1. bookVolume 6 (2014): Issue 4-1 (December 2014)
    Part I
Journal Details
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Consumer in Sports: Fan typology analysis

Published Online: 25 Aug 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 6 (2014) - Issue 4-1 (December 2014) - Part I
Page range: 263 - 288
Journal Details
First Published
25 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Sport fan loyalty is important to attain within a culturally rich and global audience as loyal sport fans are unique consumers. The ability to adequately understand what motivates the sports consumer is an important requirement for sport managers. This paper proposes that a greater understanding of fandom will contribute to a better understanding of the concept of loyalty. Although there is research regarding typology of fans and loyalty, but even within sport advocates group there may be sub-categories that can explain loyalty behaviour further. This research analyses types of sport fans in different disciplines in the UK, as an example of diverse society to explore factors determining category of fans.


Amine, A. (1988) ‘Consumers’ true brand loyalty: The central role of commitment’, Journal of Strategic Marketing, vol. 6, pp. 305-31910.1080/096525498346577Search in Google Scholar

Aaker, D. (1994) ‘Building a brand: The Saturn Story’, California Management Review, vol. 36, no. 14Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, E.W. (1998) ‘Customer satisfaction and word of mouth’, Journal of Service Research, vol. 1, pp. 5 - 1710.1177/109467059800100102Search in Google Scholar

Apostolopoulou, A. (2002) ‘Brand extensions by U.S. professional sport teams. Motivations and keys to Success’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 11, pp. 205-214Search in Google Scholar

Ashby, J.S., and Rice, K.G. (2002) ‘Perfectionism, Dysfunctional Attitudes, Self-Esteem: A structural Equations Analysis’, Journal of Counselling and Development, vol. 80, no 210.1002/j.1556-6678.2002.tb00183.xSearch in Google Scholar

Aveni, A.F. (1977) ‘The-not-so-lonely crowd. Friendship groups in collective behaviour’, Sociometry, vol. 40, pp. 96-9910.2307/3033551Search in Google Scholar

Ball, A.D. and Taski, L.H. (1992). ‘The role and measurement af attachment in consumer behaviour’, Journal of Consumer Psychology, vol. 1 no. 2, pp. 155-7210.1207/s15327663jcp0102_04Search in Google Scholar

Backman, S.J., and Crompton, J.L. (1991) ‘Using loyalty matrix to differientiate between high, spurious, latent and loyal participants in two lesuire services’, Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, vol. 9, pp. 1-17Search in Google Scholar

Bandyopadhyay, S. and Bottone, M. (1997) ‘Playing to win’, Marketing Management. Spring, pp. 9-19Search in Google Scholar

Beatty, S.E., and Kahle, L.R. (1988) ‘Alternative hierarchy off the attitude behaviour relationship: the impact of brand commitment and habit’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 16, pp. 1-1010.1007/BF02723310Search in Google Scholar

Bech, P. (1994) ‘Measurement by observations of aggressive behaviour and activities in clinical situations’, Criminal Behaviour and Mental Health, vol. 4, pp. 290-30210.1002/cbm.1994.4.4.290Search in Google Scholar

Beisser, A. R. (1967) The madness in sports: Psychosocial observations on sports, New York: Warner Brooks.Search in Google Scholar

Belk, R.W. (2004) ‘Men and Their Machines’, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 31, pp. 273-278Search in Google Scholar

Branscombe, N.R., and Wann, D.L. (1991) ‘He positive social and self concept consequences of sports team identification’, Journal of Sports and Social Issues, vol. 15, pp. 115-12710.1177/019372359101500202Search in Google Scholar

Bristow, D.N., Sebastian R.J. (2001) ‘Holy Cow! Wait ‘til next year! A Closer Look at the Brand Loyalty of Chicago Cubs Baseball Fans’. Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 256-275Search in Google Scholar

Brooks, C.M. (1994) Sport Marketing: Competitive business strategies for sports. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.Search in Google Scholar

Bryant, J. (1989) Viewers’ enjoyment of televised sports violence. In. L.A. Wenner (ED), Media, Sports, and Society (pp. 270-289). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Bryant, J., Brown, D., Comisky, P.W., and Zillman, D. (1982) ‘Sports and spectators: Commentary and appreciation’, Journal of Communication, vol. 32, pp. 109-11910.1111/j.1460-2466.1982.tb00482.xSearch in Google Scholar

Chadwick, S., and Clowes, J. (1998) ‘The use of extension strategies by clubs in the English Football Premier League’, Managing Leisure, vol. 3, pp. 194-20310.1080/136067198375978Search in Google Scholar

Christopher, M., Payne, A., and Ballantyne, D. (1991) Relationship Marketing, Sydney: Butterworth- Heinemann Cialdini, R.B., Borden, R. J., Thirne, A., Walker, M.R., Freeman, S., and Sloan, L. R. (1976) ‘Basking in reflected glory: three (football) field studies’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 34, pp. 366-37510.1037/0022-3514.34.3.366Search in Google Scholar

Cova, B., Cova, V. (2002) ‘Tribal Marketing: the tribalisation of society and its impact on the conduct of marketing’, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36, no. 5/6, pp. 595-62010.1108/03090560210423023Search in Google Scholar

DeSchriver, T.D., and Jenson, P.D. (2002) ‘Determinants of spectator attendance at NCAA divison 11 football contests’, Journal of Sport Management, vol. 16, pp. 311-33010.1123/jsm.16.4.311Search in Google Scholar

Dietz-Uhler, B., Harrick, E.A., End, C., and Jaquemotte, L. (2000) ‘Sex difference in sport fan behaviour and reasons for being a sport fan’, Journal of Sport Behaviour, vol. 23, pp. 219-232Search in Google Scholar

Doss, E. L., (1999) Elvis Culture: Fans, Faith & Image, University Press of Kansas: Kansas.Search in Google Scholar

Eastman , S.T., and Land, A.M. (1997) ‘The best of both worlds: Sports fans find good seats at the bar’, Journal of Sports & Social Issues, vol. 21, pp. 156-17810.1177/019372397021002004Search in Google Scholar

Elias, N., and Dunnung, E. (1970) The quest for excitement in unexciting societies. In G. Luschen (ED.), The cross-cultural analysis of sport and games. Champaign, IL; Stipes.Search in Google Scholar

Evaggelinou, C., and Grekinis, D. (1988) ‘A survey of spectators at the International Stoke Mandeville Wheelchair Games’, Adapted Physical Education Quarterly, vol. 15, pp. 25-35Search in Google Scholar

Ferrand, A., and Pages, M. (1996) ‘Football supporter involvement: Explaining football match loyalty’, European Journal for Sports Management, vol. 3, no. 10, pp. 7-20Search in Google Scholar

Fink, J.S., Trail, G.T., & Anderson, D.F. (2003) ‘Environmental factors associated with spectator attendance and sport consumption behaviour: Gender and team differences’. Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 11, pp. 8-19Search in Google Scholar

Fisher, R.J., & Wakefield, K. (1998) ‘Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and losers’, Psychology & Marketing, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 23-4010.1002/(SICI)1520-6793(199801)15:1<23::AID-MAR3>3.0.CO;2-PSearch in Google Scholar

Fiske, S.T. and Taylor, S.E. (1984) Social Cognition, Addison-Wesley Publishing: Reading, MA.Search in Google Scholar

Fournier, S. (1998) ‘Consumers and their brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 22, pp. 343-37310.1086/209515Search in Google Scholar

Fournier, S., Yao, J.L. (1997) ‘Reviving brand loyalty: A reconceptualization within the framework of consumer - brand relationships’, International Journal of Research in Marketing, vol. 14, pp. 451-47210.1016/S0167-8116(97)00021-9Search in Google Scholar

Fournier, S. (1998) ‘Consumers and their brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 22, pp. 343-37310.1086/209515Search in Google Scholar

Funk, D.C. (1998) Fan Loyalty: The Structure and Stability of an Individual’s Loyalty toward an Athletic Team. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Columbous: Ohio State University Funk, D.C., and James, J.D (2001) ‘The Psychological Continuum Model: A conceptual framework for understanding an individual’s psychological connection to sport’, Sport Management Review, vol. 4, pp. 119-15010.1016/S1441-3523(01)70072-1Search in Google Scholar

Funk, D.C., Mahony, D.F., & Ridinger, L.L. (2002) ‘Characterizing consumer motivation as individual difference factors: Augmenting the sport interest inventory (SII) to explain levels of spectator sport’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 11, pp. 33-43Search in Google Scholar

Funk, D.C., & Pastore, D.L. (2000). ‘Equating attitudes to allegiance: The usefulness of selected attitudinal information in segmenting loyalty to professional sports teams’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 9, pp. 175-184Search in Google Scholar

Gantz, W. (1981) ‘An exploration of viewing motives and behaviours associated with television sports’, Journal of Broadcasting, vol. 25, pp. 263-27510.1080/08838158109386450Search in Google Scholar

Gantz, W., and Wenner, L.A. (1995) ‘Fanship and television sports viewing experience’, Sociology of Sports Journal, vol. 12, pp. 56-7410.1123/ssj.12.1.56Search in Google Scholar

Gmelch, G., and San Antonio, P.M. (1998) ‘Groupies and American baseball’, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, vol. 22, pp. 32-4510.1177/019372398022001004Search in Google Scholar

Gibson, H.,Willming, C., Holdnak, A. (2002) ‘We’re Gators… Not Just Gator Fans: Serious Leisure’, University of Florida Football.10.1080/00222216.2002.11949979Search in Google Scholar

Gladden, J.M., and Funk, D.C. (2001) ‘Developing an understanding of brand associations in the team sport: empirical evidence from consumers of professional sport’, Journal of Sport Management, vol. 16, no. 1, pp. 54-8110.1123/jsm.16.1.54Search in Google Scholar

Gladden, J.M. & Milne, G.R. (1998) ‘Examining the importance of brand equity in professional sports’, Sports Marketing Quarterly, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 21-29Search in Google Scholar

Grove, J.R., Hanrahan, S.J., & McInman, A. (1991) ‘Success/failure bias in attributions across involvement categories in sport’, Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 17, pp. 93-9710.1177/0146167291171014Search in Google Scholar

Grove, S., Pickett, G., Jones, S., Dorsch, M. (2012) ‘Spectator Rage as the dark side of Engaging Sport Fans: Implications for Service Marketers’, Journal for Service Research, vol. 2012, pp. 1-1810.1177/1094670511428166Search in Google Scholar

Guttmann, A. (1986) Sports spectators, New York: Columbia University Press Hansen, H., and Gauthier, R. (1989). ‘A means -ends chain model based on consumer categorization processes’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 60-7210.1177/002224298204600207Search in Google Scholar

Homburg, C., & Giering, A. (1999) The measurement of brand satisfaction and brand loyalty. Modern Brand Management: Fundamentals, new approaches, implementation, Germany: Gabler.Search in Google Scholar

Hirt, E.R., Zillmann, D., Erickson, G.A., and Kennedy, C. (1992) ‘Costs and benefits of allegiance: Changes in fans’ self-ascribed competencies after team victory versus defeat’, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, vol. 63, pp. 724-73810.1037/0022-3514.63.5.724Search in Google Scholar

Huffman, C., Ratneshwar, S., Mick, D.G. (2000) Consumer goal structures and gold-determination processes: An integrative framework, in Ratneshwar, S., Mick, D. G., Huffman, C., (2000) The Why of Consumption: Contemporary Perspectives on Consumer Motives, Goals, and Desires, Routledge: London & New York. Hugenberg, B., (2002) ‘Communicatively Constructed Stakeholder Idenity: A Critical Ethnography of Cleveland Browns Fan Culture’. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Bowling Green: Bowling Green State University.Search in Google Scholar

Hunt, K. A., Bristol, T., Bashaw, E.R. (1999) ‘A Conceptual Approach to Classifying Sports Fans’, Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 439-45210.1108/08876049910298720Search in Google Scholar

Jacoby, J., and Kyner, D.B. (1973) ‘Brand loyalty vs. Repeat purchasing behaviour’, Journal of Marketing Research, vol. 10, pp. 1-910.1177/002224377301000101Search in Google Scholar

Jamber, E.A. (1999) ‘Parent as children’s socializing agents in youth soccer’, Journal of Sports Behaviour, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 350-359Search in Google Scholar

James, J.D., (1997) Becoming a sports fan: understanding cognitive development and socialization in the development of fan loyalty. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertaion. Columbus: The Ohio State University Jones, I. (1997) ‘A further examination of the factors influencing current identification with a sports team’, a response to Wann et al (1996) ‘Perceptual and Motor Skills’, vol. 85, pp. 257-8Search in Google Scholar

Kahle, L.R., Kambara, K.M., Rose, G. (1996) ‘A function model of fan attendance motivations for college football’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 51-60.Search in Google Scholar

Keaton, S. and Gearhart, C. (2014) ‘Identity formation, identity strength and self-categorisation as predictors of affective and psychological outcomes’, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 363-385Search in Google Scholar

Koivula, N. (1999) ‘Sport participation: Differences in motivation and actual participation due to gender typing’, Journal of Sports Behaviour, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 360-380Search in Google Scholar

Kozinets, R.V. (2001) ‘Utopian Enterprise: Articulating the Meaning Star Trek’s Culture of Consumption’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 24, pp. 479-475Search in Google Scholar

Keaveney, S.M., & Hunt, K.A. (1992) ‘Conceptualization and operationalization of retail store image: a case of rival middle - level theories’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 15, pp. 165-7610.1007/BF02723456Search in Google Scholar

LeUnes, A.D., & Nation, J.R. (1989) Sport Psychology; An introduction. Chicago: Nelson-Hall Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Madrigal, R. (1995) ‘Cognitive and affective determinants of fan satisfaction with sporting event attendance’, Journal of Leisure Research, vol. 27, pp. 205-22710.1080/00222216.1995.11949745Search in Google Scholar

Madrigal, R. & Howard, D.R. (1999) Measuring the multidimensional nature of spectators’ attraction to sports events, International Journal of Sport Management, vol. 1, pp. 154-180Search in Google Scholar

Mahony, D.F., Madrigal, R., & Howard, D. (2000) ‘Using the psychological commitment to a team (PCT) scale to segment sport consumer based loyalty’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 9, pp. 15-25Search in Google Scholar

Mann, L. (1974) ‘On being a sore loser: How fans react to their team’s failure’, Australian Journal of Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 37-4710.1080/00049537408254634Search in Google Scholar

Mann, L. (1969) ‘Queue culture: the waiting line as a social system’, American Journal of Sociology, vol. 75, pp. 340-35410.1086/224787Search in Google Scholar

Mano, H., & Oliver, R.L. (1993) ‘Assessing the dimensionality and structure of the con- sumption experience: Evaluation, feeling, and satisfaction’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 20, pp. 451-46610.1086/209361Search in Google Scholar

Maslow, A.H. (1943) ‘A Theory of Human Motivation’, Psychological Review, vol. 50, pp. 370-39610.1037/h0054346Search in Google Scholar

Mechikoff. R.A. (1992) ‘Deep Fan: Mythic Identification, Technology and Advertising in Spectator Sports’, Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 9, no. 4. pp. 323-339Search in Google Scholar

Melnick, M. and Wann, D. (2011) ‘An examination of sport fandom in Australia: Socialisation, team identification and fan behaviour’, International Review for the Sociology of Sport, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 456-47010.1177/1012690210380582Search in Google Scholar

Meyer, J.P., & Allen, N.J. (1984) ‘Testing the side bet theory of organizational commitment: Some methodological considerations’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 69, pp. 372-37810.1037/0021-9010.69.3.372Search in Google Scholar

Muniz, A., O’Guinn, T.C., (2001) ‘Brand Community’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 27, pp. 412-43210.1086/319618Search in Google Scholar

McAlexander, J.H., Schouten, J.W., Koenig, H.F., (2002) ‘Building Brand Community’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 66, pp. 38-5410.1509/jmkg. in Google Scholar

Nash, R. (2002) ‘Contestation in Modern English Professional Football: The independent Supporters Association Movement’, International Review for the Sociolog y of Sport, vol.35, no. 4, pp. 465 - 48610.1177/101269000035004002Search in Google Scholar

Ngobo, P.V. (2004) ‘Drivers of customers cross - buying intentions’, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 38, pp. 1129-115710.1108/03090560410548906Search in Google Scholar

Oliver, R.L. (1999) ‘Whence Consumer Loyalty?’, Journal of Marketing, vol. 63, pp. 33-4410.1177/00222429990634s105Search in Google Scholar

O’Reilly, C. & Chatman, J. (1996) ‘Organizational commitment and psychological attachment: the effects of compliance, identification, and internalization on prosocial behaviour’, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 71, pp. 492-9910.1037/0021-9010.71.3.492Search in Google Scholar

Owen, D. (2013) Future Identities: Changing identities in the UK - the next 10 years, Government Office for Science Paffenbarger, R.S., & Lee, I. (1996) ‘Physical activity and fitness for health and longevity’, Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, vol. 67, no. 30, pp. 11-28Search in Google Scholar

Pan, D.W., Gabert, T.E., McGaugh, E.C., & Branvold, S.E. (1997) ‘Factors and differential demographic effects on purchases of season tickets for intercollegiate basketball games’, Journal of Sport Behaviour, vol. 20, pp. 447-464Search in Google Scholar

Pimentel, R. W., Reynolds, K.W., (2004) ‘A model for consumer devotion: affective commitment with proactive sustaining behaviour’, Academy of Marketing Science Review vol. 2004, no. 5, pp. 1-45Search in Google Scholar

Pritchard, M.P., Havitz, M.E., & Howard, D.R. (1999) ‘Analyzing the commitment -loyalty link in service contexts’, Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, vol. 27, pp. 333-34810.1177/0092070399273004Search in Google Scholar

Quick, S. (2000) ‘Contemporary sport consumers: some implications of linking fan typology with key spectator variables’, Sport Marketing Quarterly, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 149-156Search in Google Scholar

Quirk, K. (1997) Not now, honey, I’m watching the game. New York: Fireside. 217-227Search in Google Scholar

Rozanski, H.D., Baum A.G., Wolfsen, B.T., (1999) ‘Brand Zealots: Realizing the Full Value of Emotional Brand Loyalty’, Strategy+business, vol. 17, pp. 51-62Search in Google Scholar

Redden, J., & Steiner, C.J. (2000) ‘Fanatical consumers: towards a framework for research’, Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 322-33710.1108/07363760010335349Search in Google Scholar

Richin, M.C., & Bloch, P.H. (1986) ‘After the new wears off: The temporal context of product involvement’, Journal of Consumer Research, vol. 13, pp. 280-28510.1086/209067Search in Google Scholar

Rifkin, G., (1999) ‘How the Red Sox Touch All the Branding Bases’, Strategy and business, vol. 17, pp. 75-83Search in Google Scholar

Rinehart, R. (1996) ‘Dropping hierarchies: Toward the study of a contemporary sporting avant-garde’ Sociology of Sport Journal, vol. 13, pp. 159-17510.1123/ssj.13.2.159Search in Google Scholar

Ruiz, F. (2001) ‘The relationship between coginitive dissonance and helping behaviour’, Japanese Psychological Research, vol. 43. no. 310.1111/1468-5884.00160Search in Google Scholar

Sergeant, S.L., Zillmann, D., & Weaver, J. B.III. (1998) ‘The gender gap in the enjoyment of televised sports’, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, vol. 22, pp. 46-6410.1177/019372398022001005Search in Google Scholar

Sapolsky, B.S. (1980) ‘The effect of spectator disposition and suspense on the enjoyment of sport contests’, International Journal of Sport Psychology, vol. 11, pp. 1-10Search in Google Scholar

Shank, M.D., & Beasley, F.M. (1998) ‘Fan or Fanatic: refining measure of sports involvement’, Journal of Sports Behaviour, vol. 21, pp. 435-443Search in Google Scholar

Sjoestreoem, N., Eder, D.N., Malm, U., & Beskow, J. (2001) ‘Violence and its prediction at a psychiatric hospital’, European Psychiatry, vol. 16, pp. 459-46510.1016/S0924-9338(01)00607-1Search in Google Scholar

Sloan, L.R. (1989) ‘The Motive of Sports fans’. In J.D Goldstein (ED), Sports, games and play: Social and psychosocial viewpoints, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawarence Erlbaum Associates.Search in Google Scholar

Smith, G.J. (1988) ‘The Noble Sports Fan’, Journal of Sports & Social Issues, vol. 12, pp. 54-6510.1177/019372358801200105Search in Google Scholar

Snyder, C. R., Higgins, R.L., & Stuckhy R. J. (1983) Excuses: Masquerades in search of grace, New York: Wiley Interscience.Search in Google Scholar

Stebbons, R. (2010) New directions in theory and research of serious leisure. Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen Press.Search in Google Scholar

Sutton, W.A., McDonald, M.A., Milne,G.R., & Cimperman, J. (1997) ‘Creating and fostering fan identification in professional sports’, Sports Marketing Quarterly, vol. 6, no. 1997, pp. 15-22Search in Google Scholar

Su-Lin, G., Tuggle, C.A., Mitrook, M.A., Coussement, S. H., & Zillman, D. (1997) ‘The thrill of a close game: Who enjoys it and who doesn’t??’, Journal of Sport & Social Issues, vol. 21, pp. 53-6410.1177/019372397021001004Search in Google Scholar

Tapp, A., & Clowes, J. (2000) ‘From “Carefree Casuals” to “Professional Wanderers” Segmentation Possibilities for Football Supporters’, European Journal of Marketing, vol. 36, no. 11-12, pp. 45-59Search in Google Scholar

Tomasson, K. & Vaglum, P. (1996) ‘Psychopathology and alcohol consumption among treatments seeking alcoholics: a prospective study’, Addictions, vol. 91, pp. 1019-103010.1111/j.1360-0443.1996.tb03598.xSearch in Google Scholar

Trail, G. T., Robinson, M.J., & Gillentine, A.J., (2003) ‘Motives and points of attachment: Wakefield, K.L., and Wann. D.L. (2006) ‘An Examination of Dysfunctional Sports Fans: Method of Classification and Relationships with Problem Behaviours’, Journal of Leisure Research, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 168-18610.1080/00222216.2006.11950074Search in Google Scholar

Wann, D.L. (2006) ‘The causes and consequences of sport team identification’. In: A.A. Raney and J. Brayant, Editors, Handbook of Sports and Media, Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ Wann, D.L. and Branscombe, N.R. (1993) ‘Sports Fans: Measuring the Degree of Identification with their team’, International Journal of Sports Psychology, vol. 26, pp. 551-7Search in Google Scholar

Wann, D.L., Schrader, M. P., & Wilson, A. M. (1999) ‘Sport fan motivation: Questionnaire validation, comparison by sport, and relationship to athletic motivation’, Journal of Sport Behaviour, vol. 22, pp. 114-139Search in Google Scholar

Wann, D.L., Tucker, K., and Schrader, M. (1996) ‘An exploratory examination of the factors influencing the origination, continuation and cessation of identification with sports teams’, Perceptual and Motor Skills, vol. 82, pp. 995-100110.2466/pms.1996.82.3.995Search in Google Scholar

Whang, Y.O., Allen, J., Sahoury, N., Zhang, H., (2004) ‘Falling in love with a product: The Structure of a Romantic Consumer- Product Relationship’, Advances in Consumer Research, vol. 31, pp. 320-327Search in Google Scholar

Wann, D. L., & Dolan, T.J. (1994) ‘Attributions of highly identified sport spectators’, The Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 134, pp. 279-28610.1080/00224545.1994.9923013Search in Google Scholar

Wann, D.L., Melinick, M.J., Russell, G.W., & Pease, D.G. (2001) Sport fans: The psycholog y and social impact of spectators. New York: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Weiller, K.H., & Higgs, C.T. (1997) ‘Fandom in the 40’s: the integrating functions of All American Girls Professional Baseball League’, Journal of Sport Behaviour, vol. 20, pp. 211-231Search in Google Scholar

Weiss, M.R., & Duncan, S.C.(1992) ‘The relationship between physical competence and peer acceptance in the context of children’s sports participation’, Journal of Sports & Exercise Psychology, vol. 14, pp. 177-19110.1123/jsep.14.2.177Search in Google Scholar

Zillman, D., Bryant, J., & Sapolsky, B.S. (1989) ‘Enjoyment from sports spectatorship’. In J.H. Goldstein, Sports, games, and play: Social and psychological viewpoints. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Search in Google Scholar

Zuckerman, M. (1984) ‘Sensation-seeking: A comparative approach to a human behaviour’, The Behavioural and Brain Sciences, vol. 7, pp. 413-471 10.1017/S0140525X00018938Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo