Land use cover change (LUCC) has an important impact on the surface-atmosphere system. Urban expansion is one of the most prominent hotspots in China’s current research on LUCC temporal and spatial pattern changes. And the heat island effect caused by urban expansion is also a typical representative of regional climate changes caused by land-use changes (Lu et al., 2020). The current global urbanisation process is becoming more and more intense. While the process of urbanisation brings economic and social benefits to mankind, it also produces a series of ecological and environmental problems. The urban heat island effect is one of the most important problems. With the rapid development of China’s economy, Beijing, the capital of politics, culture, and economy, has seen significant urban expansion and steady population growth, so the thermal environment is bound to be affected (Cui et al., 2016). This paper is a quantitative study of the extent of urban expansion in Beijing in the past two decades and its impact on the city’s heat island effect.

The overall methodology of this paper is following a description of basic facts, the revelation of phenomena and laws, basic cause analysis, mechanism analysis and model simulation. This paper utilises Bigmaper Beijing Sixth Ring Road remote sensing image data as the basic data, with ArcGIS to retrieve the surface temperature of Beijing. The heat island effect intensity index is also calculated. Then it can be used to quantitatively analyse the temporal and spatial distribution characteristics and development trend of the urban heat island effect in Beijing, combining with some factors, including land surface temperature (LST), normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI) and normalised difference building index (NDBI), to explore the impact of surface vegetation distribution and building density on the urban heat island effect. The results show that from 1999 to 2014, the area of urban construction land in Beijing continued to grow, and the growth rate was relatively fast from 2000 to 2003. The rate of urban expansion slowed down significantly from 2004 to 2012. Based on the core functional area, we can say the city gradually expands to the surroundings, showing that the external development is centred on the main urban area. The temperature of urban land gradually started to dominate the temperature level of the whole region, and the difference between the temperature of urban land and the average temperature of the region has decreased significantly. The urban heat island effect of Beijing has gradually increased from 2014 to 2019, and the spread of the heat island is mainly the extension of the urban new development zone and the transportation network. The urban surface temperature has an obvious negative correlation with the normalised vegetation index and an obvious positive correlation with the normalised building index. Further, the correlation between the surface temperature and the normalised vegetation index is particularly prominent. It is recommended that in the process of urban development and construction, increasing urban greening investment, rationally increasing urban vegetation coverage and moderately reducing urban building density can alleviate the urban heat island effect.

In this study, the model that analyse the impact of urban expansion on the urban environment can be determined using literature. From a quantitative point of view, the urban expansion process and basic characteristics of climate change in Beijing for the past 20 years can be analysed through the establishment of multi-period LUCC and meteorological data. Then, the remote sensing data is used to analyse the spatial distribution pattern of urban heat islands and the underlying surface, by mainly focusing on the correlation analysis of LST, NDVI and NDBI. In this paper, we have proposed to focus on analysing the relationship between urban building density distribution and the urban heat island effect. This paper takes Beijing as the research object. Based on high-resolution remote sensing images and through artificial visual interpretation, combined with the surface temperature data obtained from remote sensing inversion, we correlate the internal relationship between the urban building density distribution and the urban heat island effect. This paper discusses the impact of urban building density distribution on the urban heat island effect. It can provide a scientific basis for the planning and layout of urban construction and urban thermal environmental management.

Encroachment of urban lands causes constrained evaporation which arises from decreased thermal inertia and the vegetation index, and thus ultimately leading to reduced heat loss by latent heat flux; it is the flux of heat from the surface to the atmosphere that is associated with evaporation of water and subsequent condensation of water vapour in the troposphere (Goswami & Singh, 2008). UHI is further aggravated by reduction in speed of the environmental winds, congested transportation networks, increased energy demands, higher anthropogenic heat release and other sky-view factors (Chang Cao et al., 2016). Since urban development, occasioned by increased migration into the metropolitan areas, is relatively difficult to control, the only good urban form is the only way which can help sustain the metropolitan area’s environmental condition.

Beijing is one of the leading growth drivers in the country getting some of the country’s huge investments. Besides the manufacturing, processing and manufacturing industries, Beijing’s growth also draws from the real estate segment that forms an integral economic zone, whose growth started from the mid-1990s. The city forms part of the coastal economic zone even though it is geographically located on the North China Plain (Chang Cao et al., 2016). The Ring and Radial Highway System stands as the city’s ideal transportation mechanism model. The system has received a great structural boost since its creation in the 1950s through new legislations like the 1982 and 1993 comprehensive plans for Beijing’s spatial structure. The intercity highway connecting the city’s 14 satellite towns is known as the 6th ring, while the 4th ring road acts as the edge of the city centre and 5th ring road as the linkage between 10 other scattered districts within the metropolitan area and the lower the number of rings, the closer it is to the centre, which also represents major buildings in these areas. Following the adoption of economic reform policies, China’s land use/cover has undergone radical changes that also accelerated economic growth.

As reported by Qiao et al. (2014), from 1989 to 2010, Beijing’s urban land grew by 775.82 km^{2} at a rate of 184.31%. The mounting intensity and increasing UHI index grew at a high pace from 1989 to 2000 but at a declining pace from 2000 to 2010. The study also reports that ‘the LSTs and urban heat island ratio index (URIs) of urban land in Beijing increased between 1989 and 2010, heat island areas expanded, and the UHI resulting from urban expansion increased’ (Qiao et al., 2014).

China’s land legalities and policies have changed rapidly consistent with the changes in the social and economic conditions. As discussed by Liu, Dunford, Song and Chen (2016), most of these policies are ‘reflected in Hukou reform, urban and rural rights, the Annual Land Use Quota system, public assets, and the local government finance vehicles.’

Committed to Habitat II in 1996 principle, the government or china implemented radical measures associated urban and rural housing. The goal of the policy was to ensure all households have self-contained rooms and to achieve a 9-metre per-capita construction space (Assembly, 2015). The policies have led to an increase in the overall level of urban housing in China. The yearly and persistent large-scale housing construction has reached an unparalleled level in China such that houses constructed increased from 1.22 billion in 1996 to 1.93 billion in 2013. During the same time housing space grew from 395 million to 1.07 billion m^{2} in urban centres (Assembly, 2015).

Internationally recognised l-use regulations such as ‘minimum lot sizes, minimum parking requirements, maximum floor-to-area ratios or floor space index (FSI)’ have had a significant impact on UHI in Chinese cities such as Beijing (Menon et al., 2019). For instance, while FSI limits reduce the ‘density of buildings”, they cannot limit the ‘density of people’ since most individuals opt for smaller and especially informal spaces. Prohibitions on lower height structures inflated prices causing urban sprawl such as the case of Beijing, which caused a 12% expansion of its city boundaries (Deng & Huang, 2004).

China’s land use/cover changes have led to the subdivision of surface structures into three layers based on the specific area’s land use and climate (Siddique et al., 2020). Vegetation cover often acts as a sieve that purifies the air from dust particles and heating thereby improving evapotranspiration which in turn promotes precipitation. In Beijing, after the air passes through the green belt, it is intercepted by the city’s built-up areas and experience solar radiation and absorption, and as a result greenhouse gas emission occurs at the cost of anthropogenic disturbances which makes it warmer, hence urban heat island (Yuan, 2020).

With the intensification of urbanisation, the building area continues to expand, and human activity has increased significantly. These factors may lead to an increase in the intensity of the heat island.

Jing (2019) studied the current situation of the heat island effect in the main urban area of Beijing’s Fifth Ring Road in the summer of 2017, and selected 65 urban green spaces of different sizes and types within Beijing’s Fifth Ring Road through a large amount of data linear fitting and controlled variable method on the influencing factors of the internal temperature of urban green space and the quantitative and influencing factors of the green space cooling range. The study suggests that there is a relatively obvious heat island effect in the main urban area of Beijing. The proportion of high-temperature areas from the Second Ring to the Fifth Ring gradually decreases, and the proportion of low-temperature areas gradually increases. The southwest and southeast quadrants of the study area have the highest proportion of high temperature, and the northeast and the northwest quadrant have the highest proportion of low-temperature areas. Large areas of high-temperature heat island areas are mostly old bungalow residential areas, factories, wholesale markets, train stations, etc. The analysis of the factors affecting the cooling range of green space concludes that the smaller the green area, the smaller the cooling range. When the green area is between 0 ha and 7 ha or the perimeter of the green area is between 0 km and 1.5 km, the cooling range of the green area will follow the increase of green area increases. The percentage of impervious surface in the surrounding land of urban green space also has a significant impact on the cooling range of urban green space. In the case of the same green area, whenever the percentage of the impervious surface area surrounding the green area increases by 1%, the green area cooling range will be decreased by 4.01 m.

Li et al. (2008) used the temperature data from the meteorological observatory in Beijing from 1990 to October 2004 to analyse the characteristics of the urban heat island in autumn in Beijing for the past 15 years. The results showed that the urban heat island in the autumn night in Beijing is stronger than that in the daytime. Besides, a comparative analysis of the characteristics of a strong heat island, a weak heat island and their meteorological influence factors show that there is a strong heat island under certain conditions at night in Beijing in autumn. The formation and maintenance of a strong heat island is the result of the combined effects of multiple factors. During the day and sunny nights, the surface wind field in the suburbs of Beijing is very weak and the atmospheric wind field <47 m in the vertical direction of the urban area continues to be very strong. The rate and amplitude of the atmospheric temperature drop in the suburbs after sunset are much greater than that in the urban area, which promotes the formation and maintenance of a strong heat island at night. The weakening of the urban atmospheric stability and the disappearance of the urban atmospheric inversion are the main reasons for the weakening of strong heat island and its final disappearance at night.

Based on discussing the concept and characteristics of urbanisation, Zhao et al. (2014) analysed the interaction between urbanisation and climate change. Urbanisation has caused significant effects on different climatic elements, but related research is mainly concentrated in terms of local microclimate changes. Climate change is a very complex process.

Assuming the experimental data (_{i},y_{i}

Therefore, the nonlinear fitting method should be used to solve the impact of the urbanisation process in Beijing on the urban warming. The following steps should be followed: First, the scatter diagram should be defined and the function category should be analysed; Second, the initial value of the undetermined parameters is obtained and the best parameters are calculated by using MATLAB software. Third, the determination coefficient is used to compare the effect. The formula of determination coefficient is as follows:
^{2} is to 1, the higher the actual fitting effect is. In MATLAB software to achieve the command of the coefficient of determination:

If the coefficients are polynomial, it is called polynomial regression and the parameters are polynomial coefficients. But if it is of the following forms namely exponential function, logarithmic function, power function, trigonometric function, etc., then it is called nonlinear fitting. Equations with an S-shaped curve include the Rogersti model:
^{−kx}), Richards model: ^{1/δ}, and Weibull model: ^{δ}

In order to better realise nonlinear fitting, the function should be defined first: the definition function of inline can be used for numerical calculation of curve fitting. On the one hand, the M file should be built first, and on the other hand,

After combining the factors that influence the urbanisation process of Beijing on the urban temperature increase, the scatter plot is constructed by combining the above nonlinear fitting method, and an appropriate nonlinear regression equation can be selected, as shown below:
_{0} + _{1}_{2}^{2} and _{1} = _{2} = ^{2}, to obtain _{0} + _{1}_{1} + _{2}_{2}. In this case, x_{1} and x_{2} can be regarded as independent variables, and y can be regarded as a linear function of the two variables. On the other hand, it cannot be directly converted into a linear model to calculate parameters, such that _{1} ln(1 + _{2}

In this case,

When calculating the least square method of data fitting, the concept of this theory should be clarified first. Assume that is a set of data given (_{i}_{i}_{i}

And the calculation function can be obtained:

More in line with the following requirements:

The Φ in the

Assuming

Make

And define the inner product:

The system can be called:

Then the normal equations of the function system at discrete points are as follows:

The determinant formed according to the basis function _{r}_{r}_{0}),_{r}_{1}),...,_{r}_{m}

Therefore, the solution of the system is

And

In the case that the basis is ^{j}

When calculating the data fitting method of least square integration, it is necessary to make clear its concrete concept. First, it is clear that n groups of observed data are (_{i}_{i}

Wherein, G (x) refers to the error function of function _{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{j}

Assuming that

Then in the fitting problem of the traditional least square method, the following formula can reach the minimum value if all the parameters contained therein are calculated according to the above formula. This method is called the least square sum method.

By taking the observed data (_{i}_{i}

In general, the fitting function G (x) represents:

Where _{i}_{1},_{2},...,_{i}_{1},_{2},...,_{q}^{dix}

Here, we first analyse the specific situation when g (x) is used as a linear fitting function, and then we can get:

Where, _{i}

Calculate the minimum value, which is

Assuming that

The

In data fitting analysis, two of the most common fitting function is: _{i}_{i}_{i} (x) refers to the weight function of 1 integral inner product of orthogonal polynomials, and as a result of the (x) function hi conform to the requirements of the

The corresponding regression coefficient is:

On the other hand, the basis function is an exponential fitting function. First observe the data (_{i}

In addition, the above coefficient Ai is defined. At the same time, the root _{1},_{2},...,_{m}

According to different characteristic root analysis, clear
_{r}_{+k},_{1} = 1 so we can get:

And _{1},_{2},...,_{m}

Assuming _{i}_{1},_{2},...,_{m}_{i}_{n}_{+1} as the complex conjugate roots of the equation, and we can get:

The corresponding basis function is:

Assuming that there are k real roots and t complex conjugate roots in the characteristic equation of the fitting curve, then the new fitting function will be:

The in the formula needs to be calculated with the least square integration method proposed above.

According to the above steps, we can not only master more influencing factors, but also put forward better solutions based on the numerical changes obtained from calculation and analysis.

The idea of this paper follows the path of problem discovery, subject research and practical reflection, in which both qualitative and quantitative analyses are applied. Figure 1 shows the workflow of this main methodology. One of the main concerns of qualitative researchers is their emphasis on the description of the urbanisation process, and the research analysis model. In this study, literature research can give the key influencing factors of the urban warming effect. Quantitative research is guided by a positivist methodology to explore the different indexes of urbanisation and the heat island effect. At the same time, the model that analyses the impact of urban expansion on the urban environment can be determined from the literature. From a quantitative point of view, the urban expansion process and basic characteristics of climate change in Beijing can be analysed for the past 20 years through the establishment of multi-period LUCC and meteorological data. Then the remote sensing data is used to analyse the spatial distribution pattern of urban heat islands and the underlying surface, mainly focusing on the correlation analysis of LST, NDVI and NDBI. Through this paper, we are hopeful to focus on analysing the relationship between urban building density distribution and the urban heat island effect. This paper takes Beijing as the research object; using high-resolution remote sensing images and through artificial visual interpretation in combination with the surface temperature data obtained from remote sensing inversion, correlation of the internal relationship between the urban building density distribution and the urban heat island effect is obtained. This paper discusses the impact of urban building density distribution on the urban heat island effect. It can provide a scientific basis for the planning and layout of urban construction and urban thermal environmental management.

The measurement system in this paper uses WGS 1984 and the projection uses equal area projection. The landsat5 and landsat8 data are established through the geospatial data cloud platform, including five dates and specific satellites. The cloud coverage is <10%.

Database

999.08.10 | Landsat 5 |

2005.07.25 | Landsat 5 |

2010.08.08 | Landsat 5 |

2014.08.19 | Landsat 8 |

2019.08.17 | Landsat 8 |

Through ENVI, LST and LUCC are established by data processing, sample establishment, classifier selection and post-processing.

Urban heat island remains one of the biggest attention-drawing environmental problems in China (Zheng & Li, 2016). The data of Beijing districts and counties can be downloaded from the National Basic Information Centre. The datasets used for the study of urban heat island, as an impact of urban expansion, can be obtained through periodic data collection at three different times to get a comparative basis for the changes that occur over a given period. Landsat TM images are then chosen and corrected radiantly to retrieve the land cover types followed by visual interpretation to differentiate false-colour composites of TM/ETM.

Beijing city covers approximately 16410 km^{2}, longitudinally and latitudinally lying at about 2”05′ and 1”37′, respectively (Zhi et al., 2014). The city is graced by a sub-humid warm temperate continental monsoon climate that gives rise to four distinct seasons, humid, hot summer, cold and windy winter. Beijing has continued to experience rapid urbanisation, which has consequently led to increased environmental problems like UHI, pollution haze and dust and sandstorms in the urban areas (UA) (Siddiue et al., 2020). The study area is mapped into specific distinctive portions as UA and non-urban areas (NUA). The calculation of urban area land can be performed using various ways depending on the precision and accuracy of the method, using satellite images and change detection. In this study special nets with specific dimensional measurements that match the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are created for the calculation of the land area percentage.

NDVI is a common parameter in exploring the influencing factors of ground temperature. It can be used to detect vegetation coverage, growth status and seasonal changes. The formula is as follows,

In the formula, NIR is the near-infrared band reflectivity, R is the red-light band reflectivity, which is represented by the 5th and 4th bands respectively in Landsat 8 TIRS. The value of NDVI ranges from −1 to 1. NDVI>0 means all vegetation. The higher the NDVI, the higher the vegetation coverage, which means good growth and the rich types of vegetation in the area.

LST is a good indicator of the energy balance of the earth’s surface and the greenhouse effect. It is a key factor in the physical process of ground strikes on a regional and global scale. It can reflect the energy flow and material exchange of the soil-vegetation-atmosphere system. It is very necessary for many fields such as climate, hydrology, ecology and biogeochemistry. The ground temperature retrieved from satellite data can reflect in more detail the average temperature of the underlying surface of each pixel and can reflect the spatial distribution characteristics of the underlying surface temperature field. Although the error of using remote sensing data to retrieve the surface temperature is inevitable, it is still the most effective and easiest way to obtain the surface temperature of a large area at present. This is also an advantage of LANDSAT images to reflect the difference of the surface temperature distribution in a large area.

Landsat bands can be used in land detection with the wavelength of 433 nm to 2300 nm and the spatial resolution is 30 m. LST product images, with particular desired properties and resolution levels, are used for analytical purposes. For instance, the Landsat product, which is capable of averaging the LST after every 16 days can be used to obtain the daily LST produced by the split-window algorithm, which is the method for LST retrieval from satellite data. On the other hand, the Landsat Vegetation Index product can be used to obtain data for the EVI data by determining the vegetation index for a given period at a specific spatial resolution. The mean EVI, which is commonly used to determine the vegetation abundance, is calculated for the whole period of the study i.e. 1999 to 2019. The NDBI data is generated using a specific Landsat Surface Reflectance product at a particular spatial resolution. This determination provides the estimated surface spectral reflectance of the study bands, which is then corrected for atmospheric conditions. The NDBI is defined by the equation:

NDBI can be used to characterise the density of urban land?where RSWIR is the surface spectral reflectance of the second last band and RNIR is the surface spectral reflectance of the second band used in the study process.

Using the difference in averaged LST value between the urban and rural areas of study, followed by a determination of the urban area’s pixel levels as the difference in the averaged nonurban LST and each pixel’s LST in the urban area, the SUHII levels of the study areas can be determined by calculation. Investigation of the data obtained from temporal trends of variables like SUHII, EVI, LST and NDBI from 1999 to 2019 is performed at every pixel by the use of linear regression models and ordinary least squares (Minghong et al., 2011). Using the LST as the dependent variable and the study year as the independent variable, multiple ordinary least squares models are run at each pixel to examine the regression coefficient that is used in measuring the annual change in the LSTs magnitude and trend. The significance is then tested at a specific level e.g. at 0.05. Thus, any positive trend with p <0.05 indicates a significantly increased LST at that specific pixel from 1999 to 2019.

Spatiotemporal variation of UHI using LST data using remote sensing images formed at different periods of the study is the major focus of this method. Quantification of the UHI is then performed by introducing URI based on bright temperature normalisation (Siddiue et al., 2020). However, the surrounding conditions of the rural areas affect the magnitude of a UHI and the fact that UHI focuses on the LST’s relative spatial intensity. Normalisation of LSTs is done to allow comparison of their spatial distribution to provide a spatiotemporal pattern variation of the HUI because the remote sensing images only change LST values at different study periods as opposed to changing the spatial LST distribution. The normalised LSTs are then classified into five different thermodynamic levels by density segmentation method to characterise their distribution levels and the area of each level calculated. URI is then introduced for the quantification of the rate of distribution of the urban land to UHI using the following equation:

Where: T_{S} is the surface temperature; B (T_{S}) is the blackbody at the same temperature. K1 and K2 can be obtained from the image header file.

Based on Landsat TM data The URI often reflects the degree of UHI development in built-up land; thus, the more extensive the URI, the more severe the UHI effects and vice versa (Jia Wang et al., 2019). Computational analysis of the UHI area to urban land ratio while considering each temperature level’s weighted values provides the URI value.

Classification of heat island intensity

High temperature | T |

Sub high-temperature | u+0.5std < T < u+std |

Mid temperature range | u-0.5std < T < u+0.5std |

Sub low temperature | u-std < T < u-0.5std |

Low temperature | < T < u-std |

u is the average temperature of surface; std is the standard difference of temperature.

According to the Figure 2, the population of Beijing has been rising linearly for the past two decades, from 9,866,000 to 20,035,000, but in terms of growth rate, it can be seen that 2010 is a cut-off point, 4.82%, after 2010. The average increase rate is around 2.1%. The birth rate is 8.12‰, the death rate is 5.49‰ and the natural growth rate is 2.63‰. The permanent population density is 1,312 people per square kilometre.

This study mainly uses six Districts in Beijing as the research area, and the three phases of LandsatTM remote sensing data are utilised in 1999, 2010 and 2019, combined with GIS technology. This aims to use a comprehensive analysis index system of land use dynamic changes, and reveal the land use of the study area in the past 20 years. The magnitude, speed and direction of change are analysed based on the driving force of land-use change. The results show that the urbanisation of Beijing is very rapid. In the past 20 years, due to the expansion of urban population, economic development and the impact of increasing land use demand has led to a sharp decrease in arable land, while construction land, including residential areas, has increased significantly. The built-up land has increased from 38% in 1999 to 72% in 2019. Due to the dry climate, low annual rainfall, and the interference of human activities on the environment, the water area has become slightly smaller. And it is located in UA. The small part of woodland and grassland on the edge has not changed much due to the influence of topography. The woodland is decreasing after 2010. Comparing with the population trend, there is no correlation between population and LUCC.

LST has a significant correlation with NDBI and NDVI. It can be seen from Figures 3–5 that there are two stages of urbanisation in Beijing, while 2010 is the crest.

LST acts as the interface temperature between the atmosphere and the underlying surface of the city as solar radiation. The analysis of spatial pattern characteristics is of great significance for studying the urban thermal environment, microclimate and optimising the spatial configuration of urban ecological land. The LST data is obtained by ETM image inversion of the study area. The spatial analysis results show that the high-temperature patches in the study area are generally distributed in a pattern of more south and less north, and about 80% of the area is located south of the east-west central line, and the high-temperature patches have low landscape connectivity and tend to be regular in shape. Low-temperature patches are concentrated on the boundary of the study area, with relatively high connectivity and their shape is related to the shape of green spaces and water bodies. In terms of the number and area of ??patches, low-temperature patches are dominant in the second ring and outside the fourth ring, and the second ring to the fourth ring road is dominated by hot patches. The water inside the fourth ring road plays a leading role in the generation of low-temperature patches, and outside the fourth ring road is dominated by low-temperature patches with the forest as the underlying surface.

Land Use Classification

^{2} | ||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cropland | 47.44% | 31.13% | 12.97% | 1075.81 | 705.97 | 294.04 |

Woodland | 7.40% | 8.84% | 7.55% | 167.71 | 200.50 | 171.27 |

Grassland | 6.07% | 2.81% | 5.67% | 137.56 | 63.61 | 128.64 |

Water body | 1.07% | 1.12% | 1.67% | 24.20 | 25.40 | 37.87 |

Built-up land | 38.03% | 56.10% | 72.14% | 862.31 | 1272.11 | 1635.79 |

Beijing’s intense heat island centres are mainly distributed in the core areas and expansion areas of the city. The closer to the city centre, the stronger the heat islands. The thermal field variation index of Dongcheng and Xicheng in the centre is more than ten times that of Tongzhou. The heat island effect in the southern part of the entire study area is stronger than that in the northern part. The average surface temperature in the centre of the heat island in different regions is very different from the average surrounding ground temperature. On the whole, the surface temperature values ??in all directions decrease as the distance from the centre increases, and the surface temperature decreases significantly along the south profile line. In the range of 1/3 of the distance from the centre, the LST value changes relatively smoothly, and the latter fluctuates greatly with the increase of the distance, and the closer to the centre, the more frequent LST high values ??appear.

NDBI and NDVI can give a clear explanation and relationship between building intensity and vegetation intensity. NDBI shows that from 1999 to 2014, the building index increased from the range −0.35 to 0, which means the Building intensity was higher. Initially, only the downtown building index was high, while the edge area was low, but in 2014, both the downtown and surrounding building index were high.

The NDVI can accurately reflect the vegetation coverage on the ground. At present, the NDVI time-series data obtained from satellite remote sensing images such as SPOT/VEGETATION and Landsat have been obtained from the research of vegetation dynamic change monitoring, land use/cover change detection, macro-vegetation coverage classification and net primary productivity estimation in various scale areas. Wide range of applications. It can be seen from 1999 to 2010 that the increase in the red area (NDVI from 0.01 to 0.20) means that the vegetation coverage is reduced. After 2010, it can be seen that the area with NDVI >0.50 is getting larger and larger, indicating that the vegetation coverage rate is good.

The results of the study reveal the spatial distribution of the correlation between buildings and temperature in a better manner, thus provide a certain scientific basis for Beijing’s future city and green space planning.

The Beijing urban development developed slowly prior to the reforms and opening up. After the reform and opening up, the growth rate of the Beijing urban development increased by dozens or even a hundred times than prior to the reforms and opening up. From 1999 to 2010, the high-temperature area expands outward from the urban centre, and by 2010, >80% of the area reaches moderate temperature. From 1999 to 2019, the high-temperature area shifted from the middle to the southwest.

Comparing the UHII with the LUCC and LST results, it is observed that the increase in temperature caused by human activities in Beijing has exceeded the increase in temperature caused by natural factors, and thus it can cause the temperature changes in the city.

Since 1999 in Beijing, the increase in urban temperature has been consistent with the development of urbanisation. They have a long-term coordinated and balanced relationship. This helps the planner to formulate urban planning to reduce the urban heat island effect and a reasonable population-scale city development strategy. Based on high-resolution remote sensing images, this paper extracts the distribution of different building density areas in Beijing’s Sixth Ring Road. Through the analysis of the relationship between the distribution of different building density areas and the surface temperature, it is found that Beijing’s urban building density is getting higher year by year, vegetation density distribution, and there is a certain correlation between the urban thermal environment.

Both the building index and the plant index of the study area present a distribution pattern with a high centre and a low edge. However, from 1999 to 2019, the overall trend of centralisation has weakened. The building density of the entire area is getting higher and higher, and the plant index is showing a downward trend of decentralisation. LST has a significant correlation with NDBI and NDVI. In the south and southwest of the city, there are more areas >310 K. This is related to the acceleration of these trends in urbanisation. The higher the building index, the higher the temperature and the building has a positive effect on temperature. Vegetation was affected by the increase in building density, and its density was getting lower and lower, and the value was around 0.20 to 0.40 by 2019.

Affected by the key development of the southern area of ??Beijing, the southern area has an advantageous geographical location. It is connected to the central city of Beijing in the north, the Xiong’an New District in the south and the sub-centre of Beijing city and the Yizhuang Economic Development Zone in the east. Therefore, it can be seen from UHII that the high-temperature area shifted from the central part of 1999 to the south in 2019.

In the past 20 years, Beijing’s urban construction land has gradually expanded to the surrounding area based on the original core functional areas. It is an extensional development cantered on the main urban area. The construction land in the surrounding districts and counties is also based on the original urban construction land. The above shows an extensional expansion to the surroundings. With the progress of urbanisation, the heat island effect has always been also obvious. The temperature of urban land gradually dominates the temperature level of the whole area, and the difference between the temperature of urban land and the regional average temperature has been significantly reduced.

The development of urbanisation is also reflected in many aspects such as changes in the internal industrial structure of cities, changes in population composition and so on (Cui et al., 2016). There are still seasonal changes and day-night differences in the urban thermal environment under the influence. The impact of urbanisation on the regional surface thermal environment needs to be more comprehensive and in-depth research.

The spatial resolution is relatively insufficient. The morphological and structural characteristics of urban heat islands are the basis for the study of urban heat island effects. The spatial resolution of TM/E TM thermal infrared bands of 60 m or 30 m makes it difficult to observe the detailed features of the ground surface on a smaller spatial scale (Zhou et al., 2019). Moreover, the lack of spatial resolution will inevitably cause the problem of mixed pixels, that is, there will be multiple urban feature components in one pixel, in this way, whether it is in the inversion of the true surface temperature or in the morphological structure and formation of the urban heat island. Moreover, there will be certain errors in mechanism of research.

Because the acquisition of remote sensing images is greatly affected by weather conditions, the weather conditions at the time of image acquisition may have a certain impact on the accuracy of the model (Khanal et al., 2020). At the same time, this article only studies the Beijing area. Therefore, whether the relationship between urban heat island and vegetation greenness studied in this paper applies to other areas requires more data to verify.

The goal is not to study the urban heat island effect, but fundamentally to eliminate and weaken the heat island effect. Therefore, in future research, there should be a focus on the use of Landsat data to study the simulation and prediction of the urban heat island process, the ecological effects and regulation of the urban heat island effect. The study aims to seek mitigation and governance measures for the urban heat island on this basis.

#### Database

999.08.10 | Landsat 5 |

2005.07.25 | Landsat 5 |

2010.08.08 | Landsat 5 |

2014.08.19 | Landsat 8 |

2019.08.17 | Landsat 8 |

#### Classification of heat island intensity

High temperature | T |

Sub high-temperature | u+0.5std < T < u+std |

Mid temperature range | u-0.5std < T < u+0.5std |

Sub low temperature | u-std < T < u-0.5std |

Low temperature | < T < u-std |

#### Land Use Classification

^{2} |
||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Cropland | 47.44% | 31.13% | 12.97% | 1075.81 | 705.97 | 294.04 |

Woodland | 7.40% | 8.84% | 7.55% | 167.71 | 200.50 | 171.27 |

Grassland | 6.07% | 2.81% | 5.67% | 137.56 | 63.61 | 128.64 |

Water body | 1.07% | 1.12% | 1.67% | 24.20 | 25.40 | 37.87 |

Built-up land | 38.03% | 56.10% | 72.14% | 862.31 | 1272.11 | 1635.79 |

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design based on visual communication from a digital perspective Statistical language model-based analysis of the English-Chinese corpus and political discourse Analysis of the construction and reform path of preschool education professional practice courses in the context of computer big data A study of algorithms for solving nonlinear two-level programming problems oriented to decision tree models Research on localization and navigation methods for intelligent terminal devices oriented to multi-source fusion technology Application of graphic image processing technology in 2D game interface design Computer vision-based image data processing of digital media video images with ultra-clear picture quality Research on the intelligent management mode of university education and teaching for innovative talents cultivation strategy Research on the Analysis of Efficiency and Potential Prediction of Cross-border E-Commerce Trade of Agricultural Products in West Anhui Based on Improved DEVA Model The introduction and cultivation of intercultural communication in undergraduate German language teaching process based on big data technology Research on the integration path of cultural creative industry and tourism industry based on collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm Research on the development of literature practice teaching for college students in the context of computer technology Sensitivity Analysis of the Waterproof Performance of Elastic Rubber Gasket in Shield Tunnel The main color structure setting of Chinese oil painting based on content analysis method The application of red music culture resources in the education of ecological civilization concept in colleges and universities under the background of multimedia Optimization of the development path of integration between folk art and contemporary textile industry in Shandong based on BOPPPS model Analysis of the application of BIM technology in the combination of interior design and smart home Research on the development of digitalization of art education in the era of big data technology Research on the role of psychological education in college Civic Education under the background of Internet Visual learning analysis of physical virtual simulation experiments based on heterogeneous data features Dilemmas and Breakthroughs in the Legal Regulation of Artificial Intelligence Based on Deep Learning Models A study on the psychological relief path of gender stress in women's workplace based on hierarchical analysis Localized Imagery and Narrative of Chinese Contemporary Oil Painting Based on Big Data Improving online ideological and political precision education in universities based on knowledge mapping Research on unmanned vehicle obstacle avoidance technology based on LIDAR and depth camera fusion A multi-objective optimization algorithm based on the identification of risk spillover intensity measurement in Chinese financial markets A Study on Second Language Academic Writing Anxiety of Chinese Students Studying in Japan A Study on the Multidimensional Expression Form of Ancient Chinese Teaching in Universities Based on Multidimensional Analysis Model Analysis of Spatial Pattern and Geographical Divergence Characteristics of Traditional Villages Oriented to Digital Landscape Technology Innovation of teaching methods of international Chinese language education in universities based on artificial intelligence analysis technology The application of BOPPPS teaching model in online and offline hybrid Civics teaching in universities Exploring the Multiple Meanings of Ice and Snow Sports Culture Construction in Chinese Universities Based on Fuzzy Algorithm Research on service quality evaluation and improvement strategy of Chinese civil aviation based on DEA model The Importance of Emotional Expression in Vocal Performance Art in the Internet Era A Study on Innovative Strategies for Teaching English to College Students Based on Knowledge Mapping Research on urban landscape big data information processing system based on ordinary differential equations Research on green-driven product value creation process Assessment and Analysis of Ecotourism Resources in China Based on RIAM System Keyword Extraction-based Library Intelligence Services: Challenges, Adaptations and Reinvention Application of linear ordinary differential equations to the stability control of long time lag networks Research on the innovation of ideological and political education for college students based on the Civic and Political Science Cloud Education Platform Research on digital reform of music education resources in universities in the context of data governance Analysis of the evolutionary path of early civilization agriculture based on the plain Bayesian model Exploring the blended learning model of music teaching skills for teacher trainees based on teacher training professional certification in the context of big data A statistical method for massive data based on partial least squares algorithm Construction of an intelligent agricultural irrigation control platform based on PLC technology Analysis of digital cloud accounting incorporating data mining technology in corporate investment decision making Colorized visual aesthetics of interior design based on the VAR model Application of machine learning based models in computer network data Research on the Construction of Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Model System in Universities Based on Big Data Technology Optimizing Strategy of Computer Teaching Mode in Universities Based on Continuous Discrete Method Variation in metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from intra- and interdisciplinary analysis Analysis of the opportunities and challenges of information technology for enterprise development strategy based on big data technology Building an efficient classroom for Civics in vocational colleges in the era of new media Research on energy consumption analysis of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment based on perceptron model Application of modern architectural color layout in interior design In-depth analysis of the artistic expression of paper-cutting elements in interior space design Research on the extraction method of traditional elements in environmental art space design based on intelligent algorithm Esearch on the optimization path of campus football teaching based on deep learning mode Analysis of the prospect of the development of university innovation and entrepreneurship courses based on the chain-type intelligent education model Study on the optimization of the quality management path of university physical education teaching in the context of multimedia network technology Exploring the path of integration of rural tourism culture and food industry in the context of big data Analysis of the Construction and Course Effectiveness of the Online Course Platform for College Piano in the Background of the Internet Machining hardening and dislocation modeling of magnesium alloys based on Fields-Backofen equation The construction of hotel information management mode under the trend of low carbon tourism Digital Intelligence Civilization Drives New Business Civilization: A Theoretical Framework for the Collaborative Ecosystem of Digital Culture and Tourism Industry Research and Application of Cross-media Knowledge Discovery Service Based on Deep Learning Model A Study on the Evaluation System of Aesthetic Education in Guangdong Higher Education Institutions in the Context of Internet+ Education The mechanism of innovation-driven emerging technology generation based on big data fusion in the perspective of technological self-reliance and self-improvement Analysis of the practice in college English listening teaching based on multimedia technology Research on New Liberal Arts Professional Talent Cultivation Model Based on OBE Concept Construction material manufacturing in the context of artificial intelligence and its use in the construction of assembled buildings New Digital Infrastructure, Financial Resource Allocation and High Quality Economic Development in the Internet Era Analysis of the integration development of enterprise refinement management and financial integration in the context of informationization Graphic Design Optimization Method Based on Deep Reinforcement Learning Model Innovation of tax incentives in the context of integration of traditional industries and digital economy Research on the Evaluation of the Effect of Tourism Revitalization of Intangible Cultural Heritage in China in the Context of New Media Analysis of the Design and Effectiveness Evaluation of Personalized English Teaching System for Mongolian College Students in Trilingual Context Research on composite dynamic disaster prevention and control system of mine earthquake and shock in thick and hard rock mines Research on urban energy Internet planning based on fuzzy comprehensive method Research on innovative strategies of college students’ English teaching under the background of artificial intelligence Electromagnetic interference prediction technology of new energy motor drive system Analysis of interaction experience of sculpture product design based on perceptual machine model Research on the intelligent path of college students’ network ideological and political education based on big data mining technology Exploring the characteristics of folk music tunes based on data mining model Research on the application of PLC technology in electrical automation engineering Model Innovation Research of Cultivating Applied Art and Design Talents Based on Environmental Psychology Application of matrix multiplication in signal sensor image perception Analysis of the application of abstract symbols in advertising design based on cluster analysis method Analysing the variation of metadiscourse verb patterns in English academic papers from within and between disciplines Cyclic Convolutional Neural Network Model Based on Artificial Intelligence A multivariate nonlinear dynamic programming of female figures in Qing dynasty literature Impact of COVID-19 policy on stock prices of listed property companies Analysis of the Influence Path of Confucianism in the Civic Education of Contemporary College Students in the Context of Big Data Teaching Strategies of English Speaking Informatization in Colleges and Universities in the Context of Computer-Assisted Language Learning Application of the ADDIE Model in the Teaching Practice of Basketball Skills Energy Efficiency Evaluation of HVDC Converter Station Based on Deep Neural Network Model Numerical Simulation and Characteristic Analysis of Music Based on Nonlinear Equations Títul Automatic Extraction and Discrimination of Vocal Theme Based on Quadratic Wave Equation Marginal Scale State Analysis of Cloud Computing Economy Based on a Class of First Order Differential Equations Computer-Aided Design of Hand-Drawn art Food Packaging Design Based on Deep Neural Network Model Innovative Development Model of Ideological and Political Education Under “Self-media” Based on Big Data Thoughts and Design of Ideological and Political Construction Based on the ADDIE Model Innovation of fresh agricultural products e-commerce operation mode based on artificial intelligence and machine learning model Research on the Application of Civic Education into the Brain and Heart Based on Physiological Data Recognition Algorithm VR-based computer maintenance practical training platform development design and application research Design and implementation of an integrated management system for discipline construction and postgraduate education in universities Research on innovative human capital for China’s economic development based on STI model In-depth analysis of the artistic expression of paper-cut elements in the design of boat space Dual Construction of “Composition” and “Analysis” in Composition and Technical Theory in the Context of Big Data Construction and intelligent analysis of power grid physical data knowledge graph based on Internet of Things for power system Deep learning model-based reading of Chinese language and literature classics and situational experience Research on the quality of information disclosure of listed companies in the era of big data Research on the effects of financial literacy on rural household credit constraint The significance of senior education in the Internet era for the construction of lifelong education system Research on educational resource recommendation system based on MRLG Rec Study on Regional Financial Innovation, Technological Progress Bias and High Quality Economic Development Visual analysis of the trend of mental health changes among Chinese college students in the context of the normalisation of the new crown epidemic Research on the Market Positioning and Suitable Cargo Value Range of “Yiwu-Xinjiang-Europe” Train Based on Data Model A study on the phenomenon of anaphoric correction in college students’ English conversation Research on the application of improved V-detector algorithm in network intrusion detection Integration of government accounting system reform and university infrastructure consolidation based on type two fuzzy sets Kinetics of phenol hydroxylation reaction of open mesoporous TS-1 with high backbone titanium content Design of fitness walker for the elderly based on ergonomic SAPAD model The challenges of ideological and political education in higher education institutions in the era of big data and its path analysis Research on the innovation of collaborative education model of scientific research and teaching in colleges and universities based on the theory of process reengineering Analysis of the regulatory environment on Green innovations Efficiency and its Impact Effect The innovative path of diversified vocal music education reform in colleges and universities under the advanced educational concepts of China and the West Research on face emotion recognition algorithm based on deep learning neural network Rhino application in ceramic packaging design teaching Study on the Rationalization of Human Resources Allocation in Hospitals in the Post-Epidemic Era Analysis and countermeasures of cultivating independent learning ability in colleges teaching English based on OBE theory Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Construction Work based on VSBPC Model Denoising complex background radar signals based on wavelet decomposition thresholding Projection of Early Warning Identification of Hazardous Sources of Gas Explosion Accidents in Coal Mines Based on NTM Deep Learning Network Coupling Coordination of Long Triangle Digitization and High Quality Development of Manufacturing Industry based on Differential Equation The use of color elements in graphic design based on convolutional neural network model Research, analysis and optimization of the drive characteristics of the drive wheel of the machine tiller based on SPH method The application of graph theory teaching method in ideological and political education of discrete mathematics Design of automatic tobacco trash detection system based on quadratic fuzzy theory Construction of a personalized learning platform based on genetic algorithm for specialized education in industrial colleges in the context of industry-education integration Analysis of the application of music curriculum education integrating modern network technology Evaluation of capability maturity of digital transformation of manufacturing industry in Yangtze River Delta based on SDAF model Online and Offline Audio-visual-oral English Teaching Model Construction Based on ARCS Research on new ways of ideological and political education in new era universities Application of ecological architecture in architectural design based on information technology integration Strategies for the implementation of aesthetic education in music teaching in colleges and universities under the threshold of big data Exploring the implementation path of teaching Civics in online courses in colleges and universities under the background of big data RETRACTION NOTE A study on the principles of Chinese painting line drawing figure sketching techniques based on cognitive mapping constructs Research on the focus of national traditional sports culture inheritance based on weighted function algorithm First principles study of the electronic structure of antimony (Sb) and samarium (Sm) doped tin dioxide (SnO2) based on big data analysis Research on virtual color restoration algorithm for printmaking art images based on semantic segmentation and convolutional neural network Analysis of tennis techniques and tactics based on multiple linear regression model Exploring the creation of films based on digital media technology Automatic Detection of Transformer Health Based on Bayesian Network Model Research on the integration path and expected effect of university civic education and music teaching based on information fusion technology The construction of a shared resource base of enterprise financial informationization for intelligent terminal platform The value dimension and realization of online ideological and political education in colleges and universities based on deep learning Application and value of painting technique in art education based on improved ARMA model 3D Virtual Art Design Method Based on ARCS Model Construction of intelligent terminal equipment for Electric Internet of Things based on edge computing model Analysis of bridge foundation pile detection based on convolutional neural network model Application of deep learning model in computer data mining intrusion detection Defect prediction of big data computer network based on deep learning model Analysis of News Communication Law Based on PSR Model Analysis of the Evolution Trend of Segmentation of Online Public Opinion Based on Dynamic Tracking Technology Formative Assessment of College English Teaching Based on the CLA Model The evolution of Chinese traditional ethnic clothing design style based on interactive dichroism algorithm Research on the prediction method of string-supported dome cable force based on digital twin technology Exploring the innovation of visual communication design style based on artificial intelligence technology Study on the Synergistic Development of Chinese Traditional Villages Protection and Landscape Development Facilitated by Rural Revitalization Research on the evaluation system and teaching optimization effect of animation aesthetics education based on principal component analysis method Design and application of an online teaching platform for public sports tennis in colleges and universities based on discrete choice regression model Innovative Research on Deep Learning Algorithm in Intelligent Attractions Recommendation Technology Construction of a screening and evaluation system for anti-hepatitis B virus drugs based on quadratic exponential smoothing model An empirical analysis of the impact of Cross-border E-commerce on the competitiveness of SMEs based on the context of big data Research on computer network information image data processing based on machine learning Construction of preschool education resource sharing platform based on matrix model Application of animation design in the digital media art industry based on artificial intelligence technology An applied mathematical model based on discrete regression algorithm for computational prediction of blood collection volume Fractional Differential Equation in the Cost Control System of Cross-Border E-Commerce Optimization of innovative information-based teaching paths in college sports psychology based on principal component analysis Data Information Security Algorithm Based on Chaos and Hash Function Research on the innovative inheritance application of Guangxi minority elements in clothing design under the perspective of rural revitalization A study of English learning anxiety regulation strategies based on the deep learning model Application of power electronic circuit design based on BP artificial neural network in environmental monitoring Research on Curriculum Civic Education and Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education Reform in Undergraduate Universities under the Web-based Teaching Collaboration Platform Optimized reform strategy for quality education of Chinese language and literature education for college students based on information fusion technology Research on the innovation path of university library management and service under the background of big data Construction and practice of a standardized training system for outpatient clinics based on the cultivation of TCM thinking Genetic algorithm-based analysis of heat production prediction in electronic devices Analysis of the Implementation Approach of University Budget Performance Project Based on Equity Realization Perspective A study of multimodal education and discursive reading model in English based on multidimensional cognitive information aggregation theory Teaching Effect Evaluation of Music Education Based on Partial Differential Equation Model Analysis of the effect of music on personal emotional experience and identification of psychophysiological signals The application of body symbols in contemporary art from the perspective of Da Vinci’s theory A Hybrid Stochastic/Robust Planning Model for Integrated Energy System Considering Multiple Uncertainties Railroad freight service quality evaluation system based on a logistic regression model The Design and Development of Network Multimedia Music Teaching Based on Multiple Linear Regression Algorithm Research on the relationship between investment in preschool education and economic growth in Chongqing Deep Learning-based Fuzzy Translation Problem in Chinese-English Epidemic News Reporting Innovation and application of digital reading model for college students based on deep learning model Study of trip card data analysis system under big data Construction of a text complexity grading model for English textbooks in the context of globalization Design and research of big data technology based on e-commerce platform A study of cultural differences in Sino-Thai translation based on big data analysis On the Application of Artificial Intelligence in Local Legislation Big data analysis based on the correlation between live-streaming with goods, perceived value and consumer repurchase Big data methods and news communication innovation from theoretical definition to operational route Design and Practice of Human Geography Field Teaching in the Age of Big Data The innovation path of virtual practice teaching in college Civics class based on the Ridge regression model Application of CAE for mold flow analysis in plastic molding mold design Intelligent control system of port turning line based on WITNESS software Symmetry Analysis and Exact Solutions of Extended Kadomtsev-Petviashvili Equation in Fluids The reform of university English education inspired by cultural differences between China and foreign countries Research on structural damage identification and localization based on artificial neural network New approach to regularise the perturbed two-body problem Analysis of the factors influencing the development of college students’ Civic Science course based on ISO model The development trend of music art based on content analysis method The construction of cross-regional cooperation innovation network governance system based on data fusion technology Analysis of the innovative development path of university civic education based on the era of big data On new aspects of Chebyshev polynomials for space-time fractional diffusion process Rural landscape design strategy based on deep learning model Innovative Development Path of E-Commerce and Civil and Commercial Law in the Information Age Based on Discrete Regression Algorithm Stability of equilibrium price-production of dynamic duopoly Bertrand–Cournot game in a transnational supply chain with asymmetric information Mathematical model on Type 1 diabetes and Healthy state: Mechanisms of β cells on the interaction between M1 and M2 MacrophagesScientific Training Model of Sports Tourism Based on Nonlinear Differential Equation The dilemma and path of rural college students returning to their hometowns for employment and entrepreneurship in the post-epidemic period under the background of big data Financial big data control and intelligent analysis method for investment decision of renewable energy projects Analysis of the dilemma of higher vocational thinking education in China under the background of “Internet+” Analysis of the current situation and development countermeasures of college sports training and management based on the background of artificial intelligence A Review of the Design and Enhancement of Pastoral Culture Creativity in Chinese Rural Ecotourism Research on Computer Network Security Protection Technology Incorporating Full Convolutional Networks Research on the Logical Turn and Practical Path of China’s High-Quality Economic Development in the Context of Digitalization Influencing factors of modern and contemporary decorative pattern design on users’ visual perception characteristics Construction machinery hydraulic transmission system fault analysis and elimination methods Optimization strategy of ideological and political education in colleges and universities based on modern information technology A Review of the Research on Labor Supply Effect of Active Aging Application of traditional cultural elements in landscape design Driving Model of Electronic Information System Based on Agent Modeling and Simulation Research on the path of high-quality development of the rural tourism industry driven by big data technology The application of cloud accounting in enterprise financial decision making in the era of big data Variable combinatorial gap-filling method for single-cell RNA-seq data Research on the development path of integration of rural sports culture and sports tourism in the context of big data Risk Assessment of Financial Markets in the Era of Big Data Based on Eviews Econometric Model Cost Control System of Cross-Border E-Commerce Based on Fractional Differential Equation Fourier transform-based electronic logic information processing architecture design The Development of Enterprise Management Innovation in the Digital Economy Era Based on the Schumpeter Model Neural Networks and Migration Learning Models in Sports Video Course Applications Research on performance evaluation and optimization of college budget management under the background of big data Risks and preventive measures for manufacturing enterprises in the Context of cloud accounting Research and application of Augmented Reality Technology and digital media Technology in mobile visual media Research on Information Visualization of Chinese Cultural Heritage Patterns in the Digital Perspective The modernization strategy of constructing teacher-student relationship in the new era of universities Research on optimal path planning technology for vehicle positioning and navigation system Construction and practice of training system for dance professionals based on OBE teaching model combined with Kinect motion capture technology The construction of environmental cost accounting system - based on ecological perspective Interactive experience of information visualization in mechanical design Analysis of tea culture communication path based on the principal component analysis method Programming application of contemporary jewelry design forms based on Grasshopper software Construction of a multimodal poetry translation corpus based on AdaBoost model Analysis of the practical education model and its value in the context of big data in university civic education Information Fusion Technology-based Approach to Mining Civic Political Elements in College Curriculum Design of a decentralized Internet-based control system for industrial robot robotic arms General Architecture of Sustainable Urban Spatial Development Model Based on Smart Cities Design of a mechanical automatic transmission system for automobiles based on torsional vibration damping Optimization of the quality management path of physical education teaching in colleges and universities integrating modern network technology Construction of a mathematical modeling teaching quality assessment system for universities based on Eviews model Research on Information Literacy Education Model in the Big Data Environment - A Case Study of six Hainan high school Libraries Innovative model of teaching in law experiment center based on LETS software Fuzzy PID control theory in multi-objective optimal longitudinal following of intelligent trolley A Study on the Implications of Critical Discourse Analysis Theory for College English Teaching in the Context of Big Data The Construction of “Party Building + Curriculum Civics” Education Model for Chinese Grassroots Party Organizations in the Context of “Internet+” The artistic aesthetic and cultural value orientation of 3D printing A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist theory based on a decentralized Internet perspective Research on key technologies for connected vehicle autonomous driving based on 5G big data Student management model of college student associations based on ant colony Algorithm Research on practical teaching of Ideological and political education based on VR technology in the information age The Construction of Cultural Translation Research System under Big Data Technology Analysis of factors influencing the development of Civic Education for senior students of Chinese party culture based on ISO model Research on the application of big data technology in enterprise project management An investigation into the practice of blended teaching in English courses based on the BOPPPS model Analysis of student management path optimization in higher education institutions with ISM Strategies for optimising chemical instrumental analysis methods based on the ADDIE model The improvement path of international Chinese education management in universities based on big data technology Analysis of the coupling correlation between environmental protection efforts and economic development level based on artificial intelligence technology Seismic finite element analysis of underground integrated pipe corridor based on generalized reaction displacement method Research on the construction and operation mode of smart city information service system based on IOT technology Innovative reform strategy of artistic practice of university folk dance education based on information fusion technology Biosafety management strategy based on multiple linear regression model Thinking about the strategy and practice path of modern agricultural industry development in the context of big data New ideas of precision teaching development based on the background of big data Design and research of news recommendation system based on perceptron model in big data era Combined application of employment education and big data internet technology based on the context of vocational education reform Research on structural damage identification and localization based on artificial neural network College students' innovation and entrepreneurship model based on probability theory statistics Research on the design and application of intelligent teaching management system of intelligent training room in the background of internet Innovation and entrepreneurship model of higher vocational college students based on probability theory statistics Analysis of distribution network planning with distributed power supply based on ELM algorithm A fuzzy mathematical model-based approach to customer-side energy management for power companies Research on the evaluation of the employment effect of Jiangsu artificial intelligence based on neural network on colleges and universities Rural Tourism Development Planning Based on Nonlinear Differential Equation Analysis of the properties of matrix rank and the relationship between matrix rank and matrix operations Strategies for Marine remote sensing target detection based on deep learning model and internal wave simulation imaging technology Construction of a smart grid load forecasting platform based on clustering algorithm Variation mechanisms of metadiscourse verb patterns in English journal articles from intra- and interdisciplinary perspectives Construction of a refined people management model for SMEs based on discrete regression algorithm Color and composition under big data technology: the art of visual communication in film art FPGA-based Intelligent Logistics Management for Universities Study on the design of old residential district landscape space renewal based on Cite Space from the perspective of big data Digital design and experimental testing of a compressor's suction muffler transmission loss A Study on the Impact of the Internet+ Era on Korean Film Consumer Culture SCP model based on the new energy vehicle collaborative detection configuration method research Research on the innovation path of teaching interior design majors in universities based on big data analysis The cardiovascular promotion of college taekwondo based on fractional differential equation A Systematic Study of Intercultural Listening Strategies in Higher Education Institutions in the Context of Big Data Analysis and research on the economic benefits of employee labor in enterprises in the context of the Internet Design and application of an intelligent communication platform for aesthetics education for internationalization The boundedness of functional differential equations of hospital financial software under information Multi-UAV Aerial Mission Intelligent Assignment Algorithm Based on LightGBM Model Deep learning model-based brand design 3D image construction The Evolution of Marxist Theory of Financial Capital in the ACC Payment Model The character image setting of 3D animation works based on Poisson equation The Impact of College English Teaching on Improving Students’ Writing Effectiveness in the Context of Big Data Research on the interaction between university physical culture education and college students’ physical exercise in the context of big data Innovative research on the construction of experimental teaching platform of economics and management in colleges and universities based on the background of big data The optimization path of core literacy of innovative talents in universities based on the improved Markov model Analysis of the innovation path of university education management informatization in the era of big data Research on visual recognition and positioning of industrial robots based on big data technology Coupled coordination analysis of green finance on economic growth based on big data Information technology system to promote drug production command supervision Exploring English-Chinese Translation Skills Based on Big Data Technology Decentralized Internet-based calligraphy education leads the internal development of aesthetic education in schools Research on the construction and effect evaluation of OMO mode of professional practical training teaching of landscape engineering technology based on virtual simulation technology Theoretical and practical research on mathematical modeling of economy and finance based on artificial intelligence Calculation and evaluation of similarity in sports information resources based on combined algorithm Research on personalized Japanese language teaching model based on big data technology A multidimensional interpretation of Marxist globalization theory based on decentralized internet Analysis of the improvement path of English listening and speaking ability based on big data technology Study on the absorption technology of distribution network with high-proportion distributed power supply Application of BOPPPS teaching model in online and offline blended teaching of college Public Basic Mathematics Information Development and Student Talent Cultivation of Modern Chinese Language and Literature in the Context of Big Data The application of communication art in tea packaging design under the modern aesthetic perspective Grouting reinforcement strategy for tunnel sand layer based on BP neural network Multimodal discourse analysis of automotive websites Research on university laboratory network security based on Cloud Computing Optimization of journalism communication digital education ecology based on SEM model Títul Mobile visual media design based on digital media technology and augmented reality Spatial planning layout design of national land in the context of rural revitalization based on MOLA model Influence of 3D characters image transfer on animation drawing based on detail feature preservation Títul Sports consumption behavior and consumption demand of urban residents in the context of “Internet+” A study of investment decision behavior based on risk analysis Theoretical Innovation of English Teaching Methodology Based on Continuous Discretization Method The use of graphic design elements in commercial architectural design in the context of intelligence Study on the influencing factors of the development of art education in colleges and universities based on the deep learning model Research on the modernization of the spirit of marathon sports culture based on information dissemination mechanism Evaluation mechanism of local universities’ faculty construction based on SOAP technology Analysis of factors influencing social responsibility in private education industry based on multimodal discourse analysis model of big data An analysis of the cultural heritage of traditional Chinese festivals based on the perspective of big data A Markov Chain Prediction Model Based on Rural Tourism Supply and Demand Matching Governance Model from the Perspective of Cultural Tourism Integration Research on the mechanism of cultivating the English listening ability of college students based on the background of big data Study and experimental analysis of the effect of static stretching combined with resistance training on neck and shoulder syndrome in college students in the context of big data Reform and innovation of saxophone teaching mode in colleges and universities based on Bayesian model An empirical analysis of the evolution of piano performance skills based on big data Media-based information display in university libraries based on a generalized differential equation numerical method Exploring the path of high-quality development of teacher education and teaching based on collaborative filtering algorithm Research on detection of parking space based on the combination of magnetoresistance and microwave radar sensor under IoT platform Research on sustainable development mechanism of regional ‘Artisan Workshop’ under big data environment Innovative Teaching Strategies for Aesthetic Arts in Higher Education Institutions Based on Big Data Technology Application of hybrid kernel function in economic benefit analysis and evaluation of enterprises The analysis method of the impact of missing audit information on the securities investment decisions based on Logistic regression models Research on the close-range photogrammetry accuracy of 3D digital interactive platform of Hunan intangible cultural heritage Research and implementation of visual question and answer system based on deep learning Títul Research on Wireless Network Coverage for Transformation and Upgrading of Exhibition Management with Artificial Intelligence Technology Study on the application of multi-angle imaging related technology in the construction process The combination application of Civic Education and Big Data Internet Technology based on the background of college education reform Economic statistical strategies for the transportation industry based on time-varying parametric state space models The digital economy is an important path to boosting common prosperity Public Management Model Based on Mathematical Equation of Statistics of Probability Theory Optimization path of corporate ESG performance and compensation performance management under carbon neutral target New anergy tide control strategy based on Eviews econometric model Optimization of vocal singing training method based on intelligent big data technology The construction of blockchain platform for engineering museums based on vectorized image processing technology Green supply chain innovation management strategy based on the combination of low carbon economy and e-commerce with big data technology Numerical simulation analysis of load-bearing capacity at joints of symmetrical cantilever-assembled bridges based on the logistic regression model Research on the current situation and countermeasures of cultivating talents in recreational sports under the perspective of artificial intelligence The Construction of a Coordinated Integration System of Rural Tourism and Habitat Environment in China Based on Coupled Coordination Degree Model Multi-objective Evolutionary Algorithm Supported Construction of Architectural Window Design Model Based on Visual Comfort - A Case Study of Office Buildings in Cold Regions Optimization analysis of cross-border e-commerce marketing strategy based on the SCOR model Construction and implementation of teacher support services model under “5G+Smart Education” Probabilistic neural network-based diagnosis of blockage faults in air conditioning and refrigeration units The Meaning, Value, and Realisation of Internet-based Culturally Responsive Teaching Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence An experimental study of the carbohydrate exchange method combined with aerobic exercise to intervene in the physical health of obese college students Design of a text evaluation and interaction system for university English textbooks based on a perceptual machine model in the context of globalization Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining The use of red cultural and creative design in tourism cultural and creative design based on the background of big data Innovative measures of student management by counselors in higher education institutions under a big data environment Digital terrain interactive editing technology for landscape planning and design based on deep learning LightGBM model applied in the teaching course of Civic Education integrating red culture Research on personalized recommendation method of preschool e-learning resources Key technology research on decentralized Internet-based smart agriculture platform Optimization of cross-border e-commerce marketing strategy based on deep learning model An innovative study of art teaching strategies for preschool children based on big data analysis The function of ideological and political education of campus culture in the context of big data and its realization path The use of new media technology in the creation of media animation under the threshold of big data Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Research and Development of “Gathering Green” Digital Cultural and Creative Collection Creative Platform under the Technical Support of Big Data and Advocacy of Rural Revitalization: A Typical Practice Based on Qingdao Coastal Villages Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network A Regionalization Study of Market-Based Allocation of Data Factors in China A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting IoT-based interaction design of smart home products for elderly families A multidimensional interpretation analysis of Marxism globalization theory based on distributed Internet Strategy for financing mode optimization in international trade supply chain based on deep learning model Early warning and detection of geological disasters based on intelligent genetic algorithm Exploring the Application of Modern Fine Arts Artistic Modeling and Color in Modern Art Design Based on Information Fusion Technology Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Research on China’s tourism marketing model in the data perspective: based on ecological perspective Research on human resource management performance evaluation based on BP algorithm Problem identification and solution of voice change phenomenon in vocal singing based on the AHP method A study on the effect of music on college students’ depression and anxiety based on big data analysis Inferring the role of fiscal decentralization and carbon taxes through the ARDL approach Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences A new model of tax governance in the context of the integration of traditional industries and the digital economy Improvement of the financial management supervision system of universities in the context of big data Analysis of the current situation and teaching strategies of university table tennis teaching in the context of big data Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Current situation and training strategies of preschool students’ skills in the Internet era Construction of sustainable development professional cluster in private universities based on data mining model Law of interest rate changes in financial markets based on the differential equation model of liquidity Basalt fibre continuous reinforcement composite pavement reinforcement design based on finite element model Innovative cultivation path of great craftsmanship based on logistic regression model AdaBoost model-based rural governance co-integration and sharing mechanism Research on Fault Prevention and Maintenance System of Automatic Substation Primary Equipment Based on Decision Tree Algorithm The construction of innovation system of college physical education reform based on Bp neural network The Construction of Cultural Identity in Multimodal Discourse Analysis under the Perspective of Media Convergence Analysis of the impact of college students’ innovation and entrepreneurship on human resource index of science and technology enterprises based on logistic regression model Research on online and offline double-loop teaching of college students’ mental health education based on cluster analysis algorithm Noise Reduction of Cable Partial Discharge Vibration Signal based on EEMD-CIIT method Application of image processing technology based on hierarchical analysis in visual communication system Analysis of the influence path of Marx’s thought in contemporary college students’ Civic Education based on regression analysis A study on the influence of soccer culture on physical education in China's universities based on linear regression analysis Research on the cultivation mechanism of “double-creative” talents in ethnic regions with the integration of industry and education in the context of the Internet Reform and innovation of Civic Education combined with deep and intensive learning Research on the organization of public space relations in commercial complex buildings in the context of big data A hybrid online and offline teaching model of professional English for Internet+ education platform The use of traditional Chinese elements in modern interior design in the context of multimedia A Study on College English Reading Teaching for Multimodal Teaching Model Application of biofilm-membrane bioreactor in municipal wastewater treatment Research on Tourism Environment Carrying Capacity Evaluation of Tourism Demonstration Area Based on Objective Optimization Method in the Perspective of Territorial Tourism Regional Logistics Routing Optimization System Based on Fractional Differential Equation Modeling Orientation and triage of preschool students’ interest development based on deep learning model Exploring a hybrid online and offline English teaching model based on model hierarchy analysis AHM-FC Model in the Evolution Analysis of Ideological and Political Subjects System Construction of Intercity Culture and Xinjiang Music Integration in the Context of “One Belt, One Road” Based on SCP Model Simultaneous localization and mapping of mobile robots with multi-sensor fusion 3D Scene Simulation System of Japanese Teaching Based on Finite Element Equation Assessment of tax-related risks in corporate betting agreements based on vector autoregressive model A deep learning model-based approach to financial risk assessment and prediction Multi-Governance of Basketball Event Organization in Ethnic Areas Based on PESTEL Analysis Model Design of a linear regression model-based Internet exit anomaly detection method Building Tilt Scanning Measurement Based on Binary Linear Regression Analysis Exploring the application of composite materials in ceramic design based on fuzzy numerical analysis Construction of law and economics litigation service platform based on multimedia retrieval Application of motion capture technology based on dance big data in dance retrieval Research on the innovative development model of ideological and political education based on big data and self-media environment Design of WeChat Public Service System for Toilets in Tourist Attractions Based on Adaptive Recommendation Algorithm The Innovation and Application of Computer Multimedia-assisted Teaching Methods in College English Teaching Research on the immersive multimedia virtual interactive experience technology of the Great Wall World Heritage based on VR vision system Deep learning-based fault diagnosis and localization method for fiber optic cables in communication networks Effect of low-intensity exercise therapy combined with health education on quality of life and blood pressure in hypertensive patients A Study on Innovative Teaching Strategies of English in Universities Based on VAR Model Research on the construction of enterprise financial management information based on feature set Research on the integration and innovation of red culture and ideological and political education in universities in the new media era Analysis of the impact of ADDIE education model based on logistic regression model on teaching contemporary cultural and creative product design Exploring the Construction and Practice of College English Blended Teaching Model Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Teaching Evaluation Model Research on the optimization of prefabricated building preset scheme integrating BIM technology and BiLSTM model Research on practical education model of mental health development of college students in higher education institutions in the context of big data Correlation analysis between the quality of physical activity and public health based on artificial intelligence technology Badminton players’ trajectory under numerical calculation method Evaluation of the Integration Path of Ideological and Political Elements in English Major Courses Based on the ADDIE Model Application of multiple regression models in the analysis of kinematic parameters in competitive gymnastics Research on the structure of corporate financial management objective system based on BRP method Analysis of the influencing factors of college students’ mental health literacy based on multiple linear regression model Scale and efficiency of China’s radiation industry based on LightGBM model Analysis of the effectiveness of short video news dissemination based on data mining technology The construction of a mathematical model for college English interactive distance teaching Application of Data Mining Algorithms in Power Marketing Predictive Analytics Analysis of music teaching technology based on a data mining model Research on the Development of Young Teachers’ Informatization Teaching Ability in Universities Based on Big Data Technology Interactive texture replacement of cartoon characters based on deep learning model Application of Multiple Linear Regression Model in the Sustainable Development of National Traditional Sports Analysis of improved particle swarm algorithm in wireless sensor network localization Analysis of using big data to achieve precise employment of college students Exploring Innovative Strategies for Teaching English in Higher Education with the Support of Big Data The Origin and Significance of Research on Music Education Reform and Talent Cultivation Based on Evaluation Index Analysis of media content recommendation in the new media era considering scene clustering algorithm Study on the optimization of the cultivation path of finance professionals in universities in the digital era The generalized matrix equation for systematic evaluation of oral Russian self-study The application of computer VR technology in physical education Research on the method of ideological and political education in college physical education based on knowledge mapping Evaluation of Corporate Social Responsibility and Core Competitiveness Based on GA-SVM Model Gymnastic movement recognition based on support vector machine classification model Research on the construction and reform path of online and offline hybrid English teaching model based on time series Extraction of Design Factors of Chinese Dance Culture based on Analytic Hierarchy Model Cultural and artistic dissemination of traditional Chinese silk patterns in the 17th-18th centuries in the context of big data Application of traditional symbols in interior decoration based on VR technology Theory of physical education ecosystem based on SFIC model Research on the integration of online teaching resources in higher education institutions under the perspective of industry-education integration The integration of flipped classroom into university physical education teaching reform practice from the perspective of multimedia The Analysis of the Expression Form of Ideological and Political Elements in Philosophy Courses Based on Multimedia Information Fusion Strategy Diversified Integration of Civics Teaching Resources in Universities Based on Discrete Regression Model Study on the rehabilitation training effect of exoskeletal diseases based on the skeletal muscle geometry modeling method Exploring the teaching practice of visual communication design in colleges and universities under the background of big data Dance Rehearsal System Based on Linear Partial Differential Mathematical Equation Big data-based output-oriented teaching competency development for mathematics teacher trainees Research on dynamic detection method of bridge vehicle load based on optimization algorithm Deep Learning Based Sports Video Classification Research Design of energy big data and carbon emission monitoring system based on perceptron model in the context of carbon neutral and carbon peaking A model of online opinion dissemination based on vector autoregressive model of emotional information entropy Application of decision tree algorithm mining model in career planning goal simulation Multimodal construction of human movement dataset under the development of physical dance teaching in colleges and universities Visual Communication Design Method Based on Multimedia Information Processing Technology and Its Application Optimization of Teaching Path of Artificial Intelligence Programming Course in the Context of New Engineering Construction Application of short video recommendation technology in classical music teaching Reading promotion mode of university libraries in the context of information development The application of video text generation technology in assessing the effectiveness of teaching ethnic traditional sports Design of online art education system based on 3D virtual simulation technology Using Multimedia Information Retrieval Technology to Optimize the Strategies of College English Teaching Research on the current situation and development countermeasures of Chinese sports industry companies in the context of big data Study on the work-hardening behavior and tissue property analysis of high-strength magnesium alloy Information management of university physical education based on adaptive differential evolutionary algorithm An innovative approach to teaching physical education integrating modern network technology Research on the Optimization Pathways of University Education and Teaching Reform based on OBE Concepts Research on quality engineering management effectiveness improvement strategy of universities based on fuzzy clustering maximum tree algorithm A resource sharing platform based on the construction of cognitive mapping to promote the development of macro education in universities Research on fault feature extraction and early warning of rolling bearing vibration signal of generator set An Innovative Discussion on Ideological and Political Education for College Students Based on Digital Mining Construction of customer-aware grid interactive service system based on neural network model Research on the construction and practice of four-dimensional teaching system of Ideologies and Politics in automobile courses in higher vocational institutions Optimization analysis of transmission characteristics of wireless energy transmission system based on dynamic tuning algorithm Optimization Study on Carbon Trading and Constructive Repetitive Project Scheduling in the Context of Internet Era Research on the construction of personalized learning system supported by big data in education Exploration of digital media art professional design talent class training based on K-mode algorithm A Study on Implicit Education in Curriculum Civic Education of Universities Based on Differential Evolutionary Algorithm Design and implementation of fine-grained realistic 3D virtual simulation experiment Research on environmental impact assessment of ecotourism development oriented to cloud model Analysis of the Economics of Talent Mobility Based on Logistic Model Numerical simulation method of aluminum alloy heat treatment process based on BP neural network Resource distribution of online and offline interactive teaching mode based on feature fusion network Research on digital transformation innovation of the exhibition industry in the era of big data A structural model of teachers’ teaching competencies based on multimodal affective features of support vector machines An analysis of the innovation strategy of student management in universities based on big data Mathematical Modeling for the Spatial Distribution Features of Traditional Sports and Games based on ArcGIS Research on information visualization for digital media design methodology based on big data technology Analysis on the innovative education mode of the integration of information technology and traditional teaching in the era of big data A study on software development for comprehensive assessment of English online teaching quality in universities based on deep learning Research on the physical training of athletes in ice and snow sports based on big data Innovation and exploration of construction project management based on BIM platform of big data A Study on the Teaching Practice of Multimodal Data Analysis in International Chinese Language Education for International Students in China Rural tourism service design based on collaborative filtering algorithm after epidemic normalization The Planning & Designing of Urban Building Water Supply and Drainage Engineering in AI Era Research on the development strategy of art industry based on RNN model Innovation of China’s international trade methods based on the perspective of cross-border e-commerce Research on the influence factors and improvement path of rural e-commerce development based on neural network Research on distributed scheduling of mechanical job shop based on hybrid differential evolution The theory of innovation and entrepreneurship education practice with the integration of modern information technology and new engineering Analysis of the technical and tactical evolution characteristics of college men’s soccer based on simulated annealing algorithm The effect of fitness qigong exercise on college students’ physical fitness based on big data technology Research on fabric yarn detection based on improved fast R-CNN algorithm A study on the management of big data technology in financial decision-making of enterprise cloud accounting Human pose evaluation based on full-domain convolution and LSTM The construction of construction engineering management system for intelligent terminal platform Research on the innovation of the path of ideological and political education in universities based on data mining Research on the layout of coal resource project development in China based on multi-objective optimization algorithm in the context of infrastructure construction Exploring the application of virtual space in spatial design in the era of artificial intelligence Analysis of effective integration of information platform courses and daily teaching in universities based on adaptive network Empirical evidence of coupling and coordination between circular economy and foreign trade based on big data Research on high quality development system of vocational education based on improved particle swarm optimization algorithm Rock breaking model implementation for rigless drilling with robust control of vibration A strategy study based on artificial intelligence data analysis of rural governance into tourism industry development research Exploration of the innovative development path of university civic education based on data mining algorithm Practical research and analysis of the path to improving the quality of higher education institutions in the context of information technology Study on the Flipped Classroom Teaching Model of “Business English Translation” in the Context of Big Data The Application and Exploration of Curriculum Ideology and Politics in the Innovation and Entrepreneurship Education of Medical College Students Based on Hierarchical Analysis Method Wide Range Si _{3}N_{4}Optical Sensor Using Cascaded Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Coupled Ring ResonatorResearch on brand operation strategy of integrating traditional culture into the modern tourism industry based on big data analysis A Study on English Teachers’ Behavior and Teaching Effectiveness in Universities Based on Big Data Technology Construction of intelligent energy measurement system suitable for energy block chain technology The Fit of Constructivist Teaching Theory and Foreign Language Teaching Reform in the Background of the Internet Era Research on intelligent recommendation algorithm of literature based on knowledge graph technology State monitoring and fault detection for convolutional neural network integrated energy systems Heritage development of traditional culture in folk art education based on the decentralized Internet Research on the construction of sports statistics index system based on AMOS model Intelligent algorithm-based analysis of corporate financial decisions in the era of cloud accounting Bias detection and knowledge graph comparison analysis for medical record datasets The use of management accounting and financial accounting in financial management based on multiple linear regression algorithm Construction of intelligent practice system of college Civics teaching based on VR technology in the information age Application of AMOS structural equation modeling in language teaching for young children Research on the effect of animation IP dissemination based on social network analysis A Green Supply Chain Management Strategy for E-Commerce Based on Multiple Blockchain Technology Prediction of urban residential electricity security based on Verhulst grey model Exploring Innovative Strategies for Teaching English to College Students Based on Data Mining Theory Research on the cultivation mode of Russian language talents in the context of Hainan Free Trade Port based on big data statistical analysis Application of nonlinear regression theory based on edge computing to mathematical modeling in universities The innovation path of agricultural products e-commerce marketing mode under the background of “live broadcast + short video” Ecological urban conurbation design based on perceptual machine model Coupling research of Confucianism and Chinese philosophy based on data mining model A Study on the Influence of Ecological Translation Theory on University English Translation Teaching in the Context of Big Data Analysis The construction of influencing factors and evaluation system of modern apprenticeship training in ancient literature based on calculus error estimation method The construction of a localized teaching model of the Orff music teaching method based on big data analysis Exploring the reform of college mental health education based on multi-source data A study on the application of non-fiction writing in writing courses in local universities based on a decentralized Internet model Analysis of high quality collaborative development path of university civic education based on Rete’s pattern matching algorithm An Exploration of Chinese Language International Education Exchange and Cooperation Model Based on Random Forest Model Optimization of Teacher Incentive Mechanism and Policy Supply in Rural China Based on Judgment Matrix A Study on Risk Management of Commercial Banks’ Home Mortgage Loans Based on Risk Management Framework Research on multimedia intelligent algorithm based on recognition and detection of table tennis ball striking action A study on the application of creative writing in literature teaching based on multiple linear regression algorithm Analysis of the effect of user-understanding-based retrieval system improvement on the application of intelligent archive management The positive impact of increased government bailout on weakening corporate default risk Teaching reform and innovation of vocational development and employment guidance courses in colleges and universities based on random forest model Innovative Research on Synergistic Development of Digital Integrated Media and Visual Design Based on Kruskal Algorithm Analysis of the application of Internet multimedia technology in the mixed teaching of public physical education Modeling the connection between oil painting creation and university students’ inspiration in the context of “Internet+” Exploring the relationship between digital transformation of enterprises and “information infrastructure” in the new infrastructure perspective - based on industrial connection The cultivation system of cross-media narrative ability of scriptwriter talent based on cluster model Exploring the path of reforming college mental health education curriculum based on big data technology The path of optimizing and improving the teaching innovation ability of visual communication based on the SWOT model Research on the effective way of mental health education based on artificial intelligence technology Research on network data transmission and compression based on compression-aware model Research on the interaction mechanism of intangible cultural heritage living analysis and study tour development based on big data technology Fatigue life prediction of power transmission towers based on nonlinear finite element analysis A study of innovative strategies for teaching English to college students based on tiered probit Research on the application of data mining technology in music therapy in the age of information technology Design and development of personalized education information management system based on artificial intelligence The Structure and Influencing Factors of Students’ Innovation and Entrepreneurship Ability Based on the Structural Equation Model Research on the interaction and integration of university administration and creative and entrepreneurship education in the perspective of big data The Influence of Green Entrepreneurship Orientation on Enterprise Performance Based on the TPB Model Research on the problems and countermeasures of environmental design of rural residential areas based on deep learning model A study of user data privacy protection algorithms in the context of metaverse based on emotional AI IoT Research on the influence of physical games in the process of preschool children’s psychological development Computer Security Active Defense Technology Based on Bayesian Model Visual Operation and Maintenance Monitoring of Power System Data Network Based on Neural Network Model Design Method and Application of Intelligent Sports Equipment Based on Stochastic Differential Equation Color Processing System of Art Color Based on Fractional Differential Equation Global efficiency estimation of complex networks and regional technological and economic development based on fractal network model DMAIC Model’s Relative Efficiency Analysis of Input and Output in Cultural Construction of University Library and Mental Health Education of College Students Integrated Operation and Maintenance of Power System Communication Based on the Markov Model Oscillation and Asymptotic Behavior of a Special Delay Third Order Nonlinear Neutral Functional Differential Equation Statistical Analysis of Export Waybill Data of Cross-Border E-Commerce Based on ISM Model The construction of teaching quality evaluation system of health management majors in universities based on information fusion technology Research on algorithm composition and emotion recognition based on adaptive networks Research on the effective guidance method of college soccer training activities based on SAQ training method Analysis of intelligent agent operation strategy of power system scheduling based on intelligent optimization algorithm The integration of English teaching and ideological and political education based on cognitive mapping constructs A study on the measurement and standardized assessment model of student learning outcomes in vocational institutions Application of graded phase change materials for solar energy inter-seasonal storage heating and thermal storage characteristics Research on standardization and quantitative extraction of information of ancient building components based on BIM Planning Research on Electrically Coupled Integrated Energy System Based on ARIMA-LSTM Model Innovative exploration of the implementation path of teaching reform of law courses based on Internet technology Modeling Analysis of the Contribution of Digital Technology to Economic Quality Development Building a “party building + political thinking” model for grassroots mass organizations in China in the era of big data Exploration of cross-border e-commerce live streaming and local culture dissemination model based on cluster analysis Zagreb Connection Indices for Metal Trihalides The challenges of ideological and political education in universities based on the Internet environment and its optimization path Analysis of the problems and countermeasures faced by the innovation and entrepreneurial education of college students in higher education institutions under the background of computer big data Research and reflection on college physical education classroom teaching based on SSGAN model Research on music signal feature recognition and reproduction technology based on multilayer feedforward neural network Analysis of power system scheduling operation mode based on multi-objective optimization algorithm A study on the optimization of teaching paths of integration of core literacy in physical education and health courses in colleges and universities based on function integral algorithm Adaptation of the COVASIM model to incorporate non-pharmaceutical interventions: Application to the Dominican Republic during the second wave of COVID-19 Karnauph Classifier: A Hybrid Mathematical Model for Data Classification An Improvement of Parameter Estimation Accuracy of Structural Equation Modeling using Hybridization of Artificial Neural Network in the Entrepreneurship Structural Model Mathematical model for portraits of members in large-scale department stores Analysis of the Innovation of University Students’ Education Management Based on the APT Model Construction of College Vocal Music Innovation Teaching Mode Based on ARCS Model The Clustering Effect Analysis of College Marxist Theory Network Propagation Based on Ant Colony Intelligent Algorithm Effects of Aerobic Training on Body Function Based on Multiple Linear Regression Analysis A study on the advantageous degree of inbound tourism flow collection and distribution in domestic provinces and cities along the Belt and Road Initiative based on distributed fuzzy computing theory Research on the cultivation path of craftsmanship in university education based on fuzzy hierarchical analysis Research and strategy of university education and teaching reform based on intelligent education platform Limit cycles of a generalised Mathieu differential system The nonlinear effects of ageing on national savings rate – An Empirical Study based on threshold model Research on Hazard Analysis and Control Strategy of Power System Dispatching Operation Based on Information Fusion Technology The design of rural farmland compensation standard under the innovative model of “blockchain + supply chain finance” Exploring the online interaction model of college English based on deep learning network Problems and Countermeasures of Enterprise Financial Sharing in the Context of Big Data Research on the identification and integration of folk dance creation elements based on big data technology Study on the spatial and temporal evolution of industrial carbon emission efficiency and influencing factors based on improved Adaboost regression algorithm Research on the path of high-quality development of tourism in Hainan based on international comparison Research on the mechanism of teaching culture in Civics course based on deep learning model Virtual Museum Scene Design Based on VRAR Realistic Interaction under PMC Artificial Intelligence Model Research on the artistic expression form of traditional cultural imagery in sculpture modeling based on DE-GWO model Construction Cost Control and Management Based on Mapping Model and BIM The construction of a teacher training system for artificial intelligence professionals in universities oriented to RNN models Research on innovative cultivation mode of English and American literature translation talents based on internet environment Improved K-SVD Model in Higher Vocational Physics Teaching Research on the quality control strategy of marine engineering based on big data technology The Application of Artificial Intelligence Teaching Software in College English Teaching Dance Emotion Characteristic Parameters Based on Deep Learning Model Analysis of energy storage capacity optimization of distribution network based on quadratic planning algorithm under large scale DG access Column generation algorithm based on recursive matrix for optimal development strategy of physical education teaching in colleges and universities BIM Model Design of Deep Foundation Pit Engineering Based on BP Network Civic education reform based on deep reinforcement learning model Research on the development of teaching resource library for art design majors based on artificial intelligence technology Analysis of quantitative management of online intelligent monitoring of tailing ponds based on the perspective of safety prevention and control The Innovative Development Model of Ideological and Political Education Based on Big Data and We Media Analysis of rural tourism culture advertising content based on LSTM-CNN model Construction of network mathematics model for college English mixed teaching Optimization of college physical education curriculum based on G-DINA Strategic Policy Innovation of Regional Development Strategy Transformation in the New Era Based on Progressive Differential Model Optimization of local ethnic music teaching transmission path based on logistic regression model Vocational Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Exploring the Construction of Curriculum System of Theater and Film Studies Based on ADDIE Model Innovative research on propagation modes of short video works based on digital technology Analysis of the effect of compound training for explosive power on improving the psychological resilience of football athletes Construction of feature extraction model for machine foreign language translation evaluation system Research on the teaching model of physical education in colleges and universities based on semi-supervised radial basis function neural network Exploration on the path of ideological and political education and cultural education in colleges and universities from the perspective of red culture Effect evaluation of ideological and political guidance in university party construction based on hierarchical analysis model A study on predictive analysis and rules for international financial risk considering debt crisis Analysis and Evaluation of Ecotourism Resources in China Based on RIAM Model Can policy coordination facilitate unimpeded trade? An empirical study on factors influencing smooth trade along the Belt and Road A study of interactive furnishing design in the context of digitalization with a view to functional requirements Research on Intelligent Recognition Model of English Translation Based on Nonlinear Dimensionality Reduction IC Features A study of Japanese language sense and evaluation based on the basic structure of sentence S-V-O Application of information fusion technology in maize fertilizer utilization experiments Research on design of customer portrait system for E-commerce A practical investigation of cultivating students’ art innovation ability based on word vector model Optimization of image processing methods based on wavelet transform and adaptive thresholding Research on rule extraction method based on concept lattice of intuitionistic fuzzy language Prediction of mechanical equipment fault diagnosis based on IPSO-GRU deep learning algorithm Characteristics of regional landscape system as a medium of urbanization based on cognitive mapping constructs Application of data mining model in English text writing training system Challenges and content structure optimization of ideological and political education in universities based on structural equations The Construction of Satisfaction Evaluation System of Tourism Scenic Area Management Based on Cognitive Mapping Construct Design and evaluation of intelligent teaching system on basic movements in PE A Hierarchical Analysis Structure Model for the Integration and Optimization of Sports Industry Digitalization and Tourism Industry Exploration of the system of evaluation system of university teachers’ titles based on blockchain technology The Wisdom of Building Dong Wind and Rain Bridges in Northern Guangxi —— An Example from Pingyan Village in Sanjiang County Exploration and Practice of College English Reading Teaching Reform in the Context of Deep Learning A Model for Integrating and Reconstructing Music Curriculum for Higher Education Based on Deep Learning Construction of an economic environment scheduling system based on the multi-objective fuzzy optimization model Analysis of the evolution of modern Chinese history based on data mining Statistical Analysis of Advanced Mathematics Teaching Quality Evaluation Based on Quantile Regression Model Analysis of music teaching technology based on a data mining model The curriculum optimization exercise system of college physical aerobics based on partial differential equation Prediction of Cyberspace Security Data Based on the Markov Chain Model Scheduling Optimization of hotel supply chain based on heterogeneous multipopulation ant colony algorithm Regulation of Regional Economic Law Laws Incorporating Adaptive Differential Evolutionary Algorithms from a Blockchain Perspective The application of multiple regression model in interactive English classroom teaching Effect analysis of green credit financial products on regional carbon emissions Sports Talent Training System of Sports Aerobics Based on Fractional Differential Equation Analysis of the fusion development of traditional culture concept and interior art design based on 3D scene analysis Intelligent physical education teaching system in colleges and universities based on grey correlation degree model Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model Financial customer classification by combined model Influence of displacement ventilation on the distribution of pollutant concentrations in livestock housing An analysis of the applicability of integrating Confucian moral education ideas into the Civic Education of college students under the perspective of cultural communication Research on the development mode of cultural tourism industry based on the concept of low carbon and environmental protection by big data analysis Research on Digital Management and Collaboration Platform for Civil Aircraft Manufacturing Logistics Scenarios Research on the construction of professional clusters in newly built undergraduate colleges facing cultural and creative industries under the background of integration of industry and education Analysis of the fusion development of traditional music elements and sports dance based on Markov chain prediction model Innovation in thinking and practice path of digital economy based on big data analysis to promote high-quality development of agricultural service trade Construction of a coupled evaluation index system of rural habitat environment and rural tourism in China based on multi-objective optimization algorithm The current situation and measures for the protection of marine intangible cultural heritage in Hainan in the context of big data The reform of Japanese language teaching and the cultivation of intercultural communication skills in colleges and universities in the context of the Internet Research on big data audit based on financial shared service model New Green’s Function Method for Solving Underground Oil Seepage Problems The zero-Hopf bifurcations of a new hyperchaotic system Research on the path of integrating Yan’an spirit into the ideological and political education of contemporary college students based on NDK-means algorithm A teaching model of college ideological and political theory course based on multiuser detection algorithm Improving the quality of preschool education management based on the ordinary differential error approximation method Research on the application of intelligent virtual simulation technology in the display of art works Safety considerations of static sensitization emulsification technology for Kings-type emulsion explosives based on quadratic linear programming algorithm Research on the influence of social network on young people’s capacity of innovation and entrepreneurship based on stochastic forest model Analysis of the Current Situation and Countermeasures of Cross-border Communication of Chinese Medicine Culture in the Context of Big Data Research on the construction of the evaluation index system of teacher morality in universities under the background of big data The mining method of integrating the thinking and political elements of curriculum into English teaching based on big data technology An Empirical Analysis of Internet financing and local economic growth Based on Big Data Retraction: Wei, Wei and Lu, Liu. “The influence of X fuzzy mathematics method in basketball tactics scoring” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.7, no.1, 2022, pp.677-684 Retraction of: Pan, Liurong, Alshalabi, Riyad, Li, Pingfen, Naminse, Eric Yaw and Tan, Fuqiang. “Analysis of digital humanistic knowledge production based on natural language processing” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.0, no.0, 2023, pp.-. https://doi.org/10.2478/amns.2022.1.00029 Retraction Retraction: Retraction of: Mundewadi, R. A. and S, Kumbinarasaiah. “Numerical Solution of Abel's Integral Equations using Hermite Wavelet” Applied Mathematics and Nonlinear Sciences, vol.4, no.2, 2019, pp.395-406 A new expansion auxiliary equation method for traveling wave solutions of the simplified MCH equation and the ZKBBM equation Geometric Properties of a Linear Complex Operator on a Subclass of Meromorphic Functions: An Analysis of Hurwitz-Lerch-Zeta Functions Retraction Study of Enterprise Resource Optimization Scheme from the Perspective of Knapsack Problems Analysis of the innovation path of financial accounting education model from the perspective of integration of industry and education The construction of a professional English online and offline hybrid teaching model based on data mining technology Digital transmission of intangible cultural heritage based on empirical modal analysis in a multicultural perspective Study of gut microbial homeostasis and targeted therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma based on eigenvalue-fitting superiority algorithm Data Analysis of Linguistic Landscape in the Context of “Internationalization +” Urban Construction Research on the application of virtual reality technology in contemporary environmental design Research on the quality system of psychology courses in higher education institutions based on the background of deep learning Research on embedded-based IoT information data collection technology Seismic performance assessment of typical vertical light industrial building structures based on IDA method Optimal seismic solution design for underground frame structure of subway station considering uniform damage