1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
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eISSN
2444-8656
First Published
01 Jan 2016
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2 times per year
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English
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Optimisation of construction mode of residential houses based on the genetic algorithm under BIM technology

Published Online: 21 Oct 2022
Volume & Issue: AHEAD OF PRINT
Page range: -
Received: 24 Apr 2022
Accepted: 30 May 2022
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2444-8656
First Published
01 Jan 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Introduction

The construction industry is one of the five pillar industries that support China's economic development and national economy. Due to the background of the great development situation of the construction industry and the strict control of the state, the market competition is becoming increasingly fierce, and the competition in the future construction industry market would undoubtedly be the double of competition price and quality which is right now. On the premises of ensuring the quality of the project, cost control and management are two important factors that should be maintained from the early phase of planning the project until the operation and maintenance stage, and the utilisation rate of various resources should be improved to the greatest extent. Only in this way the goal of maximising economic benefits can be achieved, thus creating the competitive advantage of enterprises [1,2]. Therefore, the cost control of the project in each stage has become one of the focuses of the project participants [3,4,5].

While promoting the application of advanced technology, it is necessary to integrate the resources in the construction process to ensure that all links and processes in the construction process are reasonably scheduled, so as to obtain the optimal scheme of construction dispatch and truly construct a building with low cost, short construction period and environmental protection [6, 7]. At present, BIM technology has been widely used in design, construction, operation and maintenance at various stages. In the optimisation process, all kinds of project information contained in the BIM model (such as geometric and physical information of buildings, material information, cost information, time information, change information, etc.) will be used as the data basis of optimisation [8,9]. The application of BIM technology in construction management plays an important role in promoting the modernisation of construction management. Applying BIM technology to prefabricated building construction is of great significance for improving the level of building construction management [10]. However, when the scale and complexity of buildings gradually increase to a certain degree, it is difficult to grasp all the information only by manpower, and it is impossible to solve all the problems in engineering construction by a single technology or method.

BIM technology has great advantages in visualisation, data preservation and updating but lacks quantitative theoretical calculation. Optimisation algorithm is a theoretical calculation based on the optimisation model. Although it has the advantages of thorough quantitative analysis, the integrity of data information cannot be guaranteed, and the presentation of results is not intuitive enough [11,12,13]. By combining BIM technology and the optimisation algorithm, we can make full use of the advantages of the emerging information technology, solve the problem of data acquisition and processing and improve the informatization level of engineering construction.

Application of BIM technology in optimisation of construction
Advantages of BIM technology

The application of BIM technology in optimisation of structural design will improve the work efficiency and quality, which is mainly reflected in the following three aspects [14,15,16,17]:

BIM technology can improve efficiency of data processing and accuracy of results

Project information files are generally stored in the form of paper or electronic documents, and there is no connection between them, which has great limitations in information storage, extraction, modification, update and sharing, especially in large-scale engineering projects. Using BIM technology to store these scattered and independent project information in a shared database can not only guarantee the uniqueness, integrity and accuracy of information but also make the information data timely and traceable in the process of updating, which will greatly advance the efficiency.

BIM technology can realise visual design and simulation

Through BIM technology, the plane expression forms such as points, lines and planes in two-dimensional drawings are transformed into three-dimensional and spatial three-dimensional expression forms, so as to realise the visual design of buildings. Designers can intuitively express their own design intent so that all participants in the project can clearly and intuitively understand the design intent, effectively reduce the communication cost and make further acceleration of the project. Through the visual simulation of the BIM model, on one the hand, the feasibility and rationality of the design scheme can be verified, and it is convenient for designers to find and solve various design problems in time, such as the collision between disciplines, so as to improve the quality of the design scheme and reduce the risk of change in the construction stage; On the other hand, the BIM-4D model can be formed by adding the time node information to the three-dimensional model of the structure, and on this basis, the construction schedule and process can be visually simulated by using the construction simulation function so that the managers can arrange the construction resources more scientifically and reasonably, formulate the construction plan and effectively reduce the resource waste.

BIM technology facilitates management of alteration

In the process of project design and construction, alteration of design often occurs. In the traditional work-flow, because the results cannot be automatically updated, all design results related to the alteration, such as drawings and calculation tables, must be manually searched and modified, which will obviously increase the risk in the process of design and construction. However, all kinds of data in the BIM model have certain relevance. When the alteration of the project is modified or adjusted, the related model and its information will be automatically updated.

Simulation of construction under BIM technology

The technology of construction simulation, on the one hand, can check out the collisions and conflicts in the design scheme, facilitate the engineers to optimise the design before the actual construction work and effectively reduce the occurrence of design alterations in the construction process. On the other hand, by adding information of the construction process and schedule to the BIM model, it can realise the simulation of process and progress in construction, which is beneficial for managers to make reasonable construction plans, accurately grasp the construction process, efficiently utilise construction resources and scientifically arrange construction sites. At present, there are many software programmes with functions of construction simulation, such as Navisworks software developed by Autodesk company which is often used to check the collision between components and the simulation of construction schedule [18]. Considering the common functions of software and the data link with modelling software, this paper chooses Navisworks software that is suitable for Revit to carry out collision detection and construction simulation for the BIM model.

Navisworks software is used to complete the collision inspection and construction simulation of the optimised 3D structure model. Among them, the workflow of collision inspection is shown in Figure 1:

Add files to be checked. The first step is to add NWC format files exported by Revit software to Navisworks software. The file with the NWC format is one of the three native file formats of Navisworks software, which can reduce the access time.

Select the object to be inspected and set the collision type. Find and click the ‘Clash Detective’ option from the function bar at the top of the page and select the objects and collision types involved in the pop-up option box;

Run collision inspection and output inspection report. After setting in the editing window, click the ‘Check’ button at the bottom right of the interface to start the process of collision inspection. Afterward, the collision results can be seen on the interface and automatically output the inspection report, in which the collision points are sorted, and the specific location of the collision points can be located according to the serial number. In addition, each collision point can also be located according to its position description. The collision inspection uses the ‘Clash Detective’ function of Navisworks software, while the construction simulation uses the ‘Time Liner’ function.

Fig. 1

Simulation process of BIM construction

Optimisation based on genetic algorithm

In this paper, an optimised architecture system combining BIM technology and immune genetic algorithm is constructed, as shown in Figure 2, in which the cooperation between BIM and immune genetic algorithm is mainly accomplished through the docking of MATLAB and Navisworks. Firstly, according to the design drawing, BIM is used to accurately model the building structure, and then, the model is imported into Navisworks to complete the calculation and analysis of the building structure. Then, the engineering data required for structural design and cost are generated into Excel file A, and the immune genetic algorithm program is run in MATLAB to optimise the file A and output the result, which is Excel file B. Finally, file B is imported into Navisworks, and the structure is analysed and calculated again, where a new design scheme is generated and exported. The derived scheme of structural design can continue to guide the construction and other work by using the BIM model.

Fig. 2

Optimised architecture system

Scheduling model of construction stage

In the whole process of construction, the dispatching work in the assembly stage is the most important, which includes the hoisting of prefabricated components, the construction of cast-in-place structures and the connection between prefabricated components and cast-in-place parts. As the key work in the whole construction process, the limit in assembly time determines the deadline of the manufacturing stage and the transportation stage. Therefore, it is the primary task to obtain the optimal scheduling scheme with the shortest construction period in the assembly stage.

Model assumption

The scheduling scheme of construction affects the length of the assembly period; so, it is necessary to determine a construction scheduling scheme that meets the resource constraints of personnel and equipment and has the shortest assembly time at the assembly stage. This kind of problem is regarded as resource-constrained project scheduling problem, and its purpose is to find out the scheduling scheme with the shortest construction period (or the lowest cost). A complete engineering project is composed of many works with the predecessor and successor, and the determination of the scheduling scheme must meet the predecessor and successor constraints among all the project, as well as the upper limit of engineering project resources [19, 20].

In the assembly stage of prefabricated building construction, hoisting of prefabricated components is the main work, which should be assumed that all resources are available before the construction of the standard floor [21]; the hoisting components are transported to the construction site after being manufactured and qualified by the prefabrication factory, which is different from the construction of cast-in-place structures. The assembly stage is less affected by the environment and climate, and the construction of the standard layer is repetitive; so, it can be assumed that the construction efficiency of each layer is the same, and the assembly period can be expressed by the product of the assembly time of each layer and the number of assembly layers.

Therefore, the establishment of the BIM model in this paper is based on the following hypothesis:

All activities and required resources are ready before the start of the project;

The construction environment is normal, and the working efficiency of tower cranes and construction workers in each standard layer is the same.

Establishment of the scheduling model

Assuming that a project is made up of n+2 tasks, that is, V = { 1, … , n+2}, in which activities 1 and n+2 represent the tasks at the beginning and the end, respectively, which only represent the logical relationship of the tasks. There are a limited number of renewable resources in these activities, of which the maximum capacity of the kth resource is Rk (k = 1, 2, … , R). In addition, at any time, the sum of the usage of the kth renewable resource by various activities cannot exceed its upper capacity limit Rk.

The time required in activities i of the project is di(i = 1,2,…, n + 2); the amount of consumption of the kth renewable resource is rk, and it is necessary to reasonably schedule the order of each work under the condition of meeting the constraints of time and resources, so as to obtain the scheduling plan with the shortest assembly period Sn+2 = Σdi.

First, the objective function of the minimum chemical period is established: minSn+2 \min S_{n+2}

Then, Eq. (2) is used to express the processor activity constraint relation of activities i and j: st.Sj+djSi,SSiP(i) st.S_{j}+d_{j}\leq{}S_{i,S}S_i\in{}P(i)

Eq. (3) represents the resource constraint of activities, that is, the total demand for renewable resources k by all activities at any time shall not exceed its upper limit Rk: iA(t)rikRk \sum_{i\in{}A(t)}\mkern1mu{}\mkern1mu{}r_{ik}\leq{}R_k

Eq. (4) indicates that the time is a discrete value; t=0,1,,Sn+2 t=0,1,\ldots{},Sn+2

According to Eq. (5), the start time of all construction activities is not negative: Si0,i=1,2,,n+2 Si\geq{}0,i=1,2,\ldots{},n+2

Among them, p(i) is the collection of all processor activities in activity j; T (t) is the set of all activities that are going on at time t, and rik is the amount of resource k that activity i uses at time t.

Establishment of the BIM model

The structural model of this project is established by Revit software, and the manufacturing process is shown in Figure 3.

Fig. 3

Steps of building the BIM model

The specific steps are as follows:

Click ‘add new project’ to create a template file of project. Usually, the system will create the template file that Revit comes with by default. If there is no special requirement, the default template file can be used.

Enter the interface to edit the elevation and grid of the project according to the design scheme. First draw the elevation, then draw the grid and finally set and mark their 2D and 3D attributes and dimensions.

Map the site. Because the location of this project is flat and there is no complicated information parameter of landform, the layout of the site can be completed quickly. In case of the complex site, complex terrain can be drawn by importing site CAD files. Then according to the specific elevation of the project, draw the building floor. Finally, make relevant settings for the site;

Draw columns and columns. Click ‘Column’ in the column of ‘Common’ tab to map. Since there is no concrete column in the default template, it is necessary to select the concrete rectangular column in ‘Load cluster’ and then set the size and placement position of the column. Just like the operation of mapping columns, click the ‘Beam’ button in the column of ‘Common use’ tab. After mapping a beam, the ‘Array’ function can be used to get a row of beams.

Draw other components, such as walls, boards and stairs according to the building layout plan.

Solution of the model based on genetic algorithm

According to the characteristics of the model, the natural number coding method is adopted to uniformly number all processes in the construction and assembly of the standard floor with natural numbers. If there are m processes, each process is numbered as 1, 2, 3, … , m according to technological constraints. The length of chromosome is m, and the number of procedure 1~m represents the gene value, where the information expressed by each gene is the sequence of processes corresponding to the current gene.

Take the order of 2-1-7-4-3-6-5 as an example; in the case of resource constraint, it is assumed that process 1 and process 7 need the same resource R1. If they can meet the constraint conditions of R1 resources at the same time, then process 1 and process 7 can be constructed in the meantime. If the constraint conditions of R1 resources are not met, the activity of process 1 should be implemented first, and after the activity of process 1 is finished, the activity of process 7 can be carried out.

To make the fitness value of each chromosome indicate the quality of the solution, transform the minimisation target into the maximisation target by Eq. (6): Fit=1F(x) \text{Fit}=\frac{1}{F(x)} where F(x) is the minimum completion time, and according to the relationship of processor, successor and resource, different scheduling schemes are generated with sufficient constraints, that is, different sequencing methods of processes.

Acquisition of fitness value: If the 1/F(x) value of the procedure is greater than the current 1/F(x), update the value of 1/F(x) until the maximum value of 1/F(x) is obtained after the processing of all the procedures in the chromosome sequence.

Roulette wheel strategy: assuming that there is N individual, the fitness value of each individual (xi) is calculated, and then, the probability of each fitness value P(xi) is calculated according to Eq. (7), design one and the number of individuals N Roulette wheel of the same sector, sector area and P(xi) Is proportional to the value, where a random number p ∈ [0,1] is generated. If the p value falls into the position pointed to by a certain sector interval, the corresponding individuals in this area are selected to be inherited to the next generation, and the number of replacement crossover variation individuals is calculated by generation gap probability. P(xi)=f(xi)j=1Nf(xi) P\left( x_i\right) =\frac{f\left( x_i\right)}{\sum_{j=1}^{N} f\left( x_i\right)}

Partial-mapped crossover method is adopted. The process of crossing is shown in Figure 4. First, select the parent chromosome from the population; second, generate a chromosome length satisfying 0 ≤ k1k2 and cut the chromosome into two segments; then, the positions of the captured two segments are exchanged, and finally, the conflict of coding repetition is solved.

Fig. 4

Algorithm cross flow

Test results
Calculation of duration

MATLAB 2017a is used to program, and the genetic algorithm is used to solve the model, and the population size NP = 80 is set. maxgen = 200; Pc = 0.8; Pm = 0.2; generation gap probability Pe = 0.9; after 130 iterations, the shortest construction period is 8 days. Within the 8d construction period of a standard floor, arrange tasks of daily construction according to resource constraints, where the work in the first day is arranged for measuring unreeling, binding of cast-in-place steel bars, hoisting of external wall, formwork support of composite beams and plates of Unit 1 and measuring unreeling of Unit 2. The work schedule of every day is clear that the construction of a standard layer is carried out every 8 days, until the construction of all assembly floors of the project is completed.

Calculation of optimal solution

Set the population size NP = 50; maxgen = 200; Pc = 0.8; Pm = 0.2. After 200 iterations, the optimal solution of the calculated construction period and cost is obtained, and its distribution decreases nonlinearly. In addition, there is an inverse relationship between the target of construction period and the cost target, where the shorter the construction period, the higher the cost. If managers want to shorten the manufacturing time of prefabricated components, they need to introduce high resource cost. Otherwise, they need to extend the time of producing. The corresponding values of objective function are shown in Table 1:

Function value of optimal solution

Serial number P(1) duration P(2) cost

1 5.5 845657
2 5.7 810038
3 5.9 792742
4 6.1 762410
5 6.3 739823
6 6.5 712871
7 6.7 701287
8 6.9 671209

Solution 1 has the optimal duration that d1=5.5d, but the highest resource cost is c1=845,657. The optimal resource cost is solution 8 with c14=61,766 yuan, but its duration of construction is d14=6.9d, which is the longest. Different solutions in the optimal solution set correspond to different construction periods and resource costs, and decision makers need to choose the optimal solution according to the preference of construction period and resource costs.

Simulation of collision inspection

To verify the rationality of the model optimisation, the Naviswork is used to check the collision of the optimised structural model and simulate the construction process. Accurately locate the location of collision through collision inspection and timely solve the design blind spots that are not easy to find, thus effectively improving the design quality and the work efficiency of designers. Using simulation of construction can solve the problems and contradictions that may occur in the actual construction as early as possible, so as to reduce risks, save costs and shorten the construction period. The simulation process of construction in this project is shown in Figure 5.

Fig. 5

Simulation of construction in BIM

In the process of simulation, with the help of virtual technology, the simulation of technological process and the refined presentation of some special engineering components are realised, and compared with real objects, managers can optimise the construction plan to the maximum extent, which is of guiding significance to the node control of the constructor and the project management of the owner. In addition, as a bridge connecting the design and construction stages, the construction simulation function will play a great role in the disclosure work in the design and construction stages. The constructors can intuitively feel the process of design and construction in each component through the simulation test, effectively improve the dullness brought by traditional drawings and guide the work of construction accurately.

Conclusion

To ensure the optimal arrangement of resources in the scheduling plan and speed up the construction progress, this paper establishes a resource-constrained scheduling model with the objective function of the minimum duration and adopts genetic algorithm to solve the model, so as to obtain the scheduling plan that meets the shortest construction period of resource-constrained assembly and implement daily construction tasks as planned to ensure the construction progress. The results show that during the construction, the distribution of period cost decreases nonlinearly, and there is an inverse relationship between construction period target and cost target, where the shorter the construction period, the higher the cost. If managers want to shorten the manufacturing time of prefabricated components, they need to invest in high resource cost. Finally, by simulating the construction stage with BIM technology, managers can optimise the construction plan to the maximum extent which has guiding significance for the construction node control of the constructor and the project management.

Fig. 1

Simulation process of BIM construction
Simulation process of BIM construction

Fig. 2

Optimised architecture system
Optimised architecture system

Fig. 3

Steps of building the BIM model
Steps of building the BIM model

Fig. 4

Algorithm cross flow
Algorithm cross flow

Fig. 5

Simulation of construction in BIM
Simulation of construction in BIM

Function value of optimal solution

Serial number P(1) duration P(2) cost

1 5.5 845657
2 5.7 810038
3 5.9 792742
4 6.1 762410
5 6.3 739823
6 6.5 712871
7 6.7 701287
8 6.9 671209

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