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eFinland\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003c/list\u003e\n\u003cref-list\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eReferences\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_001\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003edi Lampedusa, G. T. (1960). \u003citalic\u003eThe Leopard\u003c/italic\u003e (Archibald Colquohoun, Trans.). London: Collins and Harvill. (Original work published 1958)\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003edi Lampedusa\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eG. T.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e1960\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eThe Leopard\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eColquohoun\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eArchibald\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003eTrans.\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eLondon\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eCollins and Harvill\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e(Original work published 1958)\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_002\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eLefebvre, H. (2000). \u003citalic\u003eCritique of everyday life\u003c/italic\u003e. New York: Verso. (Original work published 1947)\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"web\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eLefebvre\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eH.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2000\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eCritique of everyday life\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eNew York\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eVerso\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e(Original work published 1947)\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003c/ref-list\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_s_002\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003e\u003citalic\u003eJohan Farkas \u0026amp; Jannick Schou\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003ePost-Truth, Fake News and Democracy: Mapping the Politics of Falsehood\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003eNew York: Routledge, 2020, 178 pp.\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cinline-graphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_002.png\"/\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003ePost-truth, fake news, alternative facts. Terms like these have circulated in public debates, particularly in the last five years, raising concerns about the state of the digital public sphere in many countries. Fundamental epistemological questions such as what is a fact and how can we know if something is true have been given renewed attention. For everyone who has taken an introduction to philosophy of science course when entering the university, these questions are (oddly) familiar.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe book \u003citalic\u003ePost-Truth, Fake News and Democracy: Mapping the Politics of Falsehood\u003c/italic\u003e, by John Farkas and Jannick Schou, raises these and a host of other, similar questions: Why are contemporary democratic states and societies said to be facing an immense political crisis? How has the seemingly unstoppable barrage of fake news and alternative facts, flooding the gates of democracy and inaugurating an era of post-truth politics, been conceptualised, throughout and linked to wider political issues? What are the dominant normative ideas that continue to inform our current ways of thinking and acting upon questions of truth, democracy, and politics? In short, the book is examining the current discourses on truth.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003ePost-Truth, Fake News and Democracy\u003c/italic\u003e is arriving on a wave of books about this topic (one committed by the writer of this review), and Farkas and Schou acknowledge and recognise the abundance of books, articles, and reports trying to decipher the social, political, and economical implications of digital falsehood. The authors also give a nod to “the Sisyphean task of following the shifting boundaries of a continuously moving field” (p. x), and I could not agree more. Since the manuscript was sent to the publisher, several of the trends in the book have developed and evolved. First, the Covid-19 pandemic and the spread of disinformation during the global health crisis has impacted the language used to describe disinformation, such as the tendency to describe the abundance of fake news and disinformation as an “infodemic” – a virus attack that should be wiped out with a “vaccine” to protect us from falsehood. Second, the term information pollution is also used to describe the same phenomena, and just as the world is going through a global environmental crisis, information needs to be “cleaned up” in order to improve the state of the public sphere. Lastly, like in most other books about post-truth and fake news, it is impossible not to mention Donald Trump, the candidate and later president who put the term fake news on the international news agenda and turned it into a strategic weapon against the news media. Politicians’ role in spreading disinformation – and particularly President Donald Trump's as a super spreader of dis-information during the Covid-19 pandemic – has become even more firmly documented by researchers and journalists (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_004\"\u003eBrennen et al., 2020\u003c/a\u003e). This development has culminated with Donald Trump's refusal to acknowledge his campaign's electoral defeat. In short, the attention towards the problems of post-truth, fake news, and disinformation has only increased after the authors finished their manuscript.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNevertheless, Farkas and Schou have succeeded in positioning the book in a more philosophical part of the current debate about digital truth and falsehood, which can ensure this conceptually interesting book a longer shelf life. By applying discourse theory – mainly inspired by Chantal Mouffe, Ernesto Laclau, and Oliver Marchart from what has been called the Essex School of Discourse Analysis – the authors describe their approach as a post-foundational political thought. This approach is supposed to grasp “the political signification of meaning without relying on essentialist and universalistic assumptions about the constitution of society, humanity, nature or truth” (p. 15). From this position, the authors lay out a theoretical foundation to explain why some discourse and social constructs are more dominant than others. The dominance of specific discourse should be seen as an accomplishment established through ongoing processes of hegemony. Thus, social reality can be seen as a battleground between opposing attempts to impose and fixate particular discourse as dominant, self-evident, and natural. Farkas and Schou argue that this is not a defence of relativism – nothing is true and everything is possible. Rather, the book encourages us to juggle many thoughts simultaneously, instead of only dealing with typical dichotomies such as true/false. Yesterday's misinformation is not necessarily today's misinformation, as we have seen during the Covid-19 pandemic when cumulative insights from research have expanded our knowledge of the virus.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis book can be read as a complicated balancing act which argues that truth, evidence-based policy, and informed decisions are conditions for democracy, but at the same time, not \u003citalic\u003esufficient\u003c/italic\u003e conditions for democracy. By choosing to address the term truth, the authors have given themselves a more complicated task than if they have chosen the term fact. Fact can come from the cumulative compilation of evidence from research, which in the long term can be turned into knowledge. But facts can also be falsified, disapproved, and rejected based on new evidences. What is true might change over time, in different contexts, and based on new evidences. Truth can be hard to define, but is often understood as something that is in accordance with fact or reality.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eStill, Farkas and Schou argue that today's situation is less a crisis of truth, and more a crisis of democracy. It is maintained that contemporary democratic states need to create spaces for politics that allow for contestation, disagreement, and pluralism. Instead of glorifying past periods of proclaimed consensus, more should be done to increase representation and participation. The authors outline how rationality has replaced popular sovereignty, consensus has replaced conflict, and the needs of the capitalist market have replaced the will of the political people – all of which are all valuable and worthwhile concerns.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNevertheless, even though it is necessary to problematise observations such as those presented by French President Emanuel Macron – who indirectly said that truth is democracy and democracy is truth – the book could be clearer on how disinformation, fake news, and alternative facts impact democracy. “Defactualisation” can have dramatic consequences for democracy and is a term used by Hannah Arendt, but also by Natalia Roudakova, who has written the book \u003citalic\u003eLosing Pravda: Ethics and The Press in Post-Truth Russia\u003c/italic\u003e. Roudakova uses defactualisation to refer to “the world where the disregard of factual truths leads to the suspension of reality” (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003\"\u003e2017\u003c/a\u003e: 217–224).\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis affects not just the public sphere, but also the institutions tasked with producing public facts, such as journalism, governmental agencies, scientific organisations, and academic institutions. The undermining of the legitimacy of institutions can potentially undermine a shared reality among the public. In turn, this undermines the possibility for democratic accountability, especially through public opinion and the press. In short, information disorder can create democratic decay.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eEven though the book is upfront about not aiming to address whether democracies are facing a deep-seated “crisis of facts”, or how accurate current debates around truth, deception, and democracy are, it would have strengthened the book if it had this empirical perspective.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eNevertheless, Farkas and Schou have brought a barrage of intellectual ammunition to readers who are interested and concerned about the current state of truth in liberal democracies. The conceptual framework of \u003citalic\u003ePost-Truth, Fake News and Democracy\u003c/italic\u003e will be valuable for readers looking for a more critical reading and understanding – maybe even a diagnosis – of what is called a post-truth world.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003clist list-type=\"simple\"\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eBente Kalsnes\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eAssociate professor, Department of Communication\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eKristiania University College\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eNorway\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003c/list\u003e\n\u003cref-list\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eReferences\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_003\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eRoudakova, N. (2017). \u003citalic\u003eLosing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia\u003c/italic\u003e. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eRoudakova\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eN.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2017\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eLosing Pravda: Ethics and the press in post-truth Russia\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eCambridge\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eCambridge University Press\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_004\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eBrennen, S., Simon, F., Howard, P. N., \u0026amp; Nielsen, R. K. (2020, April 7). \u003citalic\u003eTypes, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation\u003c/italic\u003e. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. \u003curi\u003ehttps://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/types-sources-and-claims-covid-19-misinformation\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"web\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eBrennen\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eS.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSimon\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eF.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eHoward\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eP. N.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eNielsen\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eR. K.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2020\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003cmonth\u003eApril\u003c/month\u003e\n\u003cday\u003e7\u003c/day\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eTypes, sources, and claims of COVID-19 misinformation\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eReuters Institute for the Study of Journalism\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/types-sources-and-claims-covid-19-misinformation\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003c/ref-list\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003csec id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_s_003\"\u003e\u003ctitle/\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003e\u003citalic\u003eArjen van Dalen, Helle Svensson, Antonis Kalogeropoulos, Erik Albæk, \u0026amp; Claes H. de Vreese\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eEconomic News: Informing the Inattentive Audience\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cbold\u003eNew York: Routledge, 2019, 214 pp.\u003c/bold\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003cinline-graphic xmlns:xlink=\"http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink\" xlink:href=\"graphic/j_nor-2020-0023_ingr_003.png\"/\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eEconomic News: Informing the Inattentive Audience\u003c/italic\u003e is a highly interesting book that covers an underresearched area. Despite the fact that numerous analyses have already been made of the media coverage of the economy (for an excellent review, see \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_005\"\u003eDamstra et al., 2018\u003c/a\u003e), the audience – or the media users of economic news – does in general, however, receive far too little attention in research, as already observed by \u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_008\"\u003eParker (1997)\u003c/a\u003e. Essentially, things haven’t changed since 1997, but van Dalen and his colleagues have made a brave attempt to close this gap by introducing and investigating the interesting phenomena of the inattentive audience to economic news – meaning neither the elite nor the opt-outs, but what in Danish is called ‘the grey mass’.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe book consists of eleven chapters, most of which have already been published in leading journals on media and journalism. According to the authors, however, there is a need for tying together these articles into a whole, in order to be “able to articulate the surprising finding of how mainstream media help the inattentive citizen in an economized world” (p. ix). By “economized world”, the authors refer to the fact that economy has a larger say than ever before on society at large, hence increasing the need for following and understanding the general development of the economy in order to be a competent voter, employee, and consumer.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe main result in the book is that media helps inattentive media users to form a “correct” perception of the performance of the economy. This causality seems to be even stronger when the economy is doing fine than when it is doing less well. This is a surprising result, as the main result in previous research has been to demonstrate a “bad-new-bias” (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_006\"\u003eKollmeyer, 2014\u003c/a\u003e) in how the media cover the economy, suggesting that media considers bad news to be the best news stories.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAnother interesting result is that what matters is not whether media actually helps users understand details of the general economic development or tricky concepts like structural unemployment or labour supply. Rather, it is more important to the inattentive audience that they get a general feeling of the general state of the economy they live in: is it going up or down? This result suggests – much to the surprise of this reader – that the media is doing a pretty good job at equipping weaker media users with adequate knowledge to navigate in an ever more complex society.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe authors suggest a couple of possible explanations for this surprising result. First of all, it does not require that much to sense the general state of the economy. Second, what the authors baptize the “mainstreaming” of economic news gives news consumers easier access than previously to create their own feeling of the state of the economy.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eBy “mainstreaming”, the authors imply that economic news stories become part of the general news stream by using the normal criteria of news value (identification and domestication, according to the authors; p. 2). This leads us to a third and complementary explanation: the financial crisis has accelerated the mainstreaming of economic news stories because it has increased the general interest in the state of the economy – even for the inattentive audience. And the mainstreaming has increased the interest of the public in economic news.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHowever, according to the authors, another interesting result contradicts this overall positive message: The media also makes media users more aware of how uncertain the current and future economic development is and will be. It is also shown that a sense of uncertainty makes the expectations of media users to the performance of the economy take a negative turn. As we might expect the future economy to become ever more uncertain, we might also expect the media to report this and, hence, become a current drag on the economy.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eOne of the strengths of the book is that the authors, in the conclusion, make a pressure test (“tryktest” in Danish) of their results. They admit – and try to defend – why social media has been invisible throughout the book. They even raise the discussion of whether a correct picture of how the economy is performing even exists.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThis last point also indicates a main weakness of the book: In essence, its ontology and epistemology are positivist, as it is essentially assumed that economists understand the economy, and as a consequence, it is also possible for media to present a “correct” picture of the state of the economy. And economists do not disagree or belong to different economic paradigms.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eHow we interpret the economy does, however, depend very much on the economic paradigm applied when the discussion comes to understanding the underlying reasons for the economic development, pinpointing problems or suggesting solutions to remedy these problems. Implicitly, the authors rely on the dominant New Keynesian economic paradigm without ever telling the readers about it. But the state of the economy is not just something factual – it has to be interpreted: which facts should be highlighted? Which should be ignored? What constitutes a major or a minor problem? When is something a possibility or a threat? Economics is not and will never become an objective science.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eThe other main weakness is that the reader is given the impression that, after having read the book, we now know something about the actual consumption of economic news. However, the evidence is at best flimsy. The empirical evidence of actual and individual consumption of economic news is, as in previous research, indicative. We know very little about which economic news stories are actually read, understood, and processed by individual news consumers. Hence, further research on a much more detailed and qualitative level is needed. One possible avenue of research is to use social media to gather data on the actual consumption of mainstream economic news by actual social media users of, for example, Twitter (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_009\"\u003eSoroka et al., 2017\u003c/a\u003e) or Facebook (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_007\"\u003eMadsen, 2018\u003c/a\u003e). Another possible avenue would be to observe individual consumption of economic news combined with qualitative in-depth interviews.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eAs it is now, research is too focused on content analysis of the media coverage of the economy and has an arm's length approach to the individual and actual consumption of economic news and the consequent and actual behaviour of individuals as voters, consumers, employees, and even employers. Nevertheless, by reading this book, one gets an excellent view of the state of art within this field and in addition, a lot of new empirical knowledge on the issues is presented to the reader.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003cp\u003eFinally, due to my vanity and the fact that we as researchers all too often draw on the work of others in a very superficial and even misleading way, which hinders progress in our joint knowledge of different societal phenomena, let me as an example note that my own work (\u003ca ref-type=\"bibr\" href=\"#j_nor-2020-0023_ref_007\"\u003eMadsen, 2018\u003c/a\u003e) is briefly mentioned in the conclusion (p. 157). According to van Dalen and colleagues, my paper apparently demonstrates that Facebook changes economic news. It would be more accurate to say that it describes and analyses which type of mainstream economics news Facebook users share, like, and comment upon. It is, furthmore, demonstrated that news about the business cycle does not attract much attention on Facebook. This result actually substantiates the notion of the inattentive audience.\u003c/p\u003e\n\u003clist list-type=\"simple\"\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003ePoul Thøis Madsen, PhD\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eAssociate professor, economist Danish School of Media and Journalism\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\n\u003clist-item\u003e\u003cp\u003e\u003citalic\u003eDenmark\u003c/italic\u003e\u003c/p\u003e\u003c/list-item\u003e\u003c/list\u003e\n\u003cref-list\u003e\u003cdiv\u003eReferences\u003c/div\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_005\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eDamstra, A., Boukes, M., \u0026amp; Vliegenthart, R. (2018). The economy. How do the media cover it and what are the effects? A literature review. \u003citalic\u003eSociology Compass\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003e12\u003c/italic\u003e(5), e12579. \u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12579\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eDamstra\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eA.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eBoukes\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eM.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eVliegenthart\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eR.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2018\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eThe economy. How do the media cover it and what are the effects? A literature review\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eSociology Compass\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e12\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cissue\u003e5\u003c/issue\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003ee12579\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1111/soc4.12579\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_006\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eKollmeyer, C. J. (2004). Corporate interests: How news media portray the economy. \u003citalic\u003eSocial Problems\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003e51\u003c/italic\u003e(3), 432–452. \u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2004.51.3.432\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eKollmeyer\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eC. J.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2004\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eCorporate interests: How news media portray the economy\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eSocial Problems\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e51\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cissue\u003e3\u003c/issue\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e432\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e452\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2004.51.3.432\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_007\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eMadsen, P. T. (2018). Økonominyheder på Facebook: Er usikkerhed på arbejdsmarkedet og fordelingen af samfundskagen vigtigere end konjunkturer? [Financial news on Facebook: Is labor market uncertainty and the distribution of the social pie more important than economic conditions?] \u003citalic\u003eJournalistica\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003e1\u003c/italic\u003e, 78–94. \u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.7146/journalistica.v12i1.105542\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eMadsen\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eP. T.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2018\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eØkonominyheder på Facebook: Er usikkerhed på arbejdsmarkedet og fordelingen af samfundskagen vigtigere end konjunkturer? [Financial news on Facebook: Is labor market uncertainty and the distribution of the social pie more important than economic conditions?]\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eJournalistica\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e1\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e78\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e94\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.7146/journalistica.v12i1.105542\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_008\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eParker, R. (1997). Journalism and economics: The tangled webs of profession, narrative, and responsibility in a modern democracy [Discussion Paper D-25]. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Joan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government. \u003curi\u003ehttp://dev.shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/d25_parker.pdf\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"book\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eParker\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eR.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e1997\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eJournalism and economics: The tangled webs of profession, narrative, and responsibility in a modern democracy [Discussion Paper D-25]\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-loc\u003eCambridge, Massachusetts\u003c/publisher-loc\u003e\n\u003cpublisher-name\u003eJoan Shorenstein Center on the Press, Politics, and Public Policy, Harvard University, John F. Kennedy School of Government\u003c/publisher-name\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttp://dev.shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/d25_parker.pdf\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003cref id=\"j_nor-2020-0023_ref_009\"\u003e\n\u003cmixed-citation\u003eSoroka S., Daku, M., Hiaeshutter-Rice, D., Guggenheim, L., \u0026amp; Pasek J. (2017). Negativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media. \u003citalic\u003eCommunication Research\u003c/italic\u003e, \u003citalic\u003e45\u003c/italic\u003e(7), 1078–1098. \u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1177/0093650217725870\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/mixed-citation\u003e\n\u003celement-citation publication-type=\"journal\" publication-format=\"print\"\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eSoroka\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eS.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eDaku\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eM.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eHiaeshutter-Rice\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eD.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003eGuggenheim\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eL.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cname\u003e\u003csurname\u003ePasek\u003c/surname\u003e\u003cgiven-names\u003eJ.\u003c/given-names\u003e\u003c/name\u003e\n\u003cyear\u003e2017\u003c/year\u003e\n\u003carticle-title\u003eNegativity and positivity biases in economic news coverage: Traditional versus social media\u003c/article-title\u003e\n\u003csource\u003eCommunication Research\u003c/source\u003e\n\u003cvolume\u003e45\u003c/volume\u003e\n\u003cissue\u003e7\u003c/issue\u003e\n\u003cfpage\u003e1078\u003c/fpage\u003e\n\u003clpage\u003e1098\u003c/lpage\u003e\n\u003ccomment\u003e\u003curi\u003ehttps://doi.org/10.1177/0093650217725870\u003c/uri\u003e\u003c/comment\u003e\n\u003c/element-citation\u003e\n\u003c/ref\u003e\n\u003c/ref-list\u003e\n\u003c/sec\u003e\n\u003c/div\u003e","keywords":[],"recentIssues":{"10.2478/nor-2021-0024":"\u003carticle-title\u003eClass struggle in the era of post-politics: Representing the Swedish port conflict in the news media\u003c/article-title\u003e","10.2478/nor-2021-0023":"\u003carticle-title\u003eIntroduction: Class in/and the media: On the importance of class in media and communication studies\u003c/article-title\u003e","10.2478/nor-2021-0026":"\u003carticle-title\u003eInterpolations of class, “race”, and politics: Denmark's Jyllands-Posten and its coverage of Greek national elections during the “Greek 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This includes research on the Nordic countries as well as research with relevance for the Nordic context.  \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e publishes original articles and book reviews on topics such as journalism, popular culture, media audiences, media history, political communication, public service media, media and information literacy, media education, and media production, structure, policy and economy. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cEM\u003eNordicom Review\u003c/EM\u003e welcomes interdisciplinary submissions from a worldwide authorship, including both empirical and theoretical articles. \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003e\u003cSTRONG\u003eArchiving\u003c/STRONG\u003e \u003c/P\u003e \u003cP\u003eSciendo archives the contents of this journal in \u003cA href=\"https://www.portico.org/\"\u003ePortico\u003c/A\u003e - digital long-term preservation service of scholarly books, journals and collections. \u003c/P\u003e\u003c/DIV\u003e"}]}},"PublishingDetail":{"PublishingStatus":"04","PublishingDate":{"publishDate":"2013-03-01T00:00:00.000+00:00","PublishingDateRole":"11","Date":{"dateformat":"00","content":20130301}},"CopyrightStatement":null},"ProductSupply":[{"isbnForFormat":null,"formatType":"PDF","licenseType":null,"license":null,"SupplyDetail":{"Supplier":{"SupplierRole":"09","SupplierName":"Sciendo"},"ProductAvailability":"20","Price":null}}]},"coverBg":"/subjectImages/Social_Sciences.jpg","_nextI18Next":{"initialI18nStore":{"en":{"common":{"aboutSciendo":"About Sciendo","ourBrochures":"Our Brochures","Journal":"Journal","Journal \u0026 Issue Details":"Journal \u0026 Issue Details","Abstract":"Abstract","Article":"Article","PDF Preview":"PDF Preview","Figures \u0026 Tables":"Figures \u0026 Tables","References":"References","Supplement":"Supplement","Supplementary Material Details":"Supplementary Material Details","Recent Articles":"Recent Articles","Journal \u0026 Issues":"Journal \u0026 Issues","Published Online":"Published Online","Recieved":"Received","Accepted":"Accepted","Download PDF":"Download PDF","Format":"Format","firstPublished":" First Published","publicationTimeframe":" Publication timeframe","Languages":" Languages","Copyright":" Copyright","home":"Home","Details":"Details","First Published":"First Published","Pages":"Pages","Illustration":"Illustration","PaperBack":"PaperBack","Book Subjects":"Book Subjects","Books":"Books","Details \u0026 Formats":"Details \u0026 Formats","Overview":"Overview","Authors":" Authors ","Table of Contents":" Table of Contents ","Download Chapter PDF":" Download Chapter PDF ","Download Book PDF":" Download Book PDF ","Download ePub":" Download ePub ","Chapter":" Chapter ","Book Details":" Book Details ","Published Online on":"Published Online on","publishWithUs":"Publish with us","latestNews":"Latest News","contacts":"Contacts","terms":"Terms","privacy":"Privacy","contact":"Contact","footer_deGruyter":"\u003c0\u003eSciendo is a\u003c/0\u003e \u003c2\u003eDe Gruyter company\u003c/2\u003e","ourPartners":"Our partners:","home_title":"Your publishing needs met","subjects":"Subjects","selectedJournalAndBook":"Selected journals and books","selectedJournalAndBooks":"\u003c0\u003eSelected journals and books\u003c/0\u003e","Journal Details":" Journal Details ","Publication timeframe":" Publication timeframe ","Search":" Search ","Search within Journal..":" Search within Journal.. 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We can publish them both in the Open Access and in traditional ( paid access) models. We currently publish journals in the English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Polish languages.","journals.second":"We have a special offer for universities and other organizations to publish their journals, books and other publications. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e","journals.third":" Please download the \u003c1\u003ebrochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information. Please contact our representative for your territory, to meet and discuss the terms.","journals.fourth":"The content is available here \u003c1\u003ehttps://content.sciendo.com/\u003c/1\u003e","journals.fifth":"\u003c0\u003eIMPACT FACTORS 2019\u003c/0\u003e","books.first":"Sciendo can meet all publishing needs for authors of academic and professional books in the English language. We publish monographs, textbooks, edited volumes, and other book types. Our customers have the choice between offering the Open Access for the electronic version of their books, or for the book to be distributed via traditional commercial methods.","books.second":"\u003c0\u003eWe also publish books for institutions. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.third":"\u003c0\u003eFor Self-Publishing Books, \u003c1\u003eclick here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","books.fourth":"\u003c0\u003eFor Full-Publishing Books, \u003c1\u003eclick here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","selfPublishingContent.first":"Often authors (and sometimes organizations too) would like to be able to publish their books their way. They do not want a publisher's editor to impose any changes in the text or to organize the text differently. They want the layout and the font to be a certain way. They have their own vision of the book cover. And — if they believe the book can sell well — they would like to receive a significant part of the sales revenues.","selfPublishingContent.second":"If you supply a ready-made publishable eBook file, we can host, distribute, sell and promote your book free of any charge. \u003c1\u003eYou will receive 70% of net revenues from the book sales.\u003c/1\u003e In addition, you have the option of choosing some of our paid services, including eBook formatting.","selfPublishingContent.third":"To see the complete list of publishing services and solutions that Sciendo offers to Self-publishing authors, as well as the relevant fees, \u003c1\u003eregister here\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fourth":"To learn more about these services, please contact Magdalena Cal, Customer Service Manager at \u003c1\u003emagdalena.cal@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e","selfPublishingContent.fifth":"You can also \u003c1\u003edownload the Self-Publishing brochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information.","fullPublishingContent.first":"Sciendo publishes books from universities, research institutes, academies of sciences, learned societies and other organizations. We offer both the Open Access and traditional (paid access) models. The following rules also apply to individual authors whose institutions are willing to pay the publishing fees for the publication of their books.","fullPublishingContent.second":"\u003c0\u003eWe have a special offer for universities and other organizations to publish all or some of their English language journals, books and other publications. \u003c1\u003eSee more here.\u003c/1\u003e\u003c/0\u003e","fullPublishingContent.third":"The services and solutions that we offer are bundled into three packages: Standard, Classic and Premier. These packages range from standard components required for publication to a full-service package and a hybrid between “basic” and “full-service”. We charge for each book published, the charge is dependent on the package and any additional services and solutions are chosen.","fullPublishingContent.fourth":"The table shows the key components of each package. Sciendo would be delighted to offer the services shown in the chart below to books whose publication is financed by institutions.","fullPublishingContent.fifth":"Institutions and authors interested in learning more about the services and relevant charges should \u003c1\u003econtact our representative\u003c/1\u003e for their territory, to meet and discuss the terms.","conferenceServices.first":"If you would like to learn more about these services, please contact Sales \u0026 Publishing Specialist — Services for conference organizers: \u003c1\u003ealexandru.vlad@sciendo.com\u003c/1\u003e or call directly \u003c3\u003e+44 2086388130\u003c/3\u003e.","conferenceServices.second":"Sciendo is the only company in the world that meets the two most important needs of an academic conference organizer. As well as publishing conference proceedings, we can also provide the organizer with one of the world's best event management systems. We have partnered with Cvent and Converia.","conferenceServices.third":"We can publish your conference proceedings and optionally provide you with the event management systems. We publish conference proceedings online using the Open Access model. Printed copies can be bought online. We currently publish proceedings in English language only.","conferenceServices.fourth":"The services and solutions that we offer for conference proceedings are bundled into three packages: \u003c1\u003eStandard\u003c/1\u003e, \u003c3\u003eClassic\u003c/3\u003e and \u003c5\u003ePremier\u003c/5\u003e. We charge for each paper published and the charge depends on the package and any additional services and solutions you choose.","conferenceServices.fifth":"The diagram shows the key components of each package.","conferenceServices.sixth":"Sciendo would be delighted to publish your conference proceedings and provide event management systems for your conference. Please refer to the services shown in the chart above and \u003c1\u003edownload the brochure\u003c/1\u003e for more information.","whiteLabelContent.first":"Sciendo has a special offer for universities and other organizations that are seeking a partner to publish all or some of their English, German, French, Spanish, Italian and Polish languages journals, books and other publications. This applies to new publications and to previously published books and back journal volumes. We publish monographs, textbooks, edited volumes, and other categories.","whiteLabelContent.second":"The university can decide if a given journal or book is published using the Open Access or paid access model. All books and journal articles bear both the university and the Sciendo logos.","whiteLabelContent.third":"At no cost to the university, Sciendo will design, produce and manage the website of this publishing house. The role of the university is to select and channel books and book proposals for this publishing co-operation, as well as to promote this publishing opportunity to its faculty.","whiteLabelContent.fourth":"The university can decide which package of services applies to each journal and book. Such packages are described in the pages for \u003c1\u003ejournals\u003c/1\u003e and \u003c3\u003ebooks\u003c/3\u003e. \u003c5\u003eIf the value of the contract exceeds an agreed amount, the university can enjoy discounts up to 60% on standard fees.\u003c/5\u003e","whiteLabelContent.fifth":"Please \u003c1\u003econtact our representative\u003c/1\u003e for your territory to meet and discuss the terms of the White Label Publishing House offer.","publish_solution":"Publishing solutions for Journals,\u003c1\u003e\u003c/1\u003eBooks and Conference proceedings","sortBy":"Sort By","filterBy":"Filter By","filters":"Filters","Book Keywords":" Book Keywords ","Series":" Series ","pageRange":"Page range:","forAuthors":"For Authors","articleAbstract":"Abstract"}}},"initialLocale":"en","userConfig":{"i18n":{"defaultLocale":"en","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"]},"default":{"i18n":{"defaultLocale":"en","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"]}}}}},"__N_SSP":true},"page":"/article/[...doi]","query":{"doi":["10.2478","nor-2020-0023"]},"buildId":"Z2KxiJHCV62aNRtoRKSCd","isFallback":false,"gssp":true,"locale":"en","locales":["en","de","es","fr","it","pl"],"defaultLocale":"en"}</script><script nomodule="" src="/_next/static/chunks/polyfills-8c65bf9747452564f044.js"></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/webpack-e525b0019fa7810dd27a.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/framework.f18e6f416ebc8f9cfbb1.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/189da1226834ad3a7805a90e6c162858de26fc11.cb1a49b749d0ed52c2ac.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/main-55039a9965558fa8359a.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/b637e9a5.5a6c448d8e18c200b9cf.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/a9a7754c.dded6829efeffda1cbef.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/197238b4a0fe6b31be542c15ee6e919ed02260b2.4647bb42449b57b4051c.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/b19d00304e9e5e3d0a7306c54b9b949eef8fe388.14fa7966579da7f65786.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/5271b609dfcb4c3e8765f9abe15d74ae592f2a24.f54b523d117e3d994a82.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/10fd23d5abd578c311ef6f05e70f35e1a2c5fde7.1d2d553d513ed52434fe.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/pages/_app-6554d49defce19279241.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/cb1608f2.35f5eba297fdf54e823d.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/2b7b2d2a.43500e5aa0472c3cf854.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/f14b84d52158d34d5493f57c4feae32133b90e49.17bc1af6e531a332ad12.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/2c6bc7505d9f1317e404fdb96115c88f40c26e27.1eb650eecf35e1760303.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/1b310c3c4559484e9ada346b63671681b5739cfb.187169c77c88b8f0b1f4.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/a41a2396026beeb40325eeb2b4ca55e108135fce.8c5c8f130ec60c2cd0c9.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/4dc146ed9ebd94d3e58490727a953f0e2bd00c76.525e76c63a6b936bf554.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/d5a2976f96529438ab356eb322041e6bea74f6be.571e6c09244468fdb801.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/60ed41671579f03a9c543c8d7be986199ee19d13_CSS.eaf58be72fcea85e662f.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/chunks/pages/article/%5B...doi%5D-12e253ee21024e6906a7.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/Z2KxiJHCV62aNRtoRKSCd/_buildManifest.js" async=""></script><script src="/_next/static/Z2KxiJHCV62aNRtoRKSCd/_ssgManifest.js" async=""></script></body></html>