1. bookVolume 22 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Harnessing the Value of Rumen Protected Amino Acids to Enhance Animal Performance – A Review

Published Online: 04 Feb 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 22 (2022) - Issue 1 (January 2022)
Page range: 43 - 62
Received: 17 Dec 2020
Accepted: 05 Mar 2021
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Acosta D.A.V., Denicol A.C., Tribulo P., Rivelli M.I., Skenandore C., Zhou Z., Luchini D., Correa M.N., Hansen P.J., Cardoso F.C. (2016). Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on the preimplantation embryo in Holstein cows. Theriogenology, 85: 1669–1679.Search in Google Scholar

Acosta D.A.V., Rivelli M.I., Skenandore C., Zhou Z., Keisler D.H., Luchini D., Corrêa M.N., Cardoso F.C. (2017). Effects of rumen-protected methionine and choline supplementation on steroidogenic potential of the first postpartum dominant follicle and expression of immune mediators in Holstein cows. Theriogenology, 96: 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Qaisi M., Titi H.H. (2014). Effect of rumen-protected methionine on production and composition of early lactating Shami goats milk and growth performance of their kids. Archiv. Anim. Breed., 57: 1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso L., Maquivar M., Galina C.S., Mendoza G.D., Guzmán A., Estrada S., Villareal M., Molina R. (2008). Effect of ruminally protected methionine on the productive and reproductive performance of grazing Bos indicus heifers raised in the humid tropics of Costa Rica. Trop. Anim. Health Prod., 40: 667–672.Search in Google Scholar

Alonso-Mélendez E., Mendoza G.D., Castrejón-Pineda F.A., Ducoing-Watty A.E. (2016). Milk production in dairy goats supplemented with different levels of ruminally protected methionine. J. Dairy Res., 83: 148.Search in Google Scholar

Amrutkar S.A., Thakur S.S., Pawar S.P. (2014). Economics of supplementing rumen protected methionine and lysine in the ration of lactating crossbred cows. Indian J. Anim. Nutr., 31: 14–19.Search in Google Scholar

Antongiovanni M., Secchiari P., Mele M., Buccioni A., Serra A., Ferruzzi G., Rapaccini S., Pistoia A. (2002). Olive oil calcium soaps and rumen protected methionine in the diet of lactating ewes: effect on milk quality. It. J. Anim. Sci., 1: 55–63.Search in Google Scholar

Arriola Apelo S.I., Knapp J.R., Hanigan M.D. (2014). Invited review: Current representation and future trends of predicting amino acid utilization in the lactating dairy cow. J. Dairy Sci., 97: 4000–4017.Search in Google Scholar

Awawdeh M.S. (2016). Rumen-protected methionine and lysine: effects on milk production and plasma amino acids of dairy cows with reference to metabolisable protein status. J. Dairy Res., 83: 151–155.Search in Google Scholar

Ayyat M.S., Al-Sagheer A., Noreldin A.E., Abd El-Hack M.E., Khafaga A.F., Abdel-Latif M.A., Swelum A.A., Arif M., Salem A.Z.M. (2019). Beneficial effects of rumen-protected methionine on nitrogen-use efficiency, histological parameters, productivity and reproductive performance of ruminants. Anim. Biotechnol., 32: 51–56.Search in Google Scholar

Batistel F., Arroyo J.M., Garces C.I.M., Trevisi E., Parys C., Ballou M.A., Cardoso F.C., Loor J.J. (2018). Ethyl-cellulose rumen-protected methionine alleviates inflammation and oxidative stress and improves neutrophil function during the periparturient period and early lactation in Holstein dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 101: 480–490.Search in Google Scholar

Berthiaume R., Dubreuil P., Stevenson M., Mc Bride B.W., Lapierre H. (2001). Intestinal disappearance and mesenteric and portal appearance of amino acids in dairy cows fed ruminally protected methionine. J. Dairy Sci., 84: 194–203.Search in Google Scholar

Blauwiekel R., Xu R., Harrison J.H., Loney K.A., Riley R.E., Calhoun M.C. (1997). Effect of whole cottonseed, gossypol, and ruminally protected lysine supplementation on milk yield and composition. J. Dairy Sci., 80: 1358–1365.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick G.A., Balthrol J.E. (1979). Chemical inhibition of amino acid deamination by ruminal microbes in vitro. J. Anim. Sci., 49: 1101–1111.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick G.A., Kowalczyk T., Satter L.D. (1970). Milk production response to supplementation with encapsulated methionine per os or casein per abomasum. J. Dairy Sci., 53: 1714–1721.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick G.A., Murphy M.L., Udén P. (2004). Effect of inhibitor concentration and endproduct accumulation on estimates of ruminal in vitro protein degradation. J. Dairy Sci., 87: 1360–1371.Search in Google Scholar

Broderick G.A., Stevenson M.J., Patton R.A. (2009). Effect of dietary protein concentration and degradability on response to rumen-protected methionine in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 2719–2728.Search in Google Scholar

Cao Y.C., Yang X.J., Guo L., Zheng C., Wang D.D., Cai C.J., Liu S.M., Yao J.H. (2018). Effects of dietary leucine and phenylalanine on pancreas development, enzyme activity, and relative gene expression in milk-fed Holstein dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci., 101: 4235–4244.Search in Google Scholar

Chalupa W. (1975). Rumen bypass and protection of proteins and amino acids. J. Dairy Sci., 58: 1198–1218.Search in Google Scholar

Chalupa W., Chow A.W., Parish R.C. (1975). Methods and compositions for inhibiting rumen microbial deamination. United States Patent 1191. Smithkline Corporation, Philadelphia, Pa.Search in Google Scholar

Chen D., Yan J., Shen W., Song Y., Lan X., Yi K., Muhammad A.R. (2020). Effect of inclusion of HMBi in the ration of goats on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen bacteria community and blood serum parameters. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 104: 987–997.Search in Google Scholar

Clements A.R., Ireland F.A., Freitas T., Tucker H., Shike D.W. (2017). Effects of supplementing methionine hydroxy analog on beef cow performance, milk production, reproduction, and preweaning calf performance. J. Anim. Sci., 95: 5597–5605.Search in Google Scholar

Doelman J., Kim J.J.M., Carson M., Metcalf J.A., Cant J.P. (2015). Branched-chain amino acid and lysine deficiencies exert different effects on mammary translational regulation. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 7846–7855.Search in Google Scholar

Dominguez J.H., Lopes M.G., Machado F.A., Santos E., Lopes F., Franck J.S., Del Pino F.A.B., Fischer G., Corrêa M.N., Schmitt E. (2017). Efeito da suplementação de metionina sobre o ganho de peso e diâmetro folicular em novilhas de corte submetidas a protocolo de inseminação artificial em tempo fixo. In: Simposio Internacional de Reproduccion Animal, 12. IRAAC, Cordoba.Search in Google Scholar

Edmunds B., Südekum K.H., Bennett R., Schröder A., Spiekers H., Schwarz F.J. (2013). The amino acid composition of rumen-undegradable protein: a comparison between forages. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 4568–4577.Search in Google Scholar

Flores A., Mendoza G., Pinos-Rodriguez J.M., Plata F., Vega S., Bárcena R. (2009). Effects of rumen-protected methionine on milk production of dairy goats. It. J. Anim. Sci., 8: 271–275.Search in Google Scholar

Giallongo F., Hristov A.N., Oh J., Frederick T., Weeks H., Werner J., Lapierre H., Patton R.A., Gehman A., Parys C. (2015). Effects of slow-release urea and rumen-protected methionine and histidine on performance of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 3292–3308.Search in Google Scholar

Girma D.D., Ma L., Wang F., Jiang Q.R., Callaway T.R., Drackley J.K., Bu D.P. (2019). Effects of close-up dietary energy level and supplementing rumen-protected lysine on energy metabolites and milk production in transition cows. J. Dairy Sci., 102: 7059–7072.Search in Google Scholar

Givens D., Rulquin H. (2004). Utilisation by ruminants of nitrogen compounds in silage-based diets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 114: 1–18.Search in Google Scholar

Hussein H.S., Jordan R.M. (1991). Fish meal as a protein supplement in ruminant diets: A review. J. Anim. Sci., 69: 2147–2156.Search in Google Scholar

Jaenisch R., Bird A. (2003). Epigenetic regulation of gene expression: how the genome integrates intrinsic and environmental signals. Nature Genet., 33: 245–254.Search in Google Scholar

Jurgens M.H. (2002). Animal Feeding and Nutrition. Kendall Hunt.Search in Google Scholar

Kumar A., Palfrey H.A., Pathak R., Kadowitz P.J., Gettys T.W., Murthy S.N. (2017). The metabolism and significance of homocysteine in nutrition and health. Nutr. Metab., 14: 78.Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre H., Ouellet D.R., Doepel L., Holtrop G., Lobley G.E. (2008). Histidine, lysine and methionine: from metabolism to balanced dairy rations. Proc. 44th Eastern Nutrition Conference of the Animal Nutrition Association of Canada (ANAC), University of Guelph, Guelph, ON, Canada, pp. 19–36.Search in Google Scholar

Lapierre H., Ouellet D.R., Lobley G.E. (2014). Estimation of histidine requirement in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 97(E-Suppl. 1): 757.Search in Google Scholar

Lee C., Hristov A.N., Cassidy T.W., Heyler K.S., Lapierre H., Varga G.A., De Veth M.J., Patton R.A., Parys C. (2012). Rumen-protected lysine, methionine, and histidine increase milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet. J. Dairy Sci., 95: 6042–6056.Search in Google Scholar

Li X., Rezaei R., Li P., Wu G. (2011). Composition of amino acids in feed ingredients for animal diets. Amino Acids, 40: 1159–1168.Search in Google Scholar

Liu K., Liu Y., Liu S.M., Xu M., Yu Z.P., Wang X., Cao Y.C., Yao J.H. (2015). Relationships between leucine and the pancreatic exocrine function for improving starch digestibility in ruminants. J. Dairy Sci., 98: 2576–2582.Search in Google Scholar

Liu S., Lei J., Hancock S., Scanlan V., Broomfield S., Currie A., Thompson A. (2016). Lamb survival, glutathione redox state and immune function of neonates and lambs from periparturient Merino ewes supplemented with rumen-protected methionine. Archiv. Anim. Nutr., 70: 389–401.Search in Google Scholar

Lobley G.E. (1992). Control of the metabolic fate of amino acids in ruminants: a review. J. Anim. Sci., 70: 3264–3275.Search in Google Scholar

Lopes M.G., Echenique Dominguez J.H., Corrêa M.N., Schmitt E., Fischer G. (2019). Rumen-protected methionine in cattle: influences on reproduction, immune response, and productive performance. Arquiv. Instituto Biológico, 86.10.1590/1808-1657001292018Search in Google Scholar

Madsen T.G., Nielsen L., Nielsen M.O. (2005). Mammary nutrient uptake in response to dietary supplementation of rumen protected lysine and methionine in late and early lactating dairy goats. Small Rumin. Res., 56: 151–164.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani M., Rude B. (2020). Population, world production and quality of sheep and goat products. Am. J. Anim. Vet. Sci., 15: 291–299.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani M., Naserian A.A., Rude B., Valizadeh R., Tahmasbi A. (2019). Production of rumen-protected essential amino acids with chemical technique. Biosci. Biotechnol. Res. Asia, 16: 789–795.Search in Google Scholar

Mazinani M., Naserian A.A., Rude B.J., Tahmasbi A.M., Valizadeh R. (2020). Effects of feeding rumen–protected amino acids on the performance of feedlot calves. J. Adv. Vet. Anim. Res., 7: 229–233.Search in Google Scholar

Neinast M.D., Jang C., Hui S., Murashige D.S., Chu Q., Morscher R.J., Li X., Zhan L., White E., Anthony T.G. (2019). Quantitative analysis of the whole-body metabolic fate of branched-chain amino acids. Cell Metab., 29: 417–429.Search in Google Scholar

Nichols K., Doelman J., Kim J.J.M., Carson M., Metcalf J.A., Cant J.P. (2017). Exogenous essential amino acids stimulate an adaptive unfolded protein response in the mammary glands of lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 100: 5909–5921.Search in Google Scholar

NRC (2001). Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 7: 381.Search in Google Scholar

Nursoy H., Gonzalez Ronquillo M., Faciola A.P., Broderick G.A. (2018). Lactation response to soybean meal and rumen-protected methionine supplementation of corn silage-based diets. J. Dairy Sci., 101: 2084–2095.Search in Google Scholar

Oke B.O., Loerch S.C. (1989). The effects of dietary level and formaldehyde treatment of corn on site and extent of starch digestion in sheep. J. Anim. Sci., 67(Suppl. 1): 538.Search in Google Scholar

Ordway R.S., Boucher S.E., Whitehouse N.L., Schwab C.G., Sloan B.K. (2009). Effects of providing two forms of supplemental methionine to periparturient Holstein dairy cows on feed intake and lactational performance. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 5154–5166.Search in Google Scholar

Osorio J.S., Ji P., Drackley J.K., Luchini D., Loor J.J. (2013). Supplemental Smartamine M or MetaSmart during the transition period benefits postpartal cow performance and blood neutrophil function. J. Dairy Sci., 96: 6248–6263.Search in Google Scholar

Patton R.A. (2010). Effect of rumen-protected methionine on feed intake, milk production, true milk protein concentration, true milk protein yield, and the factors that influence these effects: a metaanalysis. J. Dairy Sci., 93: 2105–2118.Search in Google Scholar

Pereira A.B.D., Moura D.C., Whitehouse N.L., Brito A.F. (2020). Production and nitrogen metabolism in lactating dairy cows fed finely ground field pea plus soybean meal or canola meal with or without rumen-protected methionine supplementation. J. Dairy Sci., 103: 3161–3176.Search in Google Scholar

Pitta D.W., Indugu N., Vecchiarelli B., Hennessy M., Baldin M., Harvatine K.J.. (2020). Effect of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoate (HMTBa) supplementation on rumen bacterial populations in dairy cows when exposed to diets with risk for milk fat depression. J. Dairy Sci., 103: 2718–2730.Search in Google Scholar

Puniya A.K., Singh R., Kamra D.N. (2015). Rumen microbiology: from evolution to revolution. Springer, 379 pp.10.1007/978-81-322-2401-3Search in Google Scholar

Rémond D., Bernard L., Poncet C. (2000). Amino acid flux in ruminal and gastric veins of sheep: effects of ruminal and omasal injections of free amino acids and carnosine. J. Anim. Sci., 78: 158–166.Search in Google Scholar

Ren H., Bai H., Su X., Pang J., Li X., Wu S., Cao Y., Cai C., Yao J. (2020). Decreased amylolytic microbes of the hindgut and increased blood glucose implied improved starch utilization in the small intestine by using rumen-protected leucine in dairy calves. J. Dairy Sci., 103: 4218–4235.Search in Google Scholar

Reynolds C.K., Harmon D.L., Cecava M.J. (1994). Absorption and delivery of nutrients for milk protein synthesis by portal-drained viscera. J. Dairy Sci., 77: 2787–2808.Search in Google Scholar

Robinson P.H., Veira D.M., Ivan M. (1998). Influence of supplemental protein quality on rumen fermentation, rumen microbial yield, forestomach digestion, and intestinal amino acid flow in late lactation Holstein cows. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 78: 95–105.Search in Google Scholar

Robinson P.H., Swanepoel N., Shinzato I., Juchem S.O. (2011). Productive responses of lactating dairy cattle to supplementing high levels of ruminally protected lysine using a rumen protection technology. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 168: 30–41.Search in Google Scholar

Santos F.A.P., Santos J.E.P., Theurer C.B., Huber J.T. (1998). Effects of rumen-undegradable protein on dairy cow performance: a 12-year literature review. J. Dairy Sci. 81: 3182–3213.Search in Google Scholar

Saxton R.A., Knockenhauer K.E., Wolfson R.L., Chantranupong L., Pacold M.E., Wang T., Schwartz T.U., Sabatini D.M. (2016). Structural basis for leucine sensing by the Sestrin2-MTORC1 pathway. Science, 351: 53–58.Search in Google Scholar

Schelling G.T., Richardson C.R., Tucker R.E., Mitchell G.E. (1973). Lamb responses to dietary methionine and oxytetracycline. J. Anim. Sci., 37: 356.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab C.G. (1994). Optimizing amino acid nutrition for optimum yields of milk and milk protein. Proc. Southwest Nutrition and Management Conference, pp. 114–132.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab C.G. (1995). Protected proteins and amino acids for ruminants. Biotechnol. Anim. Feeds Anim. Feed., 141.10.1002/9783527615353.ch7Search in Google Scholar

Schwab C.G., Broderick G.A. (2017). A 100-year review: protein and amino acid nutrition in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 100: 10094–10112.Search in Google Scholar

Schwab C.G., Satter L.D., Clay A.B. (1976). Response of lactating dairy cows to abomasal infusion of amino acids. J. Dairy Sci., 59: 1254–1270.Search in Google Scholar

Sevi A., Taibi L., Albenzio M., Muscio A., Annicchiarico G. (2000). Effect of parity on milk yield, composition, somatic cell count, renneting parameters and bacteria counts of Comisana ewes. Small Rumin. Res., 37: 99–107.Search in Google Scholar

Shelke S.K., Thakur S.S., Shete S.M. (2012). Protected nutrients technology and the impact of feeding protected nutrients to dairy animals: a review. Int. J. Dairy Sci., 7: 51–62.Search in Google Scholar

Soda K. (2019). Spermine and gene methylation: a mechanism of lifespan extension induced by polyamine-rich diet. Amino Acids, 52: 213–224.Search in Google Scholar

Sturmey R.G., Reis A., Leese H.J., Mc Evoy T.G. (2009). Role of fatty acids in energy provision during oocyte maturation and early embryo development. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 44: 50–58.Search in Google Scholar

Sulu N., Bjørnstad K., Grønseth D., Velle W. (1989). Ruminal degradation and outflow of amino acids in cows. J. Vet. Med. Ser. A, 36: 55–63.Search in Google Scholar

Sun H., Zhang X.-M., Wang X., Luo Y., Bi X.-H., Li H.-X., Zhang X.-S., Zhao S.-F. (2010). Effect of supplementing rumen protected methionine on milk performance of dairy cow and economic benefits analysis. China Dairy Cattle, 11.Search in Google Scholar

Swanepoel N., Robinson P.H., Erasmus L.J. (2010). Amino acid needs of lactating dairy cows: impact of feeding lysine in a ruminally protected form on productivity of lactating dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 157: 79–94.Search in Google Scholar

Swanepoel N., Robinson P.H., Erasmus L.J. (2015). Effects of ruminally protected methionine and/or phenylalanine on performance of high producing Holstein cows fed rations with very high levels of canola meal. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 205: 10–22.Search in Google Scholar

Tedeschi L.O., Callaway T.R., Muir J.P., Anderson R.C. (2011). Potential environmental benefits of feed additives and other strategies for ruminant production. Rev. Bras. Zootec., 40: 291–309.Search in Google Scholar

Toledo M.Z., Baez G.M., Garcia-Guerra A., Lobos N.E., Guenther J.N., Trevisol E., Luchini D., Shaver R.D., Wiltbank M.C. (2017). Effect of feeding rumenprotected methionine on productive and reproductive performance of dairy cows. PLoS One, 12(12):e0189117.Search in Google Scholar

Velle W., Kanui T.I., Aulie A., Sjaastad Ø.V. (1998). Ruminal escape and apparent degradation of amino acids administered intraruminally in mixtures to cows. J. Dairy Sci., 81: 3231–3238.Search in Google Scholar

Volden H., Velle W., Sjaastad Ø.V., Aulie A., Harstad O.M. (2001). Concentrations and flow of free amino acids in ruminal and duodenal liquid of dairy cows in relation to feed composition, time of feeding and level of feed intake. Acta Agric. Scand. A - Anim. Sci., 51: 35–45.Search in Google Scholar

Vudmaska I., Petrukh I., Sachko S., Vlizlo V., Kosenko Y., Kozak M., Petruk A. (2021). Using hop cones, vitamin E, methionine, choline and carnitine for treatment of subclinical ketosis in transition dairy cows. Adv. Anim. Vet. Sci., 9: 55–62.Search in Google Scholar

van Vuuren A.M., Pineiro C., vander Hoek K.V., Oenema O. (2015). Economics of low nitrogen feeding strategies. Pp. 35–51 in Costs of ammonia abatement and the climate co-benefits. Springer.10.1007/978-94-017-9722-1_3Search in Google Scholar

Vyas D., Erdman R.A. (2009). Meta-analysis of milk protein yield responses to lysine and methionine supplementation. J. Dairy Sci., 92: 5011–5018.Search in Google Scholar

Wallace R.J., Chesson A. (2008). Biotechnology in Animal Feeds and Animal Feeding. John Wiley & Sons.Search in Google Scholar

Waterman R.C., Ujazdowski V.L., Petersen M.K. (2012). Effects of rumen-protected methionine on plasma amino acid concentrations during a period of weight loss for late gestating beef heifers. Amino Acids, 43: 2165–2177.Search in Google Scholar

Webb K.E.Jr, Dirienzo D.B., Matthews J.C. (1993). Recent developments in gastrointestinal absorption and tissue utilization of peptides: a review. J. Dairy Sci., 76: 351–361.Search in Google Scholar

Williams L.R., Martz F.A., Hilderbrand E.S. (1970). Feeding encapsulated methionine supplement to lactating cows. J. Dairy Sci., 53: 1709–1713.Search in Google Scholar

Wrenzycki C., Herrmann D., Lucas-Hahn A., Gebert C., Korsawe K., Lemme E., Carnwath J.W., Niemann H. (2005). Epigenetic reprogramming throughout preimplantation development and consequences for assisted reproductive technologies. Birth Defects Research Part C: Embryo Today: Reviews, 75: 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

Yoder P.S., Huang X., Teixeira I.A., Cant J.P., Hanigan M.D. (2020). Effects of jugular infused methionine, lysine, and histidine as a group or leucine and isoleucine as a group on production and metabolism in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci., 103: 2387–2404.Search in Google Scholar

Yu Z.P., Xu M., Wang F., Liu K., Yao J.H., Wu Z., Qin D.K., Sun F.F. (2014). Effect of duodenal infusion of leucine and phenylalanine on intestinal enzyme activities and starch digestibility in goats. Livest. Sci., 162: 134–140.Search in Google Scholar

Zang Y., Silva L.H.P., Ghelichkhan M., Miura M., Whitehouse N.L., Chizzotti M.L., Brito A.F. (2019). Incremental amounts of rumen-protected histidine increase plasma and muscle histidine concentrations and milk protein yield in dairy cows fed a metabolizable protein-deficient diet. J. Dairy Sci., 102: 4138–4154.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao K., Liu W., Lin X.Y., Hu Z.Y., Yan Z.G., Wang Y., Shi K.R., Liu G.M., Wang Z.H. (2019). Effects of rumen-protected methionine and other essential amino acid supplementation on milk and milk component yields in lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci., 102: 7936–7947.Search in Google Scholar

Zhou Z., Vailati-Riboni M., Trevisi E., Drackley J.K., Luchini D.N., Loor J.J. (2016). Better postpartal performance in dairy cows supplemented with rumen-protected methionine compared with choline during the peripartal period. J. Dairy Sci., 99: 8716–8732.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD