Open Access

Are the Variations of the Vascular System in Neurology Underestimated ?


The spinal cord issues affect dogs and cats very commonly. The right diagnostics, therapy, and patient’s managements are challenging for almost all veterinarians. There exist many vascular anomalies such as: the vertebral arteries ectasia, hypoplasia and subclavian steal syndrome. These anomalies affect the patient’s neurological status directly. The modern diagnostic approaches (Computed Tomography [CT], and Magnetic Resonance Imaging [MRI]) help with the diagnosis of the vascular abnormalities of the spinal cord and various other vascular anomalies. The cervical part of the spinal cord is supplied with the spinal branches from the vertebral arteries. The vertebral arteries as the first branches arise separately from the subclavian artery and they exit the thoracic aperture and enter into the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra. The arterial system of dogs was studied in 14 dogs (carcasses), the average age of which was 7 years. The carcasses were divided into two groups: 11 dogs were studied by the corrosion casting method (Duracryl Plus) and 3 dogs were studied by contrast radiography (Urografin 76 %). We confirmed the standard origin and course of the left vertebral for all but one case. The right vertebral artery originated as an independent branch in 57.14 % of the cases; in the rest of them, we reported on the variability in origin and formation of inconstant branches. The formation of anastomoses was reported also. Our work contributed new information about the thoracic and cervical arterial system in dogs.

Publication timeframe:
4 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Life Sciences, Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Microbiology and Virology, Medicine, Veterinary Medicine