1. bookVolume 54 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements – an early marker of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in type 1 diabetes mellitus

Published Online: 08 May 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 54 (2020) - Issue 2 (April 2020)
Page range: 126 - 132
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1336-0329
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Objectives. The purpose of the present paper is to propose and introduce novel biomarkers of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes that are relevant to the early diagnosis and optimal medical management of the patients who already suffer from type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Methods. We hypothesize and demonstrate on a case study that various organ-specific autoimmune endocrinopathies can result in lowered basal insulin requirements, leading to unexplained hypoglycemia.

Results. It can be hypothesized that hypothyroidism in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus may deteriorate glycemic control and can lead to an increased rate of hypoglycemia, particularly the overnight and morning hypoglycemia. Thus, the decreased requirements for particularly overnight basal insulin can be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-3 with subclinical autoimmune thyroiditis in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. Further, it could be proposed that unexplained hypoglycemia during the late afternoon or evening could be an early marker of the autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome-2 with subclinical autoimmune Addison disease in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus. As a result, an altered circadian pattern of basal insulin requirements can occur, characterized by a decreased late afternoon basal insulin rate.

Conclusions. After exclusion of other causes, the unexplained reoccurring hypoglycemia can be a remarkable feature of autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes in immune-mediated type 1 diabetes mellitus on intensive insulin replacement therapy.

Keywords

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