1. bookVolume 52 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
05 Feb 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
access type Open Access

Evidence of amorphous Ca-phosphate precipitate caused by bio mineralisation in 4-5th CE lime plasters of the previously submerged east coastal monument of Salvankuppam

Published Online: 18 Feb 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 52 (2021) - Issue 1 (January 2021)
Page range: 19 - 30
Received: 03 Aug 2021
Accepted: 30 Jan 2022
Journal Details
First Published
05 Feb 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year

The lime plasters of the excavated monument of Salvankuppam, previously submerged and exposed by the Tsunami occurred in the Indian Ocean on 26th December 2004 was studied with different analytical techniques. The temple is dated 4-5th century CE. The XRF, XRD, FTIR, NMR, SEM-EDX analysis of the lime plasters evidenced particular occurrence of phosphatised bacterial remains in saline conditions. The formation of amorphous Ca-phosphate by bio mineralization was identified in the plasters by the analyses. The plasters are made of air-lime with coarse aggregates and seashells inclusion as confirmed by the thermal and chemical analysis. The microstructure and morphological investigations of mineralized microbial structures by SEM-EDX indicated the formation of amorphous Ca-phosphate. The unordered and fibrous spherulites have hardened and reduced porosity of the plaster by bio mineralization as observed through MIP analysis. The 16S rRNA sequencing has identified the Pseudomonas strains mainly responsible for the clustering of amorphous Ca-phosphate particles around the bacterial colony.


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