1. bookVolume 8 (2020): Issue 1 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
15 Dec 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Is COVID-19 on the Covers of Socio-Political Magazines an Example of Media Polarisation? Case Study from Poland

Published Online: 21 Dec 2020
Page range: 36 - 53
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
15 Dec 2013
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The main purpose of this paper was to explore the media image of the COVID-19 pandemic through the perspective of Polish media polarisation. In order to achieve this, a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the content of covers from 10 socio-political magazines, representing different ideological inclinations [left-wing, liberal, conservative, right-wing and Catholic] was conducted between January and June 2020. The study focused not only on the scale to which the coronavirus appeared on the covers, but also on the textual and visual representation of it. Additionally, the contexts in which COVID-19 appeared were analysed. As it turned out, apart from the medical context, the pandemic was mostly presented through political, social, economic and religious perspectives, of which the first was the most visibly connected with polarising media content, indicating clear links between the ideological bias of the magazines and the ways they described reality.

Keywords

Adamski, Andrzej; Jupowicz-Ginalska, Anna; Leonowicz-Bukała, Iwona 2020. ‘Polish Nationwide Catholic Opinion-Forming Weeklies on Social Media— From Theoretical Introduction to Empirical Approach’. Religions 11, 4,190. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/rel11040190.Search in Google Scholar

Bartoszewicz, Mateusz 2017. ‘Komunikaty populistyczne na okładkach tygodników „Newsweek Polska” o „Do Rzeczy” – raport z badań pilotażowych’. e-Politikon 24, 87-111.Search in Google Scholar

Blumler, Jay; Gurevitch, Michael 1995. The Crisis of Public Communication. 1st Edition, Florence, US: Routledge, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

Bożewicz, Marta 2020. ‘Wpływ pandemii na religijność Polaków. Komunikat z badań CBOS’. https://cbos.pl/SPISKOM.POL/2020/K_074_20.PDF (8 August 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Brzoza, Katarzyna; Kornacka-Grzonka, Momika 2017. ‘Narracja medialna wyrażona na okładkach wybranych tygodników opinii podczas parlamentarnej kampanii wyborczej 2015 roku’. – Polityka i Społeczeństwo 4, 15, 100-116.Search in Google Scholar

Chapman, Annabelle 2017. ‘Pluralism Under Attack: The Assault on Press Freedom in Poland’. https://freedomhouse.org/sites/default/files/FH_Poland_Report_Final_2017.pdf (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Dobek-Ostrowska, Bogusława 2018. ‘Mediatyzacja polityki w tygodnikach opinii w Polsce – między polityzacją a komercjalizacją’. – Zeszyty Prasoznawcze 2, 234, 224–246. DOI 10.4467/22996362PZ.18.016.9111Search in Google Scholar

Dzieciołowski, Krzysztof 2016-2017. ‘Is there a chance for non-partisan media in Poland?’. Reuters Institute Fellowship Paper – University of Oxford (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Gentzkow, Matthew; Shapiro, Jesse, M. 2006. ‘Media bias and reputation’. – Journal of Political Economy 114, 2, 280–316.Search in Google Scholar

Głowacki, Witold 2019. ‘Tym razem ustawą o dziennikarzach’. – Polska The Times, September https://polskatimes.pl/pis-znow-probuje-wziac-sie-za-media-tym-razem-ustawa-o-dziennikarzach-program-pisna-wybory-parlamentarne-2019/ar/c1-14425529 (22 October 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Głowacki, Michał; Kuś, Michał 2019. ‘Media accountability meets media polarisation. A case study from Poland’. – Eberwein, Tobias; Fengler, Susanne; Karmasin, Matthias (eds.), Media Accountability in the Era of Post-Truth Politics. Routledge, 100-115.Search in Google Scholar

Górska, Paulina 2019. ‘Polaryzacja polityczna w Polsce. Jak bardzo jesteśmy podzieleni’. http://cbu.psychologia.pl/uploads/f_bulska/Polaryzacja%20polityczna%202.pdf (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Gul, Faruk; Pesendorfer, Wolfgang 2012. ‘Media and Policy [Working paper]’. Department of Economics, Princeton University. http://www.princeton.edu/~pesendor/media.pdf (23 October 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Guzek, Damian 2019. ‘The Church–State Relationship in Polish Media: Combining the Grounded Theory and Intermedia Agenda-Setting at the Network Level’. – Polish Sociological Review 208, 439–457.Search in Google Scholar

Hallin, Daniel C.; Mancini, Paolo 2004. Comparative Media Systems. Three Models of Media and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Institut Montaigne 2019. ‘Media Polarization “à la française”?’. https://www.institutmontaigne.org/ressources/pdfs/publications/media-polarization-a-la-francaise-report.pdf (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Jakóbczyk, Natalia 2019. ‘Obraz szczytu NATO w 2016 roku w Warszawie na łamach tygodników społecznopolitycznych’. – Rafał Klepka, Jakub Idzik (eds.), Medialne obrazy świata, t. 2. Kraków: Wydawnictwo naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego, 231-251.Search in Google Scholar

Jenkins, Joy; Tandoc, Edson C. 2017.’ The power of the cover: Symbolic contests around the Boston bombing suspect’s Rolling Stone cover’. – Journalism 18, 2, 281-297. https://doi.org/10.1177/1464884915614240.Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, Sammye; Prijatel, Patricia 1999. The Magazine form cover to cover. Lincolnwood: NTC Publishing Group.Search in Google Scholar

Jupowicz-Ginalska, Anna 2018a. ‘Print magazine covers as packaging’. – Communication Today 9, 1, 94-112.Search in Google Scholar

Jupowicz-Ginalska, Anna 2018b. ‘Exposure of Travel Destinations on the Front Covers of the Magazines National Geographic Traveler and Podróże’. – Journal of Tourism and Services 9, 17, 1726-54. https://doi.org/10.29036/jots.v9i17.44.Search in Google Scholar

Jurkowitz, Mark; Mitchell, Amy; Shearer, Elisa; Walker, Mason 2020. ‘U.S. Media Polarization and the 2020 Election: A Nation Divided’, January 24. https://www.journalism.org/2020/01/24/u-s-media-polarization-and-the-2020-election-a-nation-divided/ (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Kotras, Marcin 2013. ‘Dwa światy, dwie narracje. Retoryka tygodników opinii W Sieci i Polityka’. – Acta Universitatis Lodziensis, Folia Sociologica 46, 89-109.Search in Google Scholar

Koziński, Agaton 2020. ‘Wybory prezydenckie 2020: Dobry zły i brzydki. To była najkoszmarniejsza kampania w historii’. – Polska The Times, 10 July. https://polskatimes.pl/wybory-prezydenckie-2020-dobry-zly-i-brzydki-to-byla-najkoszmarniejsza-kampania-w-historii/ar/c15-15071494 (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Lisowska-Magdziarz, Małgorzata 2004. Analiza zawartości mediów. Przewodnik dla studentów. Kraków: Uniwersytet Jagielloński.Search in Google Scholar

Losowsky, Andrew 2007. ‘Hold the front page’. – Andrew Losowsky (ed.), We Love Magazines. 1st ed. Luxembourg: Editions Mark Koedinger SA, 33-42.Search in Google Scholar

Maciuszczak, Tomasz; Prus, Katarzyna 2020. ‘Premier do seniorów: nie bójcie się koronawirusa. A w weekend w woj. lubelskim 24 nowe przypadki’. – Dziennik Wschodni, 3 July. https://www.dziennikwschodni.pl/wybory-prezydenckie/premier-do-seniorow-nie-bojciesie-koronawirusa-a-w-weekend-w-woj-lubelskim-24-nowe-przypadki,n,1000269633.html (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

McCluskey, Michael; Young, Kim M. 2012. ‘Moderatism or Polarization? Representation of Advocacy Groups’ Ideology in Newspapers’. – Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 89,4, 565–584. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077699012455385Search in Google Scholar

Mielczarek, Tomasz 2018. Tygodniki opinii w zmieniającej się rzeczywistości. Kraków: Towarzystwo Autorów i Wydawców Prac Naukowych Universitas.Search in Google Scholar

Morris, Catherine (2020). ‘Polarized Media Landscape Mirrors Polarized Public’. https://www.ipsos.com/en-us/media-polarization-mirrors-polarized-public (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Niziołek, Andrzej 2007. ‘W okopach’. https://wiadomosci.onet.pl/kiosk/w-okopach/wdg6d (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Pisarek, Walery 1983. Analiza zawartości prasy. Kraków: Ośrodek Badań Prasoznawczych.Search in Google Scholar

Prior, Markus 2013. ‘Media and Political Polarization’. – The Annual Review of Political Science 16, 101–27. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-100711-135242Search in Google Scholar

Reporters without Borders 2020. ‘Poland: Further decline’. https://rsf.org/en/poland (6 September 2020)Search in Google Scholar

Rosas-Moreno, Tania C.; Harp, Dustin; Bachmann, Ingrid 2013. ‘Framing ideology: How Time magazine represents nationalism and identities through visual reporting’. – Communication and Society/Comunicación y Sociedad 26, 3, 1–20.Search in Google Scholar

Sikora, Kamil 2017. ‘Te liczby szokują. Nawet 1900 proc. więcej na reklamy państwowych firm w prawicowej prasie’. – Wp.pl, 4 July. https://wiadomosci.wp.pl/te-liczby-szokuja-nawet-1900-proc-wiecej-nareklamy-panstwowych-firm-w-prawicowej-prasie-6140609609774721a (23 October 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Strupiechowska, Monika 2018. ‘Media jako katalizator społecznych lęków. Przypadek paniki moralnej’. – Media i Społeczeństwo 8, 139-150.Search in Google Scholar

Szuleka, Małgorzata; Wolny, Marcin; Kalisz, Maciej 2019. ‘Rządy prawem zamiast rządów prawa: zagrożenia dla ochrony praw w Polsce w latach 2015-2019’. http://obserwatoriumdemokracji.pl/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/Rz%C4%85dy-prawem-HFPC.pdf (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Trzaskowski, Paweł 2015. ‘Różne sposoby mówienia o mowie nienawiści w polskich dziennikach’ – Studia Pragmalingwistyczne VII, 69–83.Search in Google Scholar

Tygodnik Przegląd 2020. ‘O Przeglądzie’. https://www.tygodnikprzeglad.pl/o-przegladzie/ (6 September 2020).Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo