1. bookVolume 64 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7837
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Gross Morphology of the Cerebrum and Brainstem of the Adult African Grasscutter (Thryonomys Swinderianus—Temminck, 1827)

Published Online: 21 Dec 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 64 (2020) - Issue 4 (December 2020)
Page range: 63 - 70
Received: 06 Jul 2020
Accepted: 31 Oct 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7837
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

In order to meet the increasing protein and income demand in Africa due to the rapid population growth, wildlife, such as the African grasscutter, is currently bred and domesticated as microlivestock. This study is one of the series on the brain morphology of this very large rodent, aimed at providing information that is lacking in the literature. Here, the gross anatomy of the cerebrum and brainstem in nine adult African grasscutters is described. The cerebral cortex was smooth, devoid of gyri and sulci, thus, placing the rodent in the lissencephalic group of mammals. However, blood vessels on the cortex created arterial and venous impressions. The cortex was asymmetrically-tapered oval in shape. The rostral and caudal colliculi were exposed through the cerebral transverse fissure. The rostro-caudal extent of the corpus callosum was from the mid-point of the frontal and parietal lobes, to a point just rostral to the occipital lobe. The rostral colliculi were grossly smaller than the caudal colliculi. The occulomotor and trochlear nerves emerged from the ventral midbrain, rostral to the pons. The pons was exceptionally large; it was pre-trigeminal. On either side of the ventral median fissure of the medulla oblongata were conspicuous pyramids. The trapezoid bodies were also conspicuous. These, and other findings, will be useful in future phylogenetic comparison of rodent brain morphology.

Keywords

1. Auzel, P., Wilkie, D., 2000:Wildlife Use in Northern Congo: Hunting in a Commercial Logging Concession. Hunting for Sustainability in Tropical Forests. Columbia University Press, New York, 413—426.Search in Google Scholar

2. Bensley, B. A., 2009:Practical Anatomy of the Rabbit: An Elementary Laboratory Textbook in Mammalian Anatomy. http://biblolife.com/opensource. Accessed April 23, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

3. Bloom, D. E., 2011: 7 Billion and Counting. Science, 333, 562—569.10.1126/science.120929021798935Search in Google Scholar

4. Byanet, O., Onyeanusi, B. I., Ojo, S. A., 2012: Sex differences in the cerebellum and its correlates with same body traits in the African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, 1827): morphometric study. BCN, 3, 15—21.Search in Google Scholar

5. Connor, M., Bagley, E. E., Mitchell, V. A., Ingram, S. L., Christie, M. J., Humphrey, P. P., et al., 2004: Cellular actions of somatostatin on rat periaqueductal grey neurones in vitro. Br. J. Pharmacol., 142, 1273—1280. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0705894.10.1038/sj.bjp.0705894157520015265812Search in Google Scholar

6. Eben, A. B., 2004: Grasscutter: importance, habitat, characteristics, feed and feeding, breeding and diseases. In Programme Organized by Centre for Biodiversity Utilization and Development (CBUD). Kumasi, Ghana, 1—6.Search in Google Scholar

7. Gage, G. J., Kipke, D. R., Shan, W., 2012: Whole animal per-fusion fixation for rodents. J. Vis. Exp., 65, e3564, DOI: 10. 3791/3564.10.3791/3564347640822871843Search in Google Scholar

8. Garcı’a-Moreno, F., Vasistha, N. A., Trevia, N., Bourne, J. A., Molnar, Z., 2012: Compartmentalization of cerebral cortical germinal zones in a lissencephalic primate and gyrencephalic rodent. Cereb. Cortex, 22, 482—492. DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhr312.10.1093/cercor/bhr31222114081Search in Google Scholar

9. Gourine, A. V., Llaudet, E., Dale, N., Spyer, K. M., 2005: Release of ATP in the ventral medulla during hypoxia in rats: role in hypoxic ventilatory response. J. Neurosci., 25, 5, 1211—1218. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3763-04.2005.10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3763-04.2005672596015689558Search in Google Scholar

10. Hof, P. R., Chanis, R., Marino, L., 2005: Cortical complexity in cetacean brains. Anat. Rec., 287, 1142—1152. DOI: 10. 1002/ar.a.20258.10.1002/ar.a.2025816200644Search in Google Scholar

11. Ibe, C. S., Ikpegbu, E., Nlebedum, U. C., 2017: Comparative morphology of the visual and auditory reflex centres in the African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, 1827). IJAE, 122, 3, 196—205. DOI: 10.13128/IJAE-22980.Search in Google Scholar

12. Ibe, C. S., Onyeanusi, B. I., Hambolu, J. O., Ayo, J. O., 2010: Sexual dimorphism in the whole brain and brainstem morphometry in the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse 1840). Folia Morphol., 69, 2, 69—74.10.21608/jva.2010.44897Search in Google Scholar

13. Ibe, C. S., Onyeanusi, B. I., Hambolu, J. O., 2014: Functional morphology of the brain of the African giant pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse, 1840). Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 81, e1—e7. DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.644.10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.64424832847Search in Google Scholar

14. Ibe, C. S., Ikpegbu, E., Nlebedum, U. C., 2018: Structure of the main olfactory bulb and immunolocalisation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the olfactory layers of the African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, 1827). Alex. J. Vet. Sci., 56, 1, 1—10. DOI: 10.5455/ajvs.278580.10.5455/ajvs.278580Search in Google Scholar

15. Ibe, C. S., Ojo, S. A., Salami, S. O., Ayo, J. O., Ikpegbu, E., 2019: Cerebellar gross anatomy of the African grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus, Temminck, 1827) during foetal and postnatal development. Vet. Arhiv., 89, 559—577. DOI: 10.24099/vet.arhiv.0269.10.24099/vet.arhiv.0269Search in Google Scholar

16. Kelly, J. B., van Adel, B. A., Ito, M., 2009: Anatomical projections of the nuclei of the lateral lemniscus in the albino rat (Rattus norvegicus). J. Comp. Neurol., 512, 573—593. DOI: 10. 1002/cne.21929.10.1002/cne.2192919034907Search in Google Scholar

17. Kumar, M. S., 2015:Clinically Oriented Anatomy of the Dog and Cat. Linus Learning Inc., UK, 1020—1023.Search in Google Scholar

18. Mai, J. K., Foruntan, F., 2012: Thalamus. In Mai, J. K., Paxinos, G.:The Human Nervous System. 3rd edn., Elsevier Inc., Oxford, UK, 1256‒1300.Search in Google Scholar

19. Marino, L., Sudheimer, K., Pabst, D. A., McLellan, W. A., Johnson, J. I., 2003: Magnetic resonance images of the brain of a dwarf sperm whale (Kogia simus). J. Anat., 203, 57—76. DOI: 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00199.x.10.1046/j.1469-7580.2003.00199.x157114112892406Search in Google Scholar

20. Marsden, C. D., Rowland, R., 1965: The mammalian pons, olive and pyramids. J. Comp. Neurol., 124, 175—188.10.1002/cne.90124020414330738Search in Google Scholar

21. Mensah-Brown, E. P. K., Garey, L. J., 2006: The superior colliculus of the camel: a neuronal-specific nuclear protein (NeuN) and neuropeptide study. J. Anat., 208, 239—250. DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00517.x.10.1111/j.1469-7580.2006.00517.x210019016441568Search in Google Scholar

22.Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, 2012: International Committee on Veterinary Gross Anatomical Nomenclature. 5th edn., Hannover Columbia, 177 pp.Search in Google Scholar

23. Olds, R. J., Olds, J. R., 1979:A Colour Atlas of the Rat Dissection Guide. Wolfe Medical Publications Ltd., London, 72—80.Search in Google Scholar

24. Oto, C., Haziroğlu, R. M., 2009: Macro-anatomical investigation of encephalon in donkey. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fac., 56, 159—164.10.1501/Vetfak_0000002219Search in Google Scholar

25. Parker, T. J., Heswell, W. A., 1974:A Textbook of Zoology. Vertebrates (Vol. II). The Macmillan Press Ltd., London and Basingstoke, Great Britain, 116—135.Search in Google Scholar

26. Peng, K., Feng, Y., Zhang, G., Liu, H., Song, H., 2010: Anatomical study of the brain of the African ostrich. Turk. J. Vet. Anim. Sci., 34, 235—241.10.3906/vet-0806-19Search in Google Scholar

27. Potter, G. E., Brueck, W. L., 1958: Nervous system of guinea pig (Cavia porcellus). Bios, 29, 185—196.Search in Google Scholar

28. Rakic, P., 2009: Evolution of the neocortex: perspective from developmental biology. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 10, 724—735. DOI: 10.1038/nrn2719.10.1038/nrn2719291357719763105Search in Google Scholar

29. Romiguier, J., Ranwez, V., Douzery, E. J. P., Galtier, N., 2013: Genomic evidence for large, long-lived ancestors to placental mammals. Mol. Biol. Evol., 30, 5—13. DOI: 10.1093/molbev/mss211.10.1093/molbev/mss21122949523Search in Google Scholar

30. Schmidt, M. J., Pilatus, U., Wigger, A., Kramer, M., Oelschla ger, H. A., 2009: Neuroanatomy of the calf brain as revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. J. Morphol., 270, 745—758. DOI: 10.1002/jmor.10717.10.1002/jmor.1071719123244Search in Google Scholar

31. Schmidt, V., 2015:Comparative Anatomy of the Pig Brain— An Integrative Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Study of the Porcine Brain with Special Emphasis on the External Morphology of the Cerebral Cortex. VVB Laufersweiler Verlag, Giessen, Germany, 11—24.Search in Google Scholar

32. Sereno, M. I., Tootell, R. B. H., 2005: From monkeys to humans: what do we now know about brain homologies. Curr. Opin. Neurobiol., 15, 135—144. DOI: 10.1016/j.conb. 2005.03.014.Search in Google Scholar

33. Singer, K., Luo, R., Jeong, S. J., Piao, X., 2013: Gpr56 and the developing cerebral cortex: cells, matrix, and neuronal migration. Mol. Neurobiol., 47, 186—196. DOI: 10.1007/s12035-012-8343-0.10.1007/s12035-012-8343-0353889723001883Search in Google Scholar

34. Suckow, M. A., Weisbroth, S. H., Franklin, C. L., 2006:The Laboratory Rat. Elsevier Academic Press, Oxford UK, 230— 439.Search in Google Scholar

35. Sun, T., Hevner, R. F., 2014: Growth and folding of the mammalian cerebral cortex: from molecules to malformations. Nat. Rev. Neurosci., 15, 217—232. DOI: 10.1038/nrn3707.10.1038/nrn3707410721624646670Search in Google Scholar

36. Voogd, J., Barmack, N. H., 2006: Oculomotor cerebellum. Prog. Brain Res., 151, 231—268. DOI: 10.1016/S0079-6123 (05)51008-2.Search in Google Scholar

37. Wanmi, N., Ibe, C. S., Sani, S. A., 2018: Anatomical investigation into the brain of wild African parrot (Poicephalus senegalusversteri): gross and quantitative study. Int. J. Brain Cog. Sci., 7, 2, 31—35. DOI: 10.5923/j.ijbcs.20180702.01.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo