1. bookVolume 14 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2029-0454
First Published
05 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Criminalization of the Promise and Offer to Give or Accept a Bribe as a Completed Criminal Offense: Compliance with the Ultima ratio Principle

Published Online: 17 Mar 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 14 (2021) - Issue 2 (December 2021)
Page range: 123 - 141
Received: 29 Mar 2021
Accepted: 30 Dec 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2029-0454
First Published
05 Feb 2009
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

As the processes of globalization become more intense, the legislation adopted by international institutions occupies an increasingly important place in national criminal law, including crimes related to corruption. However, the regulation of some acts of corruption, in the context of sustainable development, raises questions about its compliance with criminal law principles. This article examines the requirements of international law to criminalize a promise and offer to give or accept a bribe in national law, recognizing that criminalization of such actions as completed criminal offense potentially violates the principle of ultima ratio. The article demonstrates that there is no unequivocal conclusion from international law that states must provide for liability for all acts of bribery as a completed criminal act. In order to implement the principle of ultima ratio, criminal liability for acts consisting essentially in the preparation or attempt to pay a bribe should not be enshrined in the same paragraph as bribery, where the bribe is exchanged by hand.

Keywords

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