Laboratory rats are often used in experimental research of concern to human and veterinary medicine. There are several advantages of using rats as a scientific medium. In this study rats will be used as the scientific model as, previously discussed, they have proven their effectiveness in cardiovascular studies. The aim is to give a description of the cranial region, the head and neck of the rat as well as imaging of the vasculature of these regions to support the planning of surgical therapeutic methods to be applied to human and veterinary medical research. The research of the blood vessels morphology in anatomical studies is key to the prevention of ischemia during organ surgery. In recent times the laboratory rat has become one of the most popular models for experiments in medical research. Corrosion casts were prepared on the cranial arteries of the body of 20 adult Wistar rats using Duracryl Dental® and PUR SP as the casting medium. We found the absence of the brachiocephalic trunk in some cases. Thyroid arteries originated independently or by the short common trunk from the right and left common carotid artery. The facial artery originated by the short trunk with the maxillary artery, or by the linguofacial trunk with the lingual artery from the common carotid artery. The results of this study revealed that, the functional anatomical relationship between the rat neck and head structures are important for the development of medical research of concern to human and veterinary experimental medicine.