1. bookVolume 9 (2021): Issue 1 (June 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
08 Sep 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

The Economic Influence on Consumers Buying Behavior in Islamic Countries: Evidence from the COVID-19 Economic Crisis

Published Online: 04 Jun 2021
Page range: 179 - 203
Received: 07 Dec 2020
Accepted: 25 Dec 2020
Journal Details
First Published
08 Sep 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

The Covid-19 pandemic has ushered in a new age in the world. We are still grappling with the implications in various areas of our everyday lives. The impulsive buying habits of consumers, the supply chain, and the whole industry are not exceptions. Consumers and supply chains were both unprepared during the early stages of the novel coronavirus pandemic. The procurement of utilitarian products was referred to as panic buying. The study examined using exploratory studies on several individuals in the eight selected Islamic countries who have been panic buying in coronavirus-affected areas and have faced regional constraints. The data apply on exploratory factor analysis (EFA) in eight selected Islamic countries, three hundred sample finally selected, and a good number of volunteers supported in this study. The results have shown that a drastic financial effect on the economy where purchasing power and remittance inflow declined, inflation goes up and precaution for lockdown, whereas impulsive buying goods tendency increased due to misinformation, and panic buying immensely impact in the economy. The decision-making process has shifted, preventing financial burdening, rising saving patterns, and unwelcoming unhealthy consumption. Moreover, visible psychological distress, depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress. These studies concluded with a policy recommendation providing the results.


JEL Classification

Abdul, Mohani and Ismail, Hashanah and Hashim, Haslina and Johari, Juliana. (2009). Consumer decision making process in shopping for halal food in Malaysia. China-USA Business Review, 8 (9). pp. 40-47. ISSN 1537-1514 Search in Google Scholar

Accenture. (2020). COVID-19 will permanently change consumer behavior. Retrieved at https://www.accenture.com/us-en/insights/consumer-goods-services/coronavirus-consumer-behavior-research (accessed at 28.03.2020). Search in Google Scholar

A.E. Gamma, J. Slekiene, H.J. Mosler (2020). The impact of various promotional activities on Ebola prevention behaviors and psychosocial factors predicting Ebola prevention behaviors in the Gambia evaluation of Ebola prevention promotions; Int. J. Environ. Res. Publ. Health, 16 (11) (2020), p. 2020 Search in Google Scholar

Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behavior: Reactions and reflections. Psychology & Health, 26(9), 1113–1127.10.1080/08870446.2011.613995 Search in Google Scholar

Alam, S. S., Mohd, R., & Hisham, B. (2011). Is religiosity an important determinant on Muslim consumer behavior in Malaysia? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 2(1), 83–96.10.1108/17590831111115268 Search in Google Scholar

Albelaikhi, A. A. (1988). Religious Orientation and Fear of Death among Muslim and Christian Individuals. University of Rhode Island, Psychology Department, Kingston. Search in Google Scholar

Al-Debei, M. M., Akroush, M. N., & Ashouri, M. I. (2015). Consumer attitudes towards online shopping. Internet Research, 25(5), 707–733. doi:10.1108/IntR-05-2014–014610.1108/IntR-05-2014-0146 Search in Google Scholar

Allport, G. W., and Ross, J.M. (1967). Personal Religious Orientation and Prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-443.10.1037/h0021212 Search in Google Scholar

Almond, D. (2006). Is the 1918 Influenza Pandemic Over? Long-term Effects of in Utero Influenza Exposure in the Post-1940 US population. Journal of Political Economy, 114(4), 672–712.10.1086/507154 Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, R. C., Fell, D., Smith, R. L., Hansen, E. N., & Gomon, S. (2005). Current Consumer behavior research in forest products. Forest Products Journal, 55(1), 21-27. Search in Google Scholar

Anderson, L., & Wadkins, M. (1991). Japan: A culture of consumption? Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 129–134. Search in Google Scholar

Baker, S. R., Bloom, N., Davis, S. J., Kost, K., Sammon, M., & Viratyosin, T. (2020b). The Unprecedented Stock Market Reaction to COVID-19. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper, Number 26945. Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Statistics and informatics division (SID). Retrieved at http://www.bbs.gov.bd/ Search in Google Scholar

Beatty, S. E., & Kahle, L. R. (1988). Alternative hierarchies of the attitude-behavior relationship: The impact of brand commitment and habit. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(2), 1–10.10.1007/BF02723310 Search in Google Scholar

Berné, C., Múgica, J. M., Pedraja, M., & Rivera, P. (2001). Factors involved in price information- seeking behavior. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8(2), 71–84. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(99)00027-210.1016/S0969-6989(99)00027-2 Search in Google Scholar

Billore, S., & Anisimova, T. (2021). Panic buying research: A systematic literature review and future research agenda. International Journal of Consumer Studies, Available at: ijcs.12669. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcs.1266910.1111/ijcs.12669 Search in Google Scholar

Bloomberg News. (2020). China’s Harbin Tightens Quarantine Measures against Covid-19. Bloomberg.https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2020-04-12/china-s-harbin-tightens-quarantine-measures-against-Covid-19. Search in Google Scholar

Brahmbhatt, M., & Dutta, A. (2008). On SARS Type Economic Effects during Infectious Disease Outbreaks. The World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Number 4466. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/101511468028867410/On-SARS-type-economic-effects-during-infectious-disease-outbreaks10.1596/1813-9450-4466 Search in Google Scholar

Brainerd, E., & Siegler, M. V. (2003). The Economic Effects of the 1918 Influenza Epidemic. CEPR Discussion Paper Number 3791. Search in Google Scholar

Burns, A., Mensbrugghe, D., & Timmer, H. (2006). Evaluating the Economic Consequences of Avian Influenza, in Global Development Finance. The World Bank., 1(1). http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/977141468158986545/Evaluating-the-economic-consequences-of-avian-influenza Search in Google Scholar

CFO Insights. (2020). Investor relations: Adapting to the COVID-19 next normal. [Financial Advisory Services]. Deloitte. https://www2.deloitte.com/us/en/pages/finance/articles/cfo-insights-investor-relations-adapting-to-the-Covid-19-next-normal.html (accessed 16.06.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Chen, Y., & Barnes, S. (2007). Initial trust and online buyer behavior. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 107(1), 21–36. doi:10.1108/0263557071071903410.1108/02635570710719034 Search in Google Scholar

Chinazzi, M., Davis, J. T., Ajelli, M., Gioannini, C., Litvinova, M., Merler, S., Piontti, A. P., MU, K., Rossi, L., SUN, K., & Viboud, C. (n.d.). The effect of travel restrictions on the spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) outbreak. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba975710.1126/science.aba9757 Search in Google Scholar

Chou, J., Kuo, N.-F., & Peng, S.-L. (2004). Potential Impacts of the SARS Outbreak on Taiwan’s Economy. Asian Economic Papers, 3(1), 84–112.10.1162/1535351041747969 Search in Google Scholar

Chu, M. M. (2020, June 8). Malaysia to reopen most economic activity with virus outbreak ’under control. The Jakarta Post. https://www.thejakartapost.com/seasia/2020/06/08/malaysia-to-reopen-most-economic-activity-with-virus-outbreak-under-control.html Search in Google Scholar

Clemens, K. S., Matkovic, J., Faasse, K., & Geers, A. L. (2020). Determinants of safety-focused product purchasing in the United States at the beginning of the global COVID-19 pandemic. Safety Science, 130, 104894. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssci.2020.10489410.1016/j.ssci.2020.104894 Search in Google Scholar

Cogley, M. (2020).Has social media turbocharged panic buying by UK shoppers? Available at: https://www.telegraph.co.uk/technology/2020/03/10/has-social-media-turbocharged-panic-buying-uk-shoppers/ (2020) Search in Google Scholar

Correia, S., Luck, S., & Verner, F. (2020). Pandemics Depress the Economy, Public Health Interventions Do Not: Evidence from the 1918 Flu. Stanford Graduate School of Business. https://www.gsb.stanford.edu/sites/gsb/files/fin_04_20_verner.pdf10.2139/ssrn.3561560 Search in Google Scholar

Crabbe, M. (2020, March 3). Research your way out of a crisis: COVID-19 ’s effect on consumer behavior. [Marketing Research]. Mintel. https://www.mintel.com/blog/consumer-market-news/research-your-way-out-of-a-crisis-Covid-19s-effect-on-consumer-behaviour Search in Google Scholar

Cronbach, L.J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, Vol. 16. No. 3, pp. 297-334, available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF0231055510.1007/BF02310555 Search in Google Scholar

Davis, F. D. (1989). Perceived usefulness, perceived ease of use, and user acceptance of information technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3), 319–340.10.2307/249008 Search in Google Scholar

Delener, N. (1990a). The Effects of Religious Factors on Perceived Risk In Durable Goods. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 7(3) 27.10.1108/EUM0000000002580 Search in Google Scholar

Dela, G.A. (2020). How social media is shaping our fears of — and response to — the coronavirus Available at: https://time.com/5802802/social-media-coronavirus/ (2020) Search in Google Scholar

Dooley, K. J., Yan, T., Mohan, S., & Gopalakrishnan, M. (2010). Inventory management and the bullwhip effect during the 2007–2009 recession: Evidence from the manufacturing sector. Journal of Supply Chain Management, 46(1), 12–18.10.1111/j.1745-493X.2009.03183.x Search in Google Scholar

Dowd, K., & Burke, K. J. (2013). The influence of ethical values and food chIslamice motivations on intentions to purchase sustainably sourced foods. Appetite, 69, 137–144.10.1016/j.appet.2013.05.024 Search in Google Scholar

Dunn, K. I., Mohr, P., Wilson, C. J., & Wittert, G. A. (2011). Determinants of fast-food consumption. An application of the theory of planned behavior. Appetite, 57(2), 349–357. Search in Google Scholar

Dziuban, C.D. and Shirkey, E.C. (1974). When a correlation matrix is appropriate for factor analysis?. Some decision rules”, Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 81 No. 6, pp. 358-361, doi: 10.1037/h0036316.10.1037/h0036316 Search in Google Scholar

El Dahshan, M. (2020). How has Egypt navigated the ongoing global economic fallout as a result of COVID-19 ? The Tahrir Institute for Middle East Policy. https://timep.org/commentary/analysis/how-has-egypt-navigated-the-ongoing-global-economic-fallout-as-a-result-of-Covid-19/ Search in Google Scholar

Ellis-Petersen, H., & Ratcliffe, R. (2020). Super-cyclone Amphan hits coast of India and Bangladesh. The Guardian. https://www.theguardian.com/world/2020/may/20/super-cyclone-amphan-evacuations-in-india-and-bangladesh-slowed-by-virus (Accessed 20 May, 2020). Search in Google Scholar

Emam, A. (2020, March 29). COVID-19 comes with a high cost to Egyptian economy. The Arab Weekly. https://thearabweekly.com/Covid-19-comes-high-cost-egyptian-economy Search in Google Scholar

Evans, O. (2020). Socio-economic impacts of novel coronavirus: The policy solutions. BizEcons Quarterly, 7, 3–12. Search in Google Scholar

FAO. (2013). Food wastage footprint: Impact on natural resources. Summary report. Rome: FAO.. http://www.fao.org/3/i3347e/i3347e.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Feng, C., & FAY, S. (2020). Store closings and retailer profitability: A contingency perspective. Journal of Retailing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2020. Search in Google Scholar

Feng, C., & Fay, S. (2020). Store closings and retailer profitability: A contingency perspective. Journal of Retailing. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2020. Search in Google Scholar

Fernandes, N. (2020). Economic effects of coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) on the world economy. 1–30. Retrieved at: https://mediaroom.iese.edu/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/Fernandes-Nuno_20200322-Global-Recession-is-inevitable.pdf (Accessed March, 2020).10.2139/ssrn.3557504 Search in Google Scholar

Fornaro, L., & Wolf, M. (2020). Covid-19 Coronavirus and Macroeconomic Policy: Some Analytical Notes. London: Center for Economic Policy Research. https://cepr.org/active/publications/discussion_papers/dp.php?dpno=14529 Search in Google Scholar

Foxall, G. R. (1979). Industrial Buying During Recession: Farmers’ Tractor Purchases, 1977–78. Management Decision, 17(4), 317-32510.1108/eb001195 Search in Google Scholar

Garrett, T. (2008). Pandemic Economics: The 1918 Influenza and its Modern-Day Implications. Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, 90(2), 75–93.10.20955/r.90.74-94 Search in Google Scholar

Garrett, Thomas A. (2006) “War and Pestilence as Labor Market Shocks: U.S. Manufacturing Wage Growth 1914-1919.” Working Paper 2006-018C, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, 2006. Forthcoming in Economic Inquiry. Available at: https://files.stlouisfed.org/files/htdocs/publications/review/08/03/Garrett.pdf10.20955/wp.2006.018 Search in Google Scholar

Guimbeau, A., Menon, N., & Musacchio, A. (2020). The Brazilian Bombshell? The Long-Term impact of the 1918 Influenza Pandemic the South American Way. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper. https://www.nber.org/papers/w2692910.3386/w26929 Search in Google Scholar

Gustavsson, J., Cederberg, C., Sonesson, U., Otterdijk, R. V., & Meybeck, A. (2011). Global food losses and food waste. Extent, causes and prevention. Rome: FAO. Food and Agriculture Organization. https://www.fao.org/3/a-i2697e.pdf (Accessed 10 March 2020). Search in Google Scholar

Hai, W., Z. Zhao, Wang, J., Hao, Z-G. (2004). the Short-Term Impact of SARS on the Chinese Economy. Asian Economic Papers 3(1), 57-61.10.1162/1535351041747905 Search in Google Scholar

Hajj 2020: The economic impact of the Saudi ban on international pilgrims. (2020, June 24). TRT World. https://www.trtworld.com/magazine/hajj-2020-the-economic-impact-of-the-saudi-ban-on-international-pilgrims-37520 Search in Google Scholar

Hanudin Amin Abdul-Rahim Abdul-Rahman Dzuljastri Abdul Razak, (2014),”Theory of Islamic consumer behaviour”, Journal of Islamic Marketing, Vol. 5 Iss 2 pp. 273 - 301 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JIMA-06-2013-004210.1108/JIMA-06-2013-0042 Search in Google Scholar

Heckhausen, H., Gollwitzer, P., 1987. Thought contents and cognitive functioning in motivational versus volitional states of mind. Motiv. Emot. 11 (2), 101–120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00992338.10.1007/BF00992338 Search in Google Scholar

Hedgecoe, G., Lowen, M., Williamson, L., Hill, J., Holligan, A., Thorpe, N., De, Launey, G., B., Savage, M., & Bateman, T. (2020). Coronavirus capital by capital: How are Europeans coping with shutdown? BBC News. https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-52025553 (accessed 26th March 2020). Search in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G. (2001). Culture’s consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Tilburg: SAGE Publications. Search in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G., Hofstede, G. J., & Minkov, M. (2010). Cultures and Organizations: Software of the Mind. New York: McGraw-Hill. Available at: https://www.mintel.com/blog/consumer-market-news/the-next-normal-is-now (Accessed 09.06.2020). Search in Google Scholar

Indonesia braces for bad times, up to 5.2 million may lose jobs. (2020, April 16). New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/world/region/2020/04/584847/indonesia-braces-bad-times-52-million-may-lose-jobs Search in Google Scholar

Iyer, E.S., 1989. Unplanned purchasing: knowledge of shopping environment and time pressure. Journal of Retailing 65 (1), 40–57. Search in Google Scholar

Jordan’s tourism revenues drop by 10.7% in Q1 2020—CBJ. (2020, June 1). The Jordan Times. https://www.zawya.com/mena/en/economy/story/Jordans_tourism_revenues_drop_by_107_in_Q1_2020__CBJ-SNG_175882676/ Search in Google Scholar

Karlsson, M., Nilsson, T., & Pichler, S. (2014). The Impact of the 1918 Spanish flu Epidemic on Economic Performance in Sweden: An Investigation into the Consequences of an Extraordinary Mortality Shock. Journal of Health Economics, 36, 1–19.10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.03.005 Search in Google Scholar

Karlsson, M., Nilsson, T., & Pichler, S. (2014). The Impact of the 1918 Spanish flu Epidemic on Economic Performance in Sweden: An Investigation into the Consequences of an Extraordinary Mortality Shock. Journal of Health Economics, 36, 1–19.10.1016/j.jhealeco.2014.03.005 Search in Google Scholar

Keane, M., & Neal, T. (2021). Consumer panic in the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Econometrics, 220(1), 86–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jeconom.2020.07.04510.1016/j.jeconom.2020.07.045 Search in Google Scholar

Keogh-Brown, M. R., & Smith, R. D. (2008). The Economic Impact of SARS: How Does the Reality Match the Predictions? Health Policy, 88(1), 110–120.10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.03.003 Search in Google Scholar

Kostova, D., Cassell, C.H., Redd, J. T., Williams, D. E., Singh, T., Martel, L.D., & Bunnell, R.E. (2019.). Long-distance effects of epidemics: Assessing the link between the 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak and U.S. exports and employment. Health Economics, 28, 1248–1261.10.1002/hec.3938 Search in Google Scholar

Kirk, C. P., & Rifkin, L. S. (2020). I’ll trade you diamonds for toilet paper: Consumer reacting, coping and adapting behaviors in the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Business Research, 117, 124–131. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.02810.1016/j.jbusres.2020.05.028 Search in Google Scholar

Lamming, R. (2000). Japanese supply chain relationships in recession. Long Range Planning, 33(6), 757-77810.1016/S0024-6301(00)00086-8 Search in Google Scholar

Laato, S., Islam, A. N., & Laine, T. H. (2020). Did location-based games motivate players to socialize during COVID-19 ? Telematics and Informatics, 54, 101458.10.1016/j.tele.2020.101458 Search in Google Scholar

Laato, S., Islam, A. K. M. N., & Laine, T. H. (2020). Did location-based games motivate players to socialize during COVID-19 ? Telematics and Informatics, 54, 101458. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2020.10145810.1016/j.tele.2020.101458 Search in Google Scholar

Leduc, S., & Liu, Z. (2020, March 30). The Uncertainty Channel of the Coronavirus, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco Letter, Number 2020-07. https://www.frbsf.org/economic-research/publications/economic-letter/2020/march/uncertainty-channel-of-coronavirus/ Search in Google Scholar

Lee, J., & McKibbin, W. (2004). Globalization and Disease: The Case of SARS.. Asian Economic Papers, 3(1), 113–131.10.1162/1535351041747932 Search in Google Scholar

Liu, J.-T., Hammitt, J. K., Wang, J.-D., & Tsou, M.-W. (n.d.). Valuation of the risk of SARS in Taiwan. Health Economics, 14, 83–91.10.1002/hec.911 Search in Google Scholar

Mathieson, K. (1991). Predicting user intentions: comparing the technology acceptance model with the theory of planned behavior. Information systems research, 2(3), 173-191.10.1287/isre.2.3.173 Search in Google Scholar

Mahmood, M. (2020, June 13). Covid-19 : Economic challenges facing Bangladesh. The Financial Express. https://thefinancialexpress.com.bd/views/Covid-19-economic-challenges-facing-bangladesh-1592064588 Search in Google Scholar

McIntosh, M. (2020). How 2020’s Oil Prices Will Challenge Saudi Arabian Economic Diversification. Atlas Institute for International Affairs. https://www.internationalaffairshouse.org/how-2020s-oil-prices-will-stall-saudi-arabian-economic-diversification/ Search in Google Scholar

McKibbin, W., Fernando, R. (2020a). The Global Macroeconomic Impacts of COVID-19 : Seven Scenarios, Washington: Brookings Institution.10.2139/ssrn.3547729 Search in Google Scholar

Meltzer M.I., Cox N.J, Fukuda K. (1999). The economic impact of pandemic influenza in the UnitedStates: priorities for intervention. Emerging Infectious Disease, 5(5), 659–7110.3201/eid0505.990507 Search in Google Scholar

Mogelonsky, Marcia (2020). The ‘Next Normal’ Is Now. Mintel. Search in Google Scholar

Naeem, M. (2020). Do social media platforms develop consumer panic buying during the fear of Covid-19 pandemic? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102226.10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102226 Search in Google Scholar

Naeem, M. (2021). Do social media platforms develop consumer panic buying during the fear of Covid-19 pandemic. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 58, 102226. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2020.10222610.1016/j.jretconser.2020.102226 Search in Google Scholar

Mukit, M. M. H. (2020). An econometric analysis of the macroeconomic determinants impact of gross domestic product (GDP) in Bangladesh. Atlantic Review of Economics, 3(2). http://aroec.org/ojs/index.php/ARoEc/article/view/12010.2139/ssrn.3767899 Search in Google Scholar

Mukit, M. M. H., Nabila, N. J., Islam, M. S., & Abdel-Razzaq, A. I. (2020). Valuing women entrepreneurship in the informal economy in Bangladesh. Economics, 8(2), 37-54. Oikos Institute - Research Centre. doi: https://doi.org/10.2478/eoik-2020-0020; Retrieved at: http://economicsrs.com/index.php/economicus/article/view/17810.2478/eoik-2020-0020 Search in Google Scholar

Murphy, C. et. al. (2020, March). Corona-virus & Behavior Change. [Data Supplier]. www.Ipsos.com; IPSOS. https://www.ipsos.com/sites/default/files/ct/publication/documents/2020-03/coronavirus-behavior-change-ipsos.pdf (accessed March, 2020) Search in Google Scholar

OECD. (2020). OECD Economic Outlook—June 2020: The world economy on a tightrope. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/ Search in Google Scholar

Povera, A., Harun, H. N., & Arumugam, T. (2020, May 1). Malaysia has suffered RM63 billion losses due to MCO. New Straits Times. https://www.nst.com.my/news/nation/2020/05/588982/pm-malaysia-has-suffered-rm63-billion-losses-due-mco Search in Google Scholar

Pruett, M. (2020, March 25). Coronavirus Consumer Trends: Consumer Electronics, Pet Supplies, and More [Commerce Marketing]. Criteo. https://www.criteo.com/insights/coronavirus-consumer-trends/ Search in Google Scholar

Puccinelli, N., Goodstein, R., Grewal, D., Price, R., Raghubir, P., & Stewart, D. (2009). Customer experience management in retailing: Understanding the buying process. Journal of Retail, 85(1), 15–30. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretai.2008. Search in Google Scholar

Rassy, D., & Smith, R. D. (2013). The Economic Impact of H1N1 on Mexico’s Tourist and Pork Sectors. Health Economics, 22, 824–834.10.1002/hec.2862 Search in Google Scholar

Saeedi, T. A. (2020, May 2). Consumer inflation falls to 8-month low of 8.5 percent. The News. https://www.thenews.com.pk/print/652706-consumer-inflation-falls-to-8-month-low-of-8-5-percent Search in Google Scholar

Saudi Arabia closes schools over coronavirus concerns. (2020, March 9). ARAB NEWS. https://www.arabnews.com/node/1638606/saudi-arabia Search in Google Scholar

Selva Demiralp. (2020). the economic impact of COVID-19 on Turkey. Middle East Institute. https://www.mei.edu/publications/economic-impact-Covid-19-turkey Search in Google Scholar

Sood, J., and Nasu Y. (1995). Religiosity and Nationality: An Exploratory Study of their effects on Consumer Behavior in Japan and The United States. Journal of Business Research 34, 1-9.10.1016/0148-2963(94)00015-7 Search in Google Scholar

Suki, N. M. (2014). Does celebrity credibility influence Muslim and non-Muslim consumers’ attitudes toward brands and purchase intention? Journal of Islamic Marketing, 5(2), 227–240.10.1108/JIMA-04-2013-0024 Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, J. W. (1974). The role of risk in consumer behavior: A comprehensive and operational theory of risk taking in consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing, 38(2), 54–6010.1177/002224297403800211 Search in Google Scholar

Thakor, M., & Prajapati, S. G. (2012). Factors that encourage impulse purchase and impact of visual merchandising on the purchase decision of women for beauty product in Gujrat.. International Journal of Research in Commerce, Economics and Management, 2(9), 7–11. Search in Google Scholar

The Central Bank of Jordan announces a set of procedures aimed to contain the repercussions of the emerging Corona virus impact on the national economy. (2020). the Central Bank of J ordan (CBJ). https://www.cbj.gov.jo/DetailsPage/CBJEN/NewsDetails.aspx?ID=279 Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, A., & Garland, R. (2004). Grocery shopping: List and non-list usage. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 22(6), 623–635. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02634500410559015.10.1108/02634500410559015 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, E., An, N., Gao, Z., Kiprop, E., & Geng, X. (2020). Consumer food stockpiling behavior and willingness to pay for food reserves in COVID-19. Food Security, 12(4), 739–747. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12571-020-01092-110.1007/s12571-020-01092-1 Search in Google Scholar

V., Rashmi. (2014). Study on impulse buying behavior of fashion-oriented Indian youth with respect to visual merchandising.. International Journal of Management and Social Science Research Review, 1(4), 235–239. Search in Google Scholar

Verma, P., & Verma, R.. (2012). an on-field-survey of the impulse buying behaviour of consumers in consumer non-durable sectors in the retail outlets in the city of Indore, India. Research Journal of Management Sciences, Vol. 1(4), 1-5.. India. Research Journal of Management Sciences, 1(4), 1–5. Search in Google Scholar

Vishnu, P., & Raheem, A. R. (2013). Factors influencing impulse buying behavior. European Journal of Scientific Research, 100(3), 67–79. Search in Google Scholar

World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Corona virus disease (COVID-19) Pandemic. Retrieved at: https://www.who.int/docs/default-source/coronaviruse/situation-reports/20200410-sitrep-81-Covid-19.pdf?Sfvrsn=ca96eb84_2. (Accessed 10 April, 2020). Search in Google Scholar

Yadav, R., & Pathak, G. S. (2016). Young consumers’ intention towards buying green products in a developing nation: Extending the theory of planned behavior. Journal of Cleaner Production, 135, 732–739.10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.120 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo