1. bookVolume 20 (2020): Issue 3 (July 2020)
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

In vitro Production of Porcine Embryos: Current Status and Possibilities – A Review

Published Online: 01 Aug 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 20 (2020) - Issue 3 (July 2020)
Page range: 775 - 796
Received: 25 Oct 2019
Accepted: 03 Mar 2020
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

This paper presents the current possibilities, state of knowledge and prospects of in vitro production (IVP) of pig embryos, which consists of in vitro oocyte maturation, in vitro fertilization and in vitro embryo culture. In pigs, oocyte maturation is one of the most important stages in the embryo IVP process. It determines the oocyte’s fertilization ability as well as its embryonic development. Through many research studies of the proper selection of oocytes and appropriate maturation medium composition (especially the addition of various supplements), the in vitro maturation of pig oocytes has been significantly improved. Recent studies have demonstrated that modifications of the diluents and in vitro fertilization media can reduce polyspermy. Furthermore, several adjustments of the porcine culture media with the addition of some supplements have enhanced the embryo quality and developmental competence. These updates show the progress of IVP in pigs that has been achieved; however, many problems remain unsolved.


Abeydeera L.R. (2002). In vitro production of embryos in swine. Theriogenology, 57, 1: 256-273.Search in Google Scholar

Algriany O., Bevers M., Schoevers E., Colenbrander B., Dieleman S. (2004). Follicle size-dependent effects of sow follicular fluid on in vitro cumulus expansion, nuclear maturation and blastocyst formation of sow cumulus oocytes complexes. Theriogenology, 62, 8: 1483-1497.Search in Google Scholar

Anchorodoquy J.P., Anchorodoquy J.M., Picco S.J., Sirini M.A., Errecalde A.L., Furnus C.C. (2014). Influence of manganese on apoptosis and glutathione content of cumulus cells during in vitro maturation in bovine oocytes. Call. Biol. Int., 38: 246-253.Search in Google Scholar

Appeltant R., Somfai T., Maes D., Van Soom A., Kikuchi K. (2016). Porcine oocyte maturation in vitro: role of cAMP and oocyte-secreted factors – A practical approach. J. Reprod. Dev., 62, 5: 439-449.Search in Google Scholar

Batista R.I., Moro L.N., Corbin E., Alminana C., Gonҫalves Souza-Fabian J.M., de Figueirȇdo Freitas V.J., Mermillod P. (2016). Combination of oviduct fluid and heparin to improve monospermic zygotes production during porcine in vitro fertilization. Theriogenology, 86, 2: 495-502.Search in Google Scholar

Beckmann L.S., Day B.N. (1993). Effects of media NaCl concentration and osmolarity on the culture of early-stage porcine embryos and the viability of embryos cultured in a selected superior medium. Theriogenology, 39, 3: 611-622.Search in Google Scholar

Bielańska-Osuchowska Z. 2001. Embriology (in Polish). Warszawa, Państwowe Wydawnictwo Rolnicze i Leśne, Wydanie IV.Search in Google Scholar

Biswas D., So K.H., Hwang S.U., Yoon J.D., Kim M., Kim D.Y., Hyun S.H. (2018). Embryotropic effects of vascular endothelial growth factor on porcine embryos produced by in vitro fertilization. Theriogenology, 15, 120: 147-156.Search in Google Scholar

Cai L., Jeong Y.W., Hyun S.H., Yu I.J., Hwang W.S., Jeon Y. (2020). Trehalose supplementation during porcine oocytes in vitro maturation improves the developmental capacity of parthenotes. Theriogenology, 141: 91-97.Search in Google Scholar

Camarena V., Wang G. (2016). The epigenetic role of vitamin C in health and disease. Cell. Mol. Life. Sci., 73, 8: 1645-58.Search in Google Scholar

Cheng W.T.K., Polge C., Moor R.M. (1986). In vitro fertilization of pig and sheep oocytes. Theriogenology, 25: 146.Search in Google Scholar

Coy P., Martinez E., Ruiz S., Vazquez J.M., Roca J., Matas C. (1993). In vitro fertilization of pig oocytes after different co-incubation intervals. Theriogenology, 39, 5: 1201-1208.Search in Google Scholar

Cruz M.H., Leal C.L., da Cruz J.F., Tan D.X., Reiter R.J. (2014). Role of melatonin on production and preservation of gametes and embryos: a brief review. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 145: 150-160.Search in Google Scholar

Dang-Nguyen T.Q., Nguyen H.T., Somfai T., Wells D., Men N.T., Viet-Linh N., Noguchi J., Kaneko H., Kikuchi K., Nagai T. (2018). Sucrose assists selection of high-quality oocytes in pigs. Anim. Sci. J., 89, 6: 880-887.Search in Google Scholar

Ding J., Foxcroft G.R. (1994). Epidermal growth factor enhances oocyte maturation in pig. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 39, 1: 30-40.Search in Google Scholar

Fisher B., Bavister B.D. (1993). Oxygen tension in the oviduct and utereus of rhesus monkeys, hamsters and rabbits. J. Reprod. Fertil., 99, 2: 673-679.Search in Google Scholar

Funahashi H., Asano A., Fujiwara T., Nagai T., Niwa K., Fraser L.R. (2000). Both fertilization promoting peptide and adenosine stimulate capacitation but inhibit spontaneous acrosome loss in ejaculated boar spermatozoa in vitro. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 55, 1: 117-124.Search in Google Scholar

Funahashi H., Cantley T.C., Stumpf T.T, Terlouw S.L., Day B.N. (1994). In vitro development of in vitro matured porcine oocytes following chemical activation or in vitro fertilization. Biol. Reprod., 50, 5: 1072-1077.Search in Google Scholar

Funahashi H., Romar R. (2004). Reduction of the incidence of polyspermic penetration into porcine oocytes by pretreatment of fresh spermatozoa with adenosine and transient co-incubation of the gametes with caffeine. Reproduction, 128, 6: 789-800.Search in Google Scholar

Funahashi H., Day B.N. (1993). Effects of different serum supplements in maturation medium on meiotic and cytoplasmic maturation of pig oocytes. Theriogenology, 39, 4: 965-973.Search in Google Scholar

Gajda B. (2009b). Factors and methods of pig oocyte and embryo quality improvement and their application in reproductive biotechnology. Reprod. Biol., 9, 2: 97-112.10.1016/S1642-431X(12)60020-5Search in Google Scholar

Gajda B., Grad I., Smorąg Z. (2009a). Effect of plant protein on development and quality of cultured in vitro porcine zygotes. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 21, 1: 157.10.1071/RDv21n1Ab113Search in Google Scholar

Gajda B., Grad I., Van der Tuin E., Smorąg Z. (2010). Quality of porcine embryos cultured with hyaluronan. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 22, 1: 232.Search in Google Scholar

Gajda B., Poniedziałek-Kempny K., Rajska I., Smorąg Z. (2015). Effect of Thymosin on in vitro fertilization and developmental competence and quality of pig embryos. Anim. Reprod., 12, 3: 735.Search in Google Scholar

Gajda B., Smorąg Z. (2002). Vitrification of cultured and non-cultured expanded and hatched blastocysts. Cryo.-Lett., 23: 385-388.Search in Google Scholar

George F., Vancken M., Verhaeghe B., Verhoeye F., Schneider Y.J., Massip A., Donnay I. (2006). Freezing of in vitro produced bovine embryos in animal protein-free medium containing vegetal peptones. Theriogenology, 66, 5: 1381-1390.Search in Google Scholar

Gil M.A., Abeydeera L.R., Day B.N., Vazquez J.M., Roca J., Martinez E.A. (2003). Effect of the volume of medium and number of oocytes during in vitro fertilization on embryo development in pigs. Theriogenology, 60, 4: 767-776.Search in Google Scholar

Gil M.A., Almininana C., Roca J.M., Vazquez, Martinem E.A. (2008). Boar semen variability and its effects on IVF efficiency. Theriogenology, 70, 8: 1260-1268.Search in Google Scholar

Gil M.A., Nohalez A., Martinez C.A., Ake-Villanueva J.R., Centurion-Castro F., Maside C., Cuello C., Roca J., Parrilla I., Martinez E.A. (2017). Effects of meiotic inhibitors and gonadotrophins on porcine oocytes in vitro maturation, fertilization and development. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 52, 5: 873-880.Search in Google Scholar

Goovaerts I.G.F., Leroy J.L.M.R., Jorssen E.P.A., Bols P.E.J., (2010). Non-invasive bovine oocyte quality assessment: possibilities of a single oocyte culture. Theriogenology, 74: 1509-1520.Search in Google Scholar

Grasl-Kraupp B., Ruttkay-Nedecky B., Koudelka H., Bukowska K., Bursh W., Schulte-Herman R. (1995). In situdetection of fragmented DNA (TUNEL assay) fails to discriminate among apoptosis, necrosis, and autolytic cell death: a cautionary note. Hepatology, 21, 5: 1465-1468.Search in Google Scholar

Grupen C.G., Nottle M.B. (2000). A simple modification of the in vitro fertilization procedure. Theriogenology, 53: 422.Search in Google Scholar

Guo Q., Xuan M.F., Luo Z.B., Wang J.X., Jin S.S., Yin X.J., Kang J.D. (2019). Baicalin improves IVM of pig oocytes and subsequent preimplantation embryo development by inhibiting apoptosis. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 31, 5: 983-992.Search in Google Scholar

Hara T., Kin A., Aoki S., Nakamura S., Shirasuna K., Kuwayama T., Iwata H. (2018). Resveratrol enhances the clearance of mitochondrial damage by vitrification and improves the development of vitrified-warmed bovine embryos. PLoS One., 13, 10: e0204571.Search in Google Scholar

Hong J.Y., Yong H.Y., Lee B.C., Hwang W.S., Lim J.M., Lee E.S. (2004). Effects of amino acids on maturation, fertilization and embryo development of pig follicular oocytes in two IVM media. Theriogenology, 62, 8: 1473-82.Search in Google Scholar

Horning K.J., Caito S.W., Tipps K.G., Bowman A.B., Aschner M. (2015). Manganese is essential for neuronal health. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 35: 71-108.Search in Google Scholar

Hoshino Y. (2018). Updating the markers for oocyte quality evaluation: intracellular temperature as a new index. Reprod. Med. Biol., 17: 434-441.Search in Google Scholar

Hoyos-Marulanda V., Alves B.S., Rosa P.R.A., Vieira A.D., Gasperin B.G., Mondadori R.G., Lucia T.Jr. (2019). Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids on the development of pig oocytes in vitro following parthenogenetic activation and on the lipid content of oocytes and embryos. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 205: 150-155.Search in Google Scholar

Hu J., Cheng D., Gao X., Bao J., Ma X., Wang H. (2012). Vitamin C enhances the in vitro development of porcine preimplantation embryos by reducing oxidative stress. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 47, 6: 873-879.Search in Google Scholar

Hyun S.H., Lee G.S., Kim D.Y., Kim H.S., Lee S.H., Kim S., Lee E.S., Lim J.M., Kang S.K., Lee B.C., Hwang W.S. (2003). Effect of maturation media and oocytes derived from sows or gilts on the development of cloned pig embryos. Theriogenology, 59, 7: 1641-1649.Search in Google Scholar

Itami N., Shirasuna K., Kuwayama T., Iwata H. (2015). Resveratrol improves the quality of pig oocytes derived from early antral follicles through sirtuin 1 activation. Theriogenology, 83, 8: 1360-1367.Search in Google Scholar

Itano N., Kimata K. (2002). Mammalian hyaluronan synthases. IUBMB. Life, 54, 4: 195-199.Search in Google Scholar

Ito M., Iwata H., Kitagawa M., Kon Y., Kuwayama T., Monji Y. (2008). Effect of follicular fluid collected from various diameter follicles on the progression of nuclear maturation and developmental competence of pig oocytes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 106, 3-4: 421-430.Search in Google Scholar

Jaśkowski J.M., Kempisty B., Woźna M., Walczak R., Szczepańska P., Dziuban J., Jackowska M., Antosik P. (2010). Selected evaluation methods of the developmental competence and selection of bovine oocytes and embryos (in Polish). Med. Wet., 66, 11: 740-744.Search in Google Scholar

Jeon Y., Yoon J.D., Cai L., Hwang S.U., Kim E., Zheng Z., Lee E., Kim D.Y., Hyun S.H. (2014). Supplementation of zinc on oocyte in vitro maturation improves preimplantation embryonic development in pigs. Theriogenology, 82, 6: 866-874.Search in Google Scholar

Jiang H., Liang S., Yao X.R., Jin Y.X., Shen X.H., Yuan B., Zhang J.B., Kim N.H. (2018). Laminarin improves developmental competence of porcine early stage embryos by inhibiting oxidative stress. Theriogenology, 115: 38-44.Search in Google Scholar

Kano K., Miyano T., Kato S. (1998). Effects of glycosaminoglycans on the development of in vitro-matured and -fertilized porcine oocytes to the blastocyst stage in vitro. Biol. Reprod., 58, 5: 1226-1232.Search in Google Scholar

Kątska L. (2000).The molecular basis of the capacitation process of mammalian spermatozoa (in Polish). Med. Wet., 56, 6: 372-375.Search in Google Scholar

Kątska-Książkiewicz L. (2006). Pig embryo production by in vitro maturation and fertilization of ovarian oocytes. J. Anim. Feed. Sci., 15, 4: 525-542.Search in Google Scholar

Kere M., Siriboon C., Lo N.W., Nguyen N.T., Ju J.C. (2013). Ascorbic acid improves the developmental competence of porcine oocytes after parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transplantation. J. Reprod. Dev., 59, 1: 78-84.Search in Google Scholar

Kikuchi K., Onishi A., Kashiwazaki N., Iwamoto M., Noguchi J., Kaneko H., Akita T., Nagai T. (2002). Successful piglet production after transfer of blastocysts produced by a modified in vitro system. Biol. Reprod., 66, 4: 1033-1041.Search in Google Scholar

Kimura N., Konno Y., Miyoshi K., Matsumoto H., Sato E. (2002). Expression of hyaluronan synthases and CD44 messenger RNAs in porcine cumulus-oocyte complexes during in vitro maturation. Biol. Reprod., 66, 3: 707-717.Search in Google Scholar

Lee K., Wang C., Chaille J.M., Machaty Z. (2010). Effect of resveratrol on the development of porcine embryos produced in vitro. J. Reprod. Dev., 56, 3: 330-335.Search in Google Scholar

Lee S., Jin J.X., Khoirinaya C., Kim G.A., Lee B.C. (2016). Lanosterol influences cytoplasmic maturation of pig oocytes in vitro and improves preimplantation development of cloned embryos. Theriogenology, 85, 4: 575-584.Search in Google Scholar

Lee S., Jin J.X., Taweechaipaisankul A., Kim G.A., Lee B.C. (2018). Synergist effects of resveratrol and melatonin on in vitro maturation of porcine oocytes and subsequent embryo development. Theriogenology, 1, 114: 191-198.Search in Google Scholar

Li Y., Zhang Z., He C., Zhu K., Xu Z., Ma T., Tao J., Liu G. (2015). Melatonin protects porcine oocyte in vitro maturation from heat stress. J. Pineal. Res., 59, 3: 365-375.Search in Google Scholar

Liang S., Guo J., Jin Y.X., Yuan B., Zhang J.B., Kim N.H. (2018). C-Phycocyanin supplementation during in vitro maturation enhances pre-implementation developmental competence of parthenogenetic and cloned embryos in pigs. Theriogenology, 106: 69-78.Search in Google Scholar

Lin T., Lee J. E., Kang J.W., Oqani R.K., Cho E.S., Kim S.B., Jin D.I. (2018). Melatonin supplementation during prolonged in vitro maturation improves the quality and development of poor-quality porcine oocytes via antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 85: 665-681.Search in Google Scholar

Liu Z., Foote R.H. (1995). Development of bovine embryos in KSOM with added superoxide dismutase and taurine and with five and twenty per cent O2. Biol. Reprod., 53, 4: 786-790.Search in Google Scholar

Lowe J.L., Bartolac L.K., Bathgate R., Grupen C.G,. (2017). Supplementation of culture medium with L-carnitine improves the development and cryotolerance of in vitro-produced porcine embryos. Reprod. Fertil. Dev., 29, 12: 2357-2366.Search in Google Scholar

Machaty Z., Day B.N., Prather R.S. (1998). Development of early porcine embryos in vitro and in vivo. Biol. Reprod., 59: 451-455.Search in Google Scholar

Malik R.K., Lohan I.S., Dhanda O.P., Tuli R.K. (1997). Test for the acrosomal reaction of goat spermatozoa with heparyn. Small. Rum. Res., 26, 1-2: 163-166.Search in Google Scholar

Mattioli M., Bacci M.L., Galeati G., Seren E. (1989). Developmental competence of pig oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro. Theriogenology, 31, 6: 1201-1207.Search in Google Scholar

Mattioli M., Bacci M.L., Galeati G., Seren E. (1991). Effects of LH and FSH on the maturation of pig oocytes in vitro. Theriogenology, 36, 1: 95-105.Search in Google Scholar

Meyer K., Palmer, J.W. (1934). The polysaccharide of the vitreous humor. J. Biol. Chem., 107: 629-634.Search in Google Scholar

Nagai T. (1996). In vitro maturation and fertilization of pig oocytes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 42: 153-163.Search in Google Scholar

Nagai T., Miurm K., Kikuchi K., Okamura N. (1993). Effects of caffeine on in-vitro fertilization of pig follicular oocytes. J. Reprod. Dev., 39, 4: 347-352.Search in Google Scholar

Nagai T., Moor R.M. (1990). Effect of oviduct cells on the incidence of polyspermy in pig eggs fertilized in vitro. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 26, 4: 377-382.Search in Google Scholar

Nakamura Y., Tajima S., Kikuchi K. (2017). The quality after culture in vitro or in vivo of porcine oocytes matured and fertilized in vitro and their ability to develop to term. Anim. Sci. J., 88, 12: 1916-1924.Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen T.V., Tanihara F., Do L., Sato Y., Taniguchi M., Takagi M., Van Nguyen T., Otoi T. (2017). Chlorogenic acid supplementation during in vitro maturation improves maturation, fertilization and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 52, 6: 969-975.Search in Google Scholar

Nie J., Yan K., Sui L., Zhang H., Zhang H., Yang X., Lu S., Lu K., Liang X. (2020). Mogroside V improves porcine oocyte in vitro maturation and subsequent embryonic development. Theriogenology,141: 35-40.Search in Google Scholar

Niemann H., Rath D. (2001). Progress in reproductive biotechnology in swine. Theriogenology, 56, 8: 1291-1304.Search in Google Scholar

Opiela J., Kątska-Książkiewicz L. (2005). The characteristics of the developmental ability of mammalian oocytes in relations to fertilization and embryo development. Part II. The regulation of cytoplasmic and genomic maturity (in Polish). Biotechnologia, 2, 69: 151-162.Search in Google Scholar

Palasz A.T., Rodriguez-Martinez H., Beltran-Berna P., Perez-Garnelo S., Martinez M.F., Gutierrez-Adan A., De La Fuente J. (2006). Effects of Hyaluronan, BSA, and serum on bovine embryo in vitro development, ultrastructure, and gene expression patterns. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 73, 12: 1503-1511.Search in Google Scholar

Petters R.M. (1992). In vitro culture of early stage embryos from livestock. Tiss. Cult. Res. Comm., 11, 3: 305-313.Search in Google Scholar

Petters R.M., Wells K.D. (1993). Culture of pig embryos. J. Reprod. Fertil., 48: 61-73.Search in Google Scholar

Poniedziałek-Kempny K., Gajda B., Rajska I., Gajda L., Smorąg Z. (2020). Piglets produced by transfer of embryos obtained by in vitro fertilization of oocytes matured in vitro with thymosin: A case report. Med Wet, 76, 3, 181-185. doi: org/10.21521/mw.6356.10.21521/mw.6356Search in Google Scholar

Prather R.S, Day B.N. (1998). Practical considerations for the in vitro production of pig embryos. Theriogenology, 49, 1: 23-32.Search in Google Scholar

Qasim M., Jin J.X., Lee S., Taweechaipaisankul A., Setyawan E. M. N., Kim G.A., Lee B.C. (2019). Effects of manganese on maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro and their subsequent embryo development after parthenogenetic activation and somatic cell nuclear transfer. J. Reprod. Dev., 65, 3: 259-265.Search in Google Scholar

Qi J.J., Li X.X., Diao Y.F., Liu P.L., Wang D.L., Bai C.Y., Yuan B., Liang S., Sun B.X. (2020). Asiatic acid supplementation during the in vitro culture period improves early embryonic development of porcine embryos produced by parthenogenetic activation, somatic cell nuclear transfer and in vitro fertilization. Theriogenology,142: 26-33.Search in Google Scholar

Rajska I., Poniedziałek-Kempny K., Sobol K., Gajda B. (2018). The effect of vitamin C on the developmental competences and quality of pig blastocysts obtained after in vitro fertilization. Anim. Reprod., 15, 3: 572.Search in Google Scholar

Redel B.K., Spate L.D., Lee K., Mao J., Whitworth K.M., Prather R.S. (2016). Glycine supplementation in vitro enhances porcine preimplantation embryo cell number and decreases apoptosis but does not lead to live births. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 83, 3: 246-258.Search in Google Scholar

Reiter R.J., Tan D.X., Manchester L.C., Pilar Terron M., Flores L.J., Koppisepi S. (2007). Medical implications of melatonin: receptor – mediated and receptor – independent actions. Adv. Med. Sci., 52: 11-28.Search in Google Scholar

Ríos G.L., Buschiazzo J., Mucci N.C., Kaiser G.G., Cesari A. (2015). Combined epidermal growth factor and hyaluronic acid supplementation of in vitro maturation medium and its impact on bovine oocyte proteome and competence. Theriogenology, 83: 874-880.Search in Google Scholar

Romek M., Gajda B., Krzysztofowicz E., Kepczyński M., Smorąg Z. (2011). Lipid content in pig blastocyst cultured in the presence or absence of protein and vitamin E or phenazine ethosulfate. Folia. Biol. (Krakow), 59, 1-2: 45-52.Search in Google Scholar

Romek M., Gajda B., Krzysztofowicz E., Kucia M., Uzarowska A., Smorąg Z. (2017). Improved quality of porcine embryos cultured with hyaluronan due to the modification of the mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species level. Theriogenology, 102: 1-9.Search in Google Scholar

Sato E., Miyamoto H., Koide S. (1990). Glycoaminoglycans in porcine follicular fluid promoting viability of oocytes in culture. Mol. Reprod. Dev., 26: 391-397.Search in Google Scholar

Silva B.R., Masinde C., Vieira L.A., Cadenas J., Alves B.G., Ferreira A.C.A., Aguiar F.L.N, Silva A.L.C, Figueiredo J.R., Silva J.R.V. (2018). Dose-dependent effects of frutalin on in vitro maturation and fertilization of pig oocytes. Anim. Reprod. Sci., 192: 216-222.Search in Google Scholar

Sirard M.A., Dubuc A., Bolamba D., Zheng Y., Coenen K. (1993). Follicle-oocyte-sperm interactions in vivo and in vitro in pigs. J. Reprod. Fertil., 48: 3-16.Search in Google Scholar

Skrzyszowska M., Samiec M., Słomski R., Lipiński D., Mały E. (2008). Development of porcine transgenic nuclear-transferred embryos derived from fibroblast cells transfected by the novel technique of nucleofection or standard lipofection. Theriogenology, 70, 2: 248-259.Search in Google Scholar

Smorąg Z., Gajda B., Mandryk-Grad I. (2013). Effect of high concertation of hyaluronan in culture medium on development competence and quality of porcine embryos. Proc 9 th International Conference on Pig Reproduction, 9-12 June, Olsztyn, abstr. P 10, p. 110.Search in Google Scholar

Sreenivas D., Kaldahar D.S., Yarla N.S., Thomas V.M., Samy A.P. (2013). Effect of protein supplementation on in vitro maturation of sheep oocytes and in vitro culture of preimplantation with α-tocopherol supplementation in CR1aa medium on sheep embryos to the blastocyst stage. J. Aller. Ther., 4, 2: 1-8.Search in Google Scholar

Stankiewicz T., Błaszczyk B., Udała J. (2009). A study on the occurrence of polyovular follicles in porcine ovaries with particular reference to intrafollicular hormone concentrations, quality of oocytes and their in vitro fertilization. Anat. Histol. Embryol., 38: 233-239.Search in Google Scholar

Steele C.C., Jefferys E., Diplock A.T. (1974). The effect of vitamin E and synthetic antioxidants on the growth in vitro of explanted rat embryos. J. Reprod. Fertil., 38: 115-123.Search in Google Scholar

Stern R., Asari A.A., Sughara H.N. (2006). Hyaluronan fragments: an information-rich system. Eur. J. Cell. Biol., 85: 699-715.Search in Google Scholar

Suzuki K., Eriksson B., Shimizu H., Nagai T., Rodriguez-Martinez H. (2000). Effect of hyaluronan on monospermic penetration of porcine oocytes fertilized in vitro. Int. J. Androl., 23, 1: 13-21.Search in Google Scholar

Tao Y., Chen H., Tian N.N., Huo D.T., Li G., Zhang Y.H., Liu Y., Fang F.G., Ding J.P., Zhang X.R. (2010). Effects of L-ascorbic acids, alpha-tocopherol and co-culture on in vitro developmental potential of porcine cumulus cells free oocytes. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 45, 1: 19-25.Search in Google Scholar

Tappel A.I. (1980). Vitamin E and selenium from in vivo lipid peroxidation. Ann. New York Acad. Sci., 355: 98-108.Search in Google Scholar

Tatemoto H., Ootaki K., Shigeta K., Muto N. (2001). Enhancement of developmental competence after in vitro fertilization of porcine oocytes by treatment with ascorbic acid 2-O-alpha-glucoside during in vitro maturation. Biol. Reprod., 65, 6: 1800-1806.Search in Google Scholar

Thompson J.G., Simpson A.C., Pugh P.A., Donnelly P.E., Tervit H.R. (1990). Effect of oxygen concertation on in vitro development of preimplantation sheep and cattle embryos. J. Reprod. Fertil., 89: 573-578.Search in Google Scholar

Tulsiani D.R., Abou-Haila A., Loeser C.R., Pereira B.M. (1998). The biological and functional significance of the sperm acrosome and acrosomal enzymes in mammalian fertilization. Exp. Cell. Res., 240, 2: 151-164.Search in Google Scholar

Uhm S.J., Gupta M.K., Yang J.H., Chung H.J., Min T.S., Lee H.T. (2010). Epidermal growth factor can be used in lieu of follicle-stimulating hormone for nuclear maturation of porcine oocytes in vitro. Theriogenology, 73, 8: 1024-1036.Search in Google Scholar

Ulloa Ulloa C.M., Yoshizawa M., Yamashita A., Hama S., Mitsui A., Hashi C., Abe H., Hoshi H., Fukui E., Matsumoto H. (2008). Blastocyst production from in vitro-produced day-2 bovine embryos classified by cleavage stage, and cytogenetical evaluation of the resultant day-8 blastocysts. J. Reprod. Dev., 54, 6: 465-472.Search in Google Scholar

Wang J., Liu Z., Sun Q., Xia S., Cui J., Yang L., An L., Zhang J., Su L., Su Y., Du F. (2019). Combined treatment with cysteamine and leukemia inhibitory factor promotes guinea pig oocyte meiosis in vitro. Am. J. Transl. Res., 11, 12: 7479-7491.Search in Google Scholar

Wang J.L., Zhang C., Liu B., Huang X.M., Dai J.G., Tian J.H., Gao J.M. (2019). Function of berberine on porcine in vitro fertilization embryo development and differential expression analysis of microRNAs. Reprod. Domest. Anim., 54, 3: 520-530.Search in Google Scholar

Wang W.H., Abeydeera L.R., Cantley T.C., and Day B.N. (1997). Effects of oocyte maturation media on development of pig embryos produced by in vitro fertilization. J. Reprod. Fertil., 111: 101-108.Search in Google Scholar

Wongsrikeao P., Otoi T., Yamasaki H., Agung B., Taniguchi M., Naoi H., Shimizu R., Nagai T. (2006). Effects of single and double exposure to brilliant cresyl blue on the selection of porcine oocytes for in vitro production of embryos. Theriogenology, 15, 66, 2: 366-372.Search in Google Scholar

Wu G.M., Lai L., Mao J., McCauley T.C., Caamaño J.N., Cantley T., Rieke A., Murphy C.N., Prather R.S., Didion B.A., Day B.N. (2004). Birth of piglets by in vitro fertilization of zona-free porcine oocytes. Theriogenology, 62, 8: 1544-56.Search in Google Scholar

Xia P., Wang Z., Yang Z., Tan J., Qin P. (2001). Ultrastructural study of polyspermy during early embryo development in pigs, observed by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. Cell. Tissue. Res., 303: 271-275.Search in Google Scholar

Yoneda A., Suzuki K., Mori T., Ueda J., Watanebe T. (2004). Effects of dilapidation and oxygen concertation on in vitro development of porcine embryos. J. Reprod. Dev., 50: 287-295.Search in Google Scholar

Yoshida M., Mizoguchi Y., Ishigaki K., Kojima T., Nagai T. (1993). Birth of piglets derived from in vitro fertilization of pig oocytes matured in vitro. Theriogenology, 39, 6: 1303-1311.Search in Google Scholar

Yoshioka K., Suzuki C., Onishi A. (2008). Defined system for in vitro production of porcine embryos using a single basic medium. J. Reprod. Dev., 54, 3: 208-213.Search in Google Scholar

Yoshioka K., Suzuki C., Tanaka A., Anas I., Iwamura S. (2002). Birth of piglets derived from porcine zygotes cultured in a chemically defined medium. Biol. Reprod., 66: 112-119.Search in Google Scholar

Yu X.Y., Liu Y.H., Liu X.M., Wang P.Ch., Liu Sh., Miao J. K., Du Z.Q., Yang C.X. (2018). Ascorbic acid induces global epigenetic reprogramming to promote meiotic maturation and developmental competence of porcine oocytes. Sci. Rep., 8, 1: 6132.Search in Google Scholar

Yuan Y., Spate L.D., Redel B.K., Tian Y., Zhou J., Prather R.S. (2017). Quadrupling efficiency in production of genetically modified pigs through improved oocyte maturation. PNAS: E5796-E5804.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang M.Z., Wang X., Yang H., Fogo A.B., Murphy B.J., Kaltenbach R., Cheng P., Zinker B., Harris R.C. (2015). Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Antagonism Protects against Diabetic Nephropathy in a Type 2 Diabetic Model. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 28, 11: 3300-3311.Search in Google Scholar

Zhao X.M., Hao H.S., Du W.H., Zhao S.J., Wang H.Y., Wang N., Wang D., Liu Y., Qin T., Zhu H.B. (2016). Melatonin inhibits apoptosis and improves the developmental potential of vitrified bovine oocytes. J. Pineal. Res., 60, 2: 132-141.Search in Google Scholar

Zheng Y.S., Sirard M.A. (1992). The effect of sera, bovine serum albumin and follicular cells on in vitro maturation and fertilization of porcine oocytes. Theriogenology, 37, 4: 779-790.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo