1. bookVolume 13 (2013): Issue 3 (July 2013)
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Poultry Meat as Functional Food: Modification of the Fatty Acid Profile – A Review / Mięso drobiowe jako żywność funkcjonalna: modyfikacja profilu kwasów tłuszczowych – artykuł przeglądowy

Published Online: 01 Aug 2013
Volume & Issue: Volume 13 (2013) - Issue 3 (July 2013)
Page range: 463 - 480
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Functional foods, defined as “foods that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition”, became increasingly popular in the past twenty years with numerous practical applications. In Europe, functional foods must be accompanied by scientifically substantiated health claims. Products which aspire to that category include poultry meat and processed meat products which have been modified through bird nutrition. This article reviews the existing knowledge about foods fortified with health-promoting additives. It discusses the physiological, economic and legal aspects of modifying poultry meat, including turkey meat which has been poorly investigated in this context. The addition of oils rich in PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids), e.g. linseed oil, to poultry diets has been found to increase LC n-3 PUFA (long-chain omega-3 PUFA) concentrations in chicken and turkey meat. LC n-3 PUFAs participate in many processes that condition metabolism and health, and the nutritional value of meat, including poultry, is most commonly enhanced by increasing the proportion of LC n-3 PUFAs in the product's fatty acid composition. However, it increases feed costs and may cause a deterioration in the sensory attributes and oxidative stability of meat. Turkey breast meat is characterized by a relatively low fat content, which is why the fulfilment of health claim requirements is difficult in the European Union.


Al-Khalifa H., Givens D.I., Rymer C., Yaqoob P. (2012). Effect of n-3 fatty acids on immune function in broiler chickens. Poultry Sci., 91: 74-88.10.3382/ps.2011-0169322184431Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Arihara K. (2006). Strategies for designing novel functional meat products. Meat Sci., 74: 219-229.10.1016/j.meatsci.2006.04.0282206273122062731Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Barroeta A.C. (2007). Nutritive value of poultry meat: relationsip between vitamin Eand PUFA. World Poultry Sci. J., 63: 277-284.10.1017/S0043933907001468Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bech - Larsen T., Grunert K.G. (2003). The perceived healthiness of functional foods - Aconjoint study of Danish, Finnish and American consumers perception of functional food. Appetite, 40: 9-14.Search in Google Scholar

Betti M., Schneider B.L., Wismer W.V., Carney V.L., Zuidhof M.J., Renema R.A. (2009 a). Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 2. Functional properties, oxidative stability, and consumer acceptance. Poultry Sci., 88: 1085-1095.10.3382/ps.2008-0015819359699Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Betti M., Perez T.I., Zuidhof M.J., Renema R.A. (2009 b). Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 3. Fatty acid distribution between triacylglycerol and phospholipid classes. Poultry Sci., 88: 1740-1754.10.3382/ps.2008-0044919590091Search in Google Scholar

Bosma-den Boer M.M.,van Wetten M.L., Pruimboom L. (2012). Chronic inflammatory diseases are stimulated by current lifestyle: how diet, stress levels and medication prevent our body from recovering. Nutr. Metab., 9, p. 32.10.1186/1743-7075-9-32337242822510431Search in Google Scholar

Botsoglou E., Govaris A., Fletouris D., Botsoglou N. (2012). Lipid oxidation of stored eggs enriched with very long chain n-3 fatty acids, as affected by dietary olive leaves (Oleaeuropea L.) or α-tocopheryl acetate supplementation. Food Chem., 134: 1059-1068.10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.03.01423107728Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Calder P.C. (2004). n-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease: evidence explained and mechanisms explored. Clin. Sci., 107: 1-11.Search in Google Scholar

Carpentier Y.A., Portois L, Malaisse W.J. (2006). n-3 fatty acids and the metabolic syndrome. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83: 1499S-1504S.Search in Google Scholar

Chamruspollert M., Sell J.L. (1999). Transfer of dietary conjugated linoleic acid to egg yolks of chickens. Poultry Sci., 78:1138-1150.Search in Google Scholar

Coppens P., Fernandesda Silva F., Pettman S. (2006). European regulation on nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and functional foods: Aframework based on safety. Toxicology, 221: 59-74.10.1016/j.tox.2005.12.02216469424Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Cortinas L., Barroeta A., Villaverde C., Galobart J., Guardiola F., Bau-cells M.D. (2005). Influence of dietary polyunsaturation level on chicken meat quality: lipid oxidation. Poultry Sci., 84: 48-55.Search in Google Scholar

Decker E.A., Park Y. (2010). Healthier meat products as functional foods. Meat Sci., 86: 49-55.10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.0212058099120580991Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Delezie E., Aerts J.M., Maertens L., Huyghebaert G. (2010). The efficiency of long chain n-3 fatty acid deposition of different dietary oils in turkeys at different ages. Arch. Geflügelk., 74: 51-57.Search in Google Scholar

Diplock A.T., Aggett P.J., Ashwell M., Bornet F, Fern E.B., Roberfroid M.B. (1999). Scientific Concepts of Functional Foods in Europe: Consensus Document. Br. J. Nutr., 81: S1-S27.Search in Google Scholar

Elswykvan M.E. (1997). Comparison of n-3 fatty acid sources in laying hen rations for improvement of whole egg nutritional quality:areview. Brit. J. Nutr., 78(1): S61-S69.10.1079/BJN199701359292775Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Farrell D.J. (1998). Enrichment of hen eggs with n-3 long-chain fatty acids and evaluation of enriched eggs in humans. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 68: 538-544.Search in Google Scholar

Fisinin V.I., Papazyan T.T., Surai P.F. (2008). Producing specialist poultry products to meet human nutrition requirements: Selenium enriched eggs. World Poultry Sci. J., 64: 85-97.Search in Google Scholar

Franczyk - Żar ów M., Kostogrys R.B., Szymczyk B., Jawień J., Gajda M., Cichocki T., Wojnar L., Chlopicki S., Pisulewski P.M. (2008). Functional effects of eggs, naturally enriched with conjugated linoleic acid, on the blood lipid profile, development of atherosclerosis and composition at atherosclerotic plaque in apolipoprotein Eand low-density lipoprotein receptor double-knockout mice (apo E/LDLR-/-). Br. J. Nutr., 99: 49-58.Search in Google Scholar

Ganesan B., Brothersen C., Mc Mahon D. (2012). Fortification of foods with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. (in press), DOI: 10.1080/10408398.2011.57822110.1080/10408398.2011.57822124188235Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gibbs R.A., Rymer C., Givens D.I. (2010). Long-chain n-3 PUFA: intakes in the UKand the potential ofachicken meat prototype to increase them. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 69: 144-155.10.1017/S002966510999171619954567Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Givens D.I. (2005). The role of animal nutrition in improving the nutritive value of animal-derived foods in relation to chronic diseases. Proc. Nutr. Soc., 64: 395-402.1604867410.1079/PNS200544816048674Search in Google Scholar

Givens D.I. (2009). Animal nutrition and lipids in animal products and their contribution to human intake and health. Nutrients, 1: 71-82.10.3390/nu101007122253968325758922253968Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Givens D.I., Gibbs R.A. (2006). Very long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the food chain in the UKand the potential of animal-derived foods to increase them. Nutr. Bull., 31: 104-110.10.1111/j.1467-3010.2006.00554.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Goldberg I. (1994). Functional Foods: Designer Foods, Pharmafoods and Nutraceuticals, An Aspen Publication, Chapman and Hall, London, UK.Search in Google Scholar

Gonzalez E., Tejeda J.F. (2007). Effect of dietary incorporation of different antioxidant extracts and free-range rearing on fatty acid composition and lipid oxidation of Iberian pig meat. Animal, 1: 1060-1067.10.1017/S17517311070001952244480922444809Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gornowicz E., Lewko L. (2010). Effectiveness of broiler meat production in the light of ecological farming system. In: Migdał W., Cilev G., Zivković B., Jukna V. Poultry, Rabbits, Nutria, Fish Meat (in Polish). Polish Soc. Food Technol. Małopolska Branch, Kraków, pp. 15-21.Search in Google Scholar

Granato D., Branco G.F., Cruz A.G., Faria J.A.F., Shah N.P. (2010). Probiotic dairy products as functional foods. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Safety, 9 (5): 455-470.10.1111/j.1541-4337.2010.00120.x33467833Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Grashorn M.A. (2007). Functionality of poultry meat. J. Appl. Poult. Res.,16: 99-106.Search in Google Scholar

Grobas S., Mendez J., Lazaros R., Blas C.D., Mateos G.G., De B.C. (2001). Influence of source and percentage of fat added to diet on performance and fatty acid composition of egg yolks of two strains of laying hens. Poultry Sci., 80: 1171-1179.Search in Google Scholar

Guschina I.R., Harwood J.L. (2006). Lipids and lipid metabolism in eukaryotic algae. Prog. Lipid Res., 45: 160-186.10.1016/j.plipres.2006.01.0011649248216492482Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Harris W.S., Poston W.C., Haddock C.K. (2007). Tissue n-3 and n-6 fatty acids and risk for coronary heart disease events. Atherosclerosis, 193: 1-10.10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2007.03.01817507020Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Has- Schön E., Skrtic Z., Kralik G. (2008). Beneficial effects of different dietary oils on cholesterol level and fatty acids profile of turkey pectoral muscle. Ital. J. Anim. Sci., 7: 161-171.Search in Google Scholar

Haug A., Eich - Greatorex S., Bernhoft A., Wold J.P., Hetland H., Christopher-sen O.A., Sogn T. (2007). Effect of dietary selenium and omega-3 fatty acids on muscle composition and quality in broilers. Lipids and Health Disease, 6, p. 29.10.1186/1476-511X-6-29218631317967172Search in Google Scholar

Herath D., Cranfield J., Henson S. (2008). Who consumes functional foods and nutraceuticals in Canada? Results of cluster analysis of the 2006 survey of Canadians’, demand for food product’s supporting health and wellness. Appetite, 51: 256-265.10.1016/j.appet.2008.02.01818417254Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hibbeln J.R., Nieminen L.R., Blasbalg T.L., Riggs J.A., Lands W.E. (2006). Healthy intakes of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids: Estimations considering worldwide diversity. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 83 (6 Suppl): 1483S-1493S.Search in Google Scholar

Hite A.H., Berstein L.H. (2012). Functional foods: Needs, claims, and benefits. Nutrition, 28: 338-339.10.1016/j.nut.2011.08.0162212985422129854Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Horska E., Sparke K. (2007). Marketing attitudes towards the functional food and implications for market segmentation. J. Eur. Consum. Behav., 53: 349-353.Search in Google Scholar

Howe P., Meyer B., Record S., Baghurst K. (2006). Dietary intake of long-chain [omega]-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: contribution of meat sources. Nutrition, 22: 47-53.10.1016/j.nut.2005.05.00916289978Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hulbert A.J., Faulks S., Buttemer W.A., Else P.L. (2002). Acyl composition of muscle membranes varies with body size in birds. J. Exp. Biol., 205: 3561-3569.Search in Google Scholar

Jankowski J., Zduńczyk P., Mikulski D., Ju śkiewicz J., Mikulska M., Zduń -czyk Z. (2012 a). Effects of dietary soyabean, rapeseed and linseed oils on performance, slaughter yield and fatty acid profile of breast meat in turkeys. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 715-727.10.22358/jafs/66059/2012Search in Google Scholar

Jankowski. J., Zduńczyk Z., Mikulski D., Ju śkiewicz J., Naczma ński J., Pomi -anowski J.F., Zduńczyk P. (2012 b). Fatty acid profile, oxidative stability, and sensory properties of breast meat from turkeys fed diets withadifferent n-6/n-3 PUFAratio. Europ. J. Lipids Sci. Technol., 114: 1025-1035.Search in Google Scholar

Jenkins D.J.A., Jones P.J.H., Lamarche B., Kendall C.W.C., Faulkner D., Cerma-kowa L., Gigleux I., Ramprasath V.,de Souza R., Ireland C., Patel D., Sri-chaitkul K., Abdulnour S., Bashyam B., Collier C., Hoshizaki S., Josse R.G., Leiter L.A., Connelly P.W., Frolich J. (2011). Effect ofadietary portfolio of cholesterollowering foods given at 2 levels of intensity of dietary advice on serum lipids in hyperlipidemia:arandomized controlled trial. Jama. J. Am. Med. Assoc., 306 (8): 831-839.Search in Google Scholar

Jia W., Rogiewicz A., Bruce H.L., Slominski B.A. (2010). Feeding flaxseed enhances deposition of omega-3 fatty acid in broiler meat portions in different manner. Can. J. Anim. Sci., 90: 203-206.Search in Google Scholar

Jimenez- Colmenero F. (2007). Healthier lipids formulation approaches in meat-based functional foods. Technological options for replacement of meat fats by non-meat fats. Food Sci. Technol., 18: 567-578.10.1016/j.tifs.2007.05.006Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kassis N.M., Drake S.R., Beamer S.K., Matak K.E., Jaczynski J. (2010 a). Development of nutraceutical egg products with omega-3-rich oils. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 43: 777-783.10.1016/j.lwt.2009.12.014Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kassis N., Beamer S.K., Matak K.E., Tou J.C., Jaczynski J. (2010 b). Nutritional composition of novel nutraceutical egg product development with omega-3-rich oils. LWT - Food Sci. Technol., 43: 1204-1212.10.1016/j.lwt.2010.04.006Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kaur S., Das M. (2011). Functional foods: An overview. Food Sci. Biotechnol., 20: 861-875.10.1007/s10068-011-0121-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kitessa S.M., Young. P. (2009). Echium oil is better than rapeseed oil in enriching poultry meat with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid and decosapentaenoic acid. Brit. J. Nutr., 101: 709-715.10.1017/S000711450803074218616838Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Komprda T., Zelenka J., Bakaj P., Kladroba D., Blazkova E., Fajmonova E. (2002). Cholesterol and fatty acid content in meat of turkeys fed diets with sunflower, linseed or fish oil. Arch. Geflügelk., 67: 65-75.Search in Google Scholar

Komprda T., Zelenka J., Fajmonov á E., Bakaj P., Pechova P. (2003). Cholesterol con tents in meat of some poultry and fish as influenced by live weight and total lipid content. J. Agr. Food Chem., 51: 7692-7697.10.1021/jf030378r14664530Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Komprda T., Zelenka J., Fajmonov á E., Fialov á M., Kladroba D. (2005). Arachidonic acid and long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents in meat of selected poultry and fish species in relation to dietary fat sources. J. Agr. Food Chem., 53: 6804-6812.10.1021/jf0504162Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Konieczka P., Kostyra E., Świderski F., Czerwi ński J., Smulikowska S. (2012). Sensory characteristics of meat from broiler chickens fed diets containing rapeseed, linseed and fish oil. XXIV International Poultry Symposium PB WPSA: Science for poultry practice - poultry practice for science, 12-14.09.2012, Kołobrzeg, p. 29.Search in Google Scholar

Koreleski J., Świ ątkiewicz S. (2006). The influence of dietary fish oil and vitamin Eon the fatty acids profile and oxidative stability of frozen stored chicken breast meat. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 15: 631-640.Search in Google Scholar

Kouba M., Mourot J. (2011). Areview of nutritional effect on fat composition of animal products with special emphasis on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Biochimie, 93: 13-17.10.1016/j.biochi.2010.02.027Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Lands W.E. (2005). Dietary fat and health. The evidence and the politics of prevention: careful use of dietary fats can improve life and prevent diseases. Ann. N.Y, Acad. Sci., 1055: 179-192.Search in Google Scholar

Lands B., Lamoreaux E. (2012). Using 3-6 differences in essential fatty acids rather than 3/6 ratios gives useful food balance scores. Nutrition & Metabolism, 9, p. 46.10.1186/1743-7075-9-46Search in Google Scholar

Landström E., Hursti U-K. K., Beker W. Magnusson M. (2007). Use of functional foods among Swedish consumers is related to health-consciousness and perceived effect. Brit. J. Nutr., 98: 1058-1069.Search in Google Scholar

Leatherhead Food Research (2011). Future directions for the global functional foods market. www. leatherheadfood.com/market. Available at April 2011.Search in Google Scholar

L ópez- Ferrer S., Baucells M.D., Barroeta A.C., Grashorn M.A. (2001). n-3 enrichment of chicken meat. 1. Use of very long-chain fatty acids in chicken diets and their influence on meat quality: fish oil. Poultry Sci., 80: 741-52.Search in Google Scholar

Menrad K. (2003). Market and marketing of functional food in Europe. J. Food. Eng., 56: 181-188.10.1016/S0260-8774(02)00247-9Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mikulski D., Jankowski J., Zduńczyk Z., Wr óblewska M., Sartrowska K., Ma -jewska T. (2009). The effect of selenium source on growth performance, carcass traits, plasma glutathione peroxidase activity, breast muscle Se concentrations and meat quality in turkeys. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 18, 518-530.10.22358/jafs/66427/2009Search in Google Scholar

Moran J. (2007). The Spanish functional food market: present and future perspectives. Functional Food Net (FFNet) network meeting, IATA-CSIC. Valencia, Spain, 22-23 October 2007 (www.functionalfoodnet.eu/images/site/assets/new/3.pdf)Search in Google Scholar

Ni Y.D., Wu J., Tong H.Y., Haung Y.B., Lu L.Z., Grossmann R., Zhao R.Q. (2012). Effect of dietary daidzein supplementation on egg laying rate was associated with the change of hepatic VTG-IIm RNAexpression and higher antioxidant activities during the post-peak egg laying period of broiler breeders. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 177: 116-123.10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2012.08.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pisulewski P.M. (2005). Nutritional potential for improving meat quality in poultry. Anim. Sci. Pap. Rep., 23: 303-315.Search in Google Scholar

Pottala J.V., Talley J.A., Churchill S.W., Lynch D.A.,von Schacky C., Harris W.S. (2012). Red blood cell fatty acids are associated with depression inacase-control study of adolescents. Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids, 86: 161-165.10.1016/j.plefa.2012.03.00222464051Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Poureslami R., Reas K., Turchini G.M., Huyghebaert G., De Smet S. (2010). Effect of diet, sex and age on fatty acid metabolism in broiler chickens: n-3 and n-6 PUFA. Brit. J. Nutr., 104: 189-197.10.1017/S000711451000039520187998Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Qi K.K., Chen J.L., Zhao G.P., Zheng M.Q., Wen J. (2010). Effect of dietary ω6/ω3 on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of Beijing-you chicken. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 64: 474-485.Search in Google Scholar

Rahimi S., Kamran Azad S., Karimi Torshizi M.A. (2011). Omega-3 enrichment of broiler meat by using two oil seeds. Agr. Sci. Tech., 13: 353-365.Search in Google Scholar

Ratnayake W.M.N., Ackman R.G., Hulan H.W. (1989). Effect of redfish meal enriched diets on the taste and n-3 PUFAof 42-day-old broiler chickens, J. Sci. Food Agric., 49: 59-74.10.1002/jsfa.2740490107Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Regulation EC No 1924/200 of the EUROPEAN Parliament and of the Council of 20 December 2006 on nutrition and health claims made in foods, 2006. Available from: http://eur-lex.europa.eu/Lex-Uri Serv/siet/en/oj/2007/l_012/l_01220070118en00030018.pdf Search in Google Scholar

Robinson LE., Buchholz AC., Mazurak V.C. (2007). Inflammation, obesity, and fatty acid metabolism: influence of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on factors contributing to metabolic syndrome. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab., 32: 1008-1024.10.1139/H07-08718059573Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rozbicka - Wieczorek A.J., Szarpak E., Brzóska F., Śliwi ński B., Kowalczyk J. Czauderna M. (2012). Dietary lycopenes, selenium compounds and fish oil affect the profile of fatty acids and oxidative stress in chicken breast muscle. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 705-724.Search in Google Scholar

Russo G.L. (2009). Dietary n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids: From biochemistry to clinical implications in cardiovascular prevention. Biochemical Pharmacology, 77: 937-946.10.1016/j.bcp.2008.10.02019022225Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rymer C., Givens D.J. (2005). n-3 fatty acid enrichment of edible tissue of poultry: Areview. Lipids, 40: 121-130.10.1007/s11745-005-1366-415884759Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Salamatdoustnobar R., Nazerad K., Shahriyar H.A., Ghorbani A., Fouladi P. (2010). Influence of canola oil in broiler diets and its effects of MUFAs and PUFAs contents in selected tissues. J. Anim. Vet. Adv., 9: 474-477.Search in Google Scholar

Shapira N. (2009). Modified egg asanutritional supplement during peak brain development:anew target for fortification. Nutr. Health., 20: 107-118.10.1177/02601060090200020319835107Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Silva W.A. da, Elias A.H.N., Aricetti J.A., Sakamoto M.I., Murakami A.E., Go -mes S.T.M., Visentainer J.V., Souza N.E. de, Matsushita M. (2009). Quail egg yolk (Coturnix coturnix japonica) enriched with omega-3 fatty acids. Journal LWT-- Food Sci. Technol., 42: 660-663.10.1016/j.lwt.2008.08.005Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Simopoulos A.P. (1999). New products from agri-food industry: The return of the n-3 fatty acid into food supply. Lipids, 34: S297-S301.10.1007/BF0256232410419184Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Simopoulos A.P. (2009). The importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid balance in health and disease: evolutionary aspect of diet. World Rev. Nutr. Diet., 102: 10-21.Search in Google Scholar

Simopoulos A.P. (2011). Importance of the omega-6/omega-3 fatty acid ratio in cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Exp. Biol. Mol., 233: 674-688.Search in Google Scholar

Singh V.P., Pathak V., Akhilesh V. (2012). Modified or enriched eggs: Asmart approach in egg industry: Areview. Am. J. Food Technol., 7: 266-277.10.3923/ajft.2012.266.277Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Siro I., Kapolna E., Kapolna B., Lugasi A. (2008). Functional food. Product development, marketing and consumer acceptance - Areview. Appetite, 51: 456-467.10.1016/j.appet.2008.05.06018582508Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sosin- Bzducha E., Krawczyk J. (2012). The effect of feeding linseed to conservation breed hens on the fatty acid profile of yolk and the biological value of eggs. J. Anim. Feed Sci., 21: 122-132.Search in Google Scholar

Spence J.T. (2006). Challenges related to the composition of functional foods. J. Food Comp. Anal., 19: 4-6.10.1016/j.jfca.2005.11.007Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Szymczyk B., Pisulewski P. (2003). Effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of hen egg yolks. Brit. J. Nutr., 90: 93-99.10.1079/BJN200387312844380Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Tan Z.S., Harris W.S., Beiser A.S., Au R., Himali J.J., Debette S., Pikula A., De Car-li C., Wolf P.A., Vasan R.S., Robins S.J., Seshadri S. (2012). Red blood cell omega-3 fatty acid levels and markers of accelerated brain aging. Neurology, 78: 658-664.10.1212/WNL.0b013e318249f6a9328622922371413Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ting S., Yeh H.S., Lien T.F. (2011). Effect of supplemental levels of hesperetin and naringenin on egg quality, serum traits and antioxidant activity of laying hens. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 163: 59-66.10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2010.10.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Verhagen H., Vos E., Francl S., Heinonen M.,van Loveren H. (2010). Status of nutritional and health claims in Europe. Arch. Biochem. Biphys., 5001: 6-15.Search in Google Scholar

WHO/FAO. (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases - Report ofa Joint FAO/ WHO Expert Consultation. Technical Report Series 916, WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, p. 148.Search in Google Scholar

Yannakopulos A.L. (2007). Egg enrichment in omega-3 fatty acids. In: Bioactive Egg Compounds, R. Huopalahti, R. López-Fandiño, M. Anton, R.Schade (eds), Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Chapter 20: pp. 159-170.Search in Google Scholar

Zduńczyk Z., Gruzauskas R., Semaskeite A., Juskiewicz J. Raceviciute A. Wr óblewska M. (2011). Fatty acid profile of breast muscle of broiler chickens fed diets with different levels of selenium and vitamin C. Archiv Geflügelk., 75: 264-267.Search in Google Scholar

Zelenka J. Schneiderova D., Mrkvicova E., Dolezal P. (2008). The effect of dietary linseed oils with different fatty acids pattern on the content of fatty acids in chicken meat. Vet. Med., 53: 77-85.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang W., Xiao S., Samaraweera H., Lee E.J., Ahn D.U. (2010). Improving functional value of meat products. Meat Sci., 86: 15-31.10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.04.0182053780620537806Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zuidhof M.J., Betti M., Korver D.R., Hernandez F.I.L., Schneider B.L., Car-ney V.L., Renema R.A. (2009). Omega-3-enriched broiler meat: 1. Optimization ofaproduction system. Poult. Sci., 88: 1108-1120.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo