1. bookVolume 20 (2021): Issue 1 (July 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1684-4769
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Validation of Velocity Measuring Devices in Velocity Based Strength Training

Published Online: 25 Sep 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 20 (2021) - Issue 1 (July 2021)
Page range: 106 - 118
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1684-4769
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

To control and monitor strength training with a barbell various systems are on the consumer market. They provide the user with information regarding velocity, acceleration and trajectory of the barbell. Some systems additionally calculate the 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) of exercises and use it to suggest individual intensities for future training. Three systems were tested: GymAware, PUSH Band 2.0 and Vmaxpro. The GymAware system bases on linear position transducers, PUSH Band 2.0 and Vmaxpro base on inertial measurement units. The aim of this paper was to determine the accuracy of the three systems with regard to the determination of the average velocity of each repetition of three barbell strength exercises (squat, barbell rowing, deadlift). The velocity data of the three systems were compared to a Vicon system using linear regression analyses and Bland-Altman-diagrams.

In the linear regression analyses the smallest coefficient of determination (R2.) in each exercise can be observed for PUSH Band 2.0. In the Bland-Altman diagrams the mean value of the differences in the average velocities is near zero for all systems and all exercises. PUSH Band 2.0 has the largest differences between the Limits of Agreement. For GymAware and Vmaxpro these differences are comparable.

Keywords

Askow, A.T., Stone, J. D., Arndts, D. J., King, A. C., Goto, S., Hannon, J. P., Garrison, J. C., Bothwell, J. M. Esposito, P. E., Jagim, A. R., Jones, M. T., Jennings, W., & Oliver, J. M. (2018). Validity and Reliability of a Commercially-Available Velocity and Power Testing Device. Sports. 2018, 6(4):170. doi:10.3390/sports604017010.3390/sports6040170631601830544687 Search in Google Scholar

Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Kuzdub, M., Poveda-Ortiz, P., & Campo-Vecino, J. D. (2016). Validity and Reliability of the PUSH Wearable Device to Measure Movement Velocity During the Back Squat Exercise. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 30(7), 1968-1974. doi:10.1519/JSC.000000000000128410.1519/JSC.000000000000128426670993 Search in Google Scholar

Balsalobre-Fernández, C., Marchante, D., Baz-Valle, E., Alonso-Molero, I., Jiménez, S. L., & Muñóz-López, M. (2017). Analysis of Wearable and Smartphone-Based Technologies for the Measurement of Barbell Velocity in Different Resistance Training Exercises. Frontiers in Physiology, 8:649. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.0064910.3389/fphys.2017.00649558139428894425 Search in Google Scholar

Banyard, H. G., Nosaka, K., Sato, K., & Haff, G. G. (2017). Validity of Various Methods for Determining Velocity, Force, and Power in the Back Squat, International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 12(9), 1170-1176.10.1123/ijspp.2016-062728182500 Search in Google Scholar

Bland, J. M., & Altman, D. G. (1999). Measuring agreement in method comparison studies. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 8(2), 135–160. https://doi.org/10.1177/09622802990080020410.1177/09622802990080020410501650 Search in Google Scholar

Blaumann & Meyer - Sports Technology UG (n.d.). Retrieved June 01, 2020, from https://vmaxpro.de/de/customers-and-partners/#/ Search in Google Scholar

Cronin, J. B., McNair, P. J., & Marshall, R.N. (2003). Force-velocity analysis of strength-training techniques and load: implications for training strategy and research. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 17, 148-155.10.1519/00124278-200302000-00023 Search in Google Scholar

Cronin, J. B., Jones, J. V., & Hagstrom, J. T. (2007). Kinematics and kinetics of the seated row and implications for conditioning. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(4), 1265-1270. Search in Google Scholar

Drinkwater, E. J., Pritchett, E. J., & Behm, D. G. (2007). Effect of Instability and Resistance on Unintentional Squat-Lifting Kinetics. International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2(4), 400-413.10.1123/ijspp.2.4.40019171958 Search in Google Scholar

González-Badillo, J. J., & Sánchez-Medina, L. (2010). Movement velocity as a measure of loading intensity in resistance training. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 347 – 352.10.1055/s-0030-124833320180176 Search in Google Scholar

GymAware (n.d.). Retrieved June 18, 2020, from https://gymaware.com/products/ Search in Google Scholar

Harries, J. (2014). The Acute Effect of Pre-event Lower Limb Massage and Warm Up on Explosive Power (Thesis). Cardiff Metropolitan University, Cardiff. Search in Google Scholar

Izquierdo, M., González-Badillo, J. J., Häkkinen, K., Ibáñez, J.,Kraemer, W. J., Altadill, A., Eslava, J., & Gorostiaga, E. M. (2006). Effect of loading on unintentional lifting velocity declines during single sets of repetitions to failure during upper and lower extremity muscle actions. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27, 718–724.10.1055/s-2005-87282516944400 Search in Google Scholar

Jidovtseff, B., Harris, N. K., Crielaard, J. M., & Cronin, J. B. (2011). Using the load-velocity relationship for 1RM prediction. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 25, 267-270.10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b62c5f19966589 Search in Google Scholar

Jovanović, M., & Flanagan, E. P. (2014). Researched applications of velocity based strength training. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning, 22(2), 58-69. Search in Google Scholar

Jovanovic, M., & Jukic, I. (2020). Within-Unit Reliability and Between-Units Agreement of the Commercially Available Linear Position Transducer and Barbell-Mounted Inertial Sensor to Measure Movement Velocity. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003776. Date of access Oct. 22th 2020.10.1519/JSC.0000000000003776 Search in Google Scholar

Koefoed, N., Lerche, M., Jensen, B. K., Kjær, P., Dam, S., Horslev, R., & Hansen, E. A. (2018). Peak Power Output in Loaded Jump Squat Exercise is Affected by Set Structure. International journal of exercise science, 11(1), 776–784. Search in Google Scholar

Lake, J., Augustus, S., Austin, K., Comfort, P., McMahon, J., Mundy, P., & Ha, G.G. (2019). The reliability and validity of the bar-mounted PUSH band TM 2.0 during bench press with moderate and heavy loads. Journal of Sports Sciences, 37 (23), 2685–2690. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2019.165670310.1080/02640414.2019.1656703 Search in Google Scholar

Lorenzetti, S., Lamparter, T., & Lüthy, F. (2017). Validity and reliability of simple measurement device to assess the velocity of the barbell during squats. BMC Research Notes, 10(1):707. doi:10.1186/s13104-017-3012-z10.1186/s13104-017-3012-z Search in Google Scholar

Mann, B. (2015). Velocity Based Training. Retrieved July 06, 2020, from https://www.elitefts.com/news/bryan-mann-talks-velocity-based-training/ Search in Google Scholar

PUSH Inc. (n.d.). Retrieved May 01, 2020, from http://www.trainwithpush.com/products/push-band. Search in Google Scholar

Richards, J. G. (1999). The measurement of human motion: A comparison of commercially available systems. Human movement science, 18(5), 589-602.10.1016/S0167-9457(99)00023-8 Search in Google Scholar

Sanchez-Medina, L., Perez, C. E., & Gonzalez-Badillo, J. J. (2010). Importance of the propulsive phase in strength assessment. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 31, 123 – 129.10.1055/s-0029-124281520222005 Search in Google Scholar

Sato, K., Beckham, G. K., Carroll, K., Bazyler, C., Sha, Z., & Haff, G. G. (2015). Validity of wireless device measuring velocity of resistance exercises. Journal of Trainology, 4(1), 15-18.10.17338/trainology.4.1_15 Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, S. W., Rogerson, D., Ruddock, A., & Barnes, A. (2020) The Effectiveness of Two Methods of Prescribing Load on Maximal Strength Development: A Systematic Review. Sports Medicine, 50, 919–938. doi.org/10.1007/s40279-019-01241-310.1007/s40279-019-01241-3714203631828736 Search in Google Scholar

Turner, T. (n.d.). Velocity Based Training for Maximum Strength. Retrieved July 06, 2020, from https://www.strengthofscience.com/articles/velocity-based-training-maximal-strength/ Search in Google Scholar

Vicon Motion Systems Ltd. (n.d.). Retrieved May 01, 2020, from http://www.vicon.com/products/camera-systems. Search in Google Scholar

Walker, O. (2017). Velocity Based Training. Retrieved July 06, 2020, from https://www.scienceforsport.com/velocity-based-training/ Search in Google Scholar

Youngson, J. (2010). Reliability and validity of the GymAware optical encoder to measure displacement data. Kinetic Performance Technology, 1-14. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo