1. bookVolume 18 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1339-7877
First Published
15 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Intractable Pernicious Practices in West Africa

Published Online: 25 Jan 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 18 (2018) - Issue 1 (June 2018)
Page range: 17 - 41
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1339-7877
First Published
15 Jun 2014
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Spiteful practices such as human sacrifice and cannibalism have endured the abhorrence of various peoples of the world. However, European powers magnified the proportion of these activities in other parts of the world to justify their colonial agenda of subjugation and exploitation, while they equally partook of it in various shades at different times in their history. This paper, focused on West Africa, explains both the motives fuelling the intractable problems and the obstacles encysting their elimination. Although some solutions were proffered, the ingrained problem will continue to resist change.

Keywords

ABLER, Thomas S. (1980): Iroquois Cannibalism: Fact Not Fiction. In Ethno History Vol. 27, No. 4, Special Iroquois Issue, pp. 309-316.10.2307/481728Search in Google Scholar

ARENS, William (1979): The Man Eating Myth. Anthropology & Anthropophagy. Oxford: O.U.P.Search in Google Scholar

BURROWS, D. (1914): The Human Leopard of Sierra Leone. In Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 3, No. 50, pp. 143-151.Search in Google Scholar

BEATTY, Kenneth James (1915): Human Leopards: An account of the Trials of Human Leopards before the Special Commission Courts; with a note on Sierra Leone, Past and Present. London: Hugh Rees.Search in Google Scholar

BEATTY, Kenneth James (1916): Review by F.W.H.M. Human Leopards Society. In Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol.15, No.59, pp. 290-292.Search in Google Scholar

BIBER, Katherine (2005): Cannibals and Colonialism. (Seminar paper delivered at Macquarie University, Department of Anthropology). In Sydney Law Review, Vol. 27, pp. 623-637.Search in Google Scholar

BINFORD, Lewis R. (1981): Bones: Ancient Men and Modern Myths. New York: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

BARDY, Ivan. (1982): The Myth-Eating Man. In American Anthropologist, Vol.84, pp. 595-611.Search in Google Scholar

CALEB Crain (1994): Lovers of Human Flesh: Homosexuality and Cannibalism in Melville’s Novels. American Literature, Vol. 66, No. 1, New Melville. pp. 25-53.10.2307/2927432Search in Google Scholar

CERUTI, Maria Constazna (2004): Human Bodies as Objects of Dedication at Inca Mountain Shrines (North-Western Argentina). In World Archaeology, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 103-122.10.1080/0043824042000192632Search in Google Scholar

CONKLIN, Beth. A. (1997): Consuming Images: Representations of Cannibalism on the Amazon Frontier. In Anthropological Quarterly, Vol. 70, No. 2, pp. 68-78.10.2307/3317507Search in Google Scholar

CRAIN, Caleb (1994): Lovers of Human Flesh: Homosexuality and Cannibalism in Melville’s Novels. In American Literature, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp 25-53.Search in Google Scholar

DUREY, Michael (2008): Exploration at the Edge: Reassessing the Fate of Sir John Franklin’s Last Arctic Expedition. In The Great Circle, Vol. 30, No. 2. Pp. 3-40.Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, Stephen (1995): Liberia 1989-1994: A Study of Ethnic and Spiritual Violence. In African Affairs, Vol. 94, No. 375, pp. 165-197.10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a098806Search in Google Scholar

ELLIS, Stephen (2001): Mystical Weapons: Some Evidence from Liberian War. In Journal of Religion in Africa, Vol. 31, Facs 2, Religion and War in the1990s, pp. 222-236.10.2307/1581517Search in Google Scholar

FORBES, Jack. D. (1995): The Gulf War: Once Again the Dream of Human Sacrifice. In Wicazosa Review, Vol. 11, No 1, pp. 60-62.Search in Google Scholar

GOCKING, ROGER A. (2000): Chieftaincy Dispute and Ritual Murder in Elmina, Ghana, 1945-6. In The Journal of African History, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 197-219.10.1017/S0021853700007714Search in Google Scholar

GOLDMAN, Laurence. (1999): From Pot to Polemic: Uses and Abuses of Cannibalism. In Anthropology of Cannibalism, Bergin and Garvey, West Point Connecticut, pp.1-26, at 14.Search in Google Scholar

GRAHAM, James D. (1965): The Slave Trade, Depopulation and Human Sacrifice in Benin History. In Cahiers d’ Etudes Africaines, Vol. 5, No. 18, pp. 312-344.10.3406/cea.1965.3035Search in Google Scholar

GRAULICH, Michel (2000): Aztec Human Sacrifice as Expiation. In History of Religions, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp. 352-371.10.1086/463600Search in Google Scholar

HARNER, Michael (1977): The Ecological Basis for Aztec Sacrifice. In American Ethnologist, Vol. 4, No. 1, Human Ecology, pp. 117-135.Search in Google Scholar

HARGREAVES, John D. (1956): The Establishment of the Sierra Leone Protectorate and the Insurrection of 1898. In Cambridge Historical Journal, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 56-80.10.1017/S1474691300000330Search in Google Scholar

ISAAC, Barry L. (2002): Cannibalism among the Aztecs and their Neighbours: Analysis of the 1577-1586 “Relaciones Geográficas” for Nueva España and Nueva Galicia Provinces. In Journal of Anthropological Research, Vol. 58, No. 2, pp. 203-224.10.1086/jar.58.2.3631036Search in Google Scholar

JAFAR, Tazeen H. (2009): Organ Trafficking: Global Solutions for a Global Problem. In American Journal of Kidney Diseases, Vol. 54, No. 6, pp. 1145-1157.10.1053/j.ajkd.2009.08.014Search in Google Scholar

KRAAN, Alfons van der (1985): Human Sacrifice in Bali: Sources, Notes, and Commentary. In Indonesia, Vol. 40, pp. 89-121.10.2307/3350877Search in Google Scholar

LINDENBAUM, Shirley (2004): Thinking about Cannibalism. In American Review of Anthropology, Vol. 33, pp. 475-495.10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143758Search in Google Scholar

LITTLE, Kenneth. (1949): The Role of the Secret Society in Cultural Specialization. In American Anthropologist, New Series, Vol. 51, No. 2, pp. 199-212.10.1525/aa.1949.51.2.02a00020Search in Google Scholar

LITTLE, Kenneth (1965): The Political Function of the Poro. Part 1. In Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 35, No. 4, pp. 340-365.Search in Google Scholar

LITTLE, Kenneth (1966): The Political Function of the Poro. Part 2. In Journal of the International African Institute, Vol. 36, No. 1, pp. 62-72.10.2307/1158128Search in Google Scholar

LUCAS, HENRY S. (1930): The Great European Famine of 1315, 1316, and 1317. In Speculum. A Journal of Medieval Studies 1930, Vol. 5, No. 4, pp. 343-377.10.2307/2848143Search in Google Scholar

LAW, ROBIN (1985): Human Sacrifice in Pre-Colonial West Africa. In African Affairs, Vol. 84, No. 334, pp. 53-87.10.1093/oxfordjournals.afraf.a097676Search in Google Scholar

MARRIOT, Fitzgerald H. P. (1899): The Secret Societies of West Africa. In The Journal of Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 29, No. 1/2, pp. 21-27.10.2307/2842572Search in Google Scholar

NWABUEZE, Remigius N. (2007): Dead Bodies in Nigerian Jurisprudence. In Journal of African Law, Vol. 51, No. 1, pp. 117-150.10.1017/S0021855306000234Search in Google Scholar

ORTIZ DE MONTELLANO, Bernard R. (1978): Aztec Cannibalism: An Ecological Necessity? In Science, New Series, Vol. 20, No. 4342, pp. 611-617.Search in Google Scholar

SALES, R. H. (1957): Human Sacrifice in Biblical Thought. In Journal of Bible and Religion, Vol. 25, pp. 112-117.10.1093/jaarel/XXV.2.112Search in Google Scholar

SAMPER, David. (2002): Cannibalizing Kids: Rumour and Resistance in Latin America. In Journal of Folklore Research, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 1-33.Search in Google Scholar

SCHMALL, Emily; WILLIAMS Wade. (2011): Liberia’s Elections, Ritual Killings and Cannibalism. In America World News, Global Post (https://www.pri.org/stories/2011-08-01/liberia-s-elections-ritual-killings-and-cannibalism).Search in Google Scholar

SCHOLTZ, H. J., Phillips V. M, Knobel G. J. (1997): Muti or Ritual Murder. In Forensic Science International, Vol. 87 (2) pp. 117-123.10.1016/S0379-0738(97)02132-4Search in Google Scholar

SMITH, Daniel Jordan (2001): Ritual Killing, 419, and Fast Wealth: Inequality and the Popular Imagination in South-eastern Nigeria. In Ethnologist, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 803-823.Search in Google Scholar

STEYN, Maryna. (2005): Muti Murders from South Africa: A Case Report. In Forensic Science International, Vol. 151, pp. 279-287.10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.05.022Search in Google Scholar

THOMAS, Northcote Whitridge (1920): Notes on Edo Burial Customs. In The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 50, pp. 377-411.10.2307/2843490Search in Google Scholar

TURNER, Christy. G. – TURNER, Jacqueline A. (1992): The First Claim for Cannibalism in the South West: Walter Hough’s1901 Discovery at Canyon Butte Ruin 3, Northwestern Arizona. In American Antitiq, Vol. 57, No. 4, pp. 661-682.Search in Google Scholar

VARDY, Steven Bela – VARDY Agnes Huszar (2007): Cannibalism in Stalin’s Russia and Mao’s China. In East European Quarterly, XLI, No 2. pp 223-238Search in Google Scholar

VILLA, Paola. (1992): Cannibalism in Prehistoric Europe. In Evolutionary Anthropology, Vol. 1, No 3. pp. 93-104.10.1002/evan.1360010307Search in Google Scholar

WESLAWSKI, Jan Marcin – LEGEZYNSKA Joanna (2002): Chances for Arctic Survival: Greely’s Expedition Revisited. In Arctic, Vol. 55, No. 4, pp. 373-379.10.14430/arctic721Search in Google Scholar

WHITE, Tim D. (1992): Prehistoric Cannibalism at Mancos. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400852925Search in Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, Neil (1984): Carib Cannibalism: The Historical Evidence. In Journal de la société des Américanistes, Vol. 70. pp. 69-88.10.3406/jsa.1984.2239Search in Google Scholar

WILKS, Ivor. (1988): Asante: Human Sacrifice or Capital Punishment? A rejoinder. In The International Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol, 21, No. 3, pp. 433-452.10.2307/219450Search in Google Scholar

WILLIAMS, Clifford (1988): Asantee: Human sacrifice or Capital Punishment? An Assessment of the period 1807-1874. In The Journal of African Historical Studies, Vol. 21, No. 3, pp. 433-441.10.2307/219449Search in Google Scholar

WILSON, Horace Hayman (1852): On the Sacrifice of Human Beings as an Element of Ancient Religion of India. In Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, Vol. 13, pp. 96-107.10.1017/S0035869X00165049Search in Google Scholar

WHITEHEAD, A. A. (1905): African Fetish. In Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 4, No. 16, pp. 410-416.Search in Google Scholar

WINKELMAN, Michael (1998): Aztec Human Sacrifice: Cross cultural Assessments of the Ecological Hypothesis. In Ethnology, Vol. 37, No. 3, pp. 285-298.10.2307/3774017Search in Google Scholar

WRIGHT, A. R. (1907): Secret Societies and Fetishism in Sierra Leone. In Folklore, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp. 423-427.10.1080/0015587X.1907.9719795Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo