1. bookVolume 21 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)
Journal Details
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Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Extract of grape seed enhances the growth performance, humoral and mucosal immunity, and resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) against Aeromonas hydrophila

Published Online: 29 Jan 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 21 (2021) - Issue 1 (January 2021)
Page range: 217 - 232
Received: 27 Dec 2019
Accepted: 05 May 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) on the growth performance, immune response, and disease resistance of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were distributed in four groups and fed diets with varying levels of GSE at 0, 10, 20, and 30 g/kg for 56 days. The final length in fish fed with 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet significantly increased in comparison with the control group (P<0.05). The final weight and weight gain of fish fed with GSE were statistically higher than for the control diet, while the feed conversion ratio was lower in GSE groups than the control. Hematological parameters did not statistically improve with GSE supplemented diets (P>0.05). However, fish fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet displayed a significantly higher WBC count than the other group (P<0.05). The serum total protein and globulin in fish fed with 20 g GSE/kg diet significantly increased compared to the control (P<0.05). A similar pattern was noticed in results for serum and mucus lysozyme activity with a significant increase in fish fed with 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet compared to the control (P<0.05). Total antibody levels in serum and mucus samples were also increased in fish by dietary GSE with maximum levels by 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet. Besides, mucus protease activity was higher in fish that received 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet with maximum level shown in fish fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet compared to the control group (P<0.05). Meanwhile, all groups showed higher mucus antibacterial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila with the highest activity in 30 g GSE/kg diet in comparison with the control group. The cumulative mortality was 36.67% when fish were fed with 30 g GSE/kg diet and challenged with A. hydrophila. However, the mortality rate was 40% and 53.33% in fish fed 20 and 30 g GSE/kg diet, respectively. This study suggests that supplementation of GSE could significantly enhance the growth performance, immune responses, and disease resistance against A. hydrophila in common carp.

Keywords

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