1. bookVolume 26 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2729-7640
First Published
15 Nov 1996
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Restorations in post-war period

Published Online: 17 Dec 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 26 (2021) - Issue 4 (December 2021)
Page range: 36 - 45
Received: 10 Oct 2021
Accepted: 03 Nov 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2729-7640
First Published
15 Nov 1996
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The choice of the monument care methodology depends not only on the preference of the author of the restoration or the opinion of a professional monument commission, but also on the state in which the historic building is and historical stages it developed through. After the Second World War, much of the architectural historical heritage in the territory of the former Czechoslovakia was devastated, and the then professional society faced challenges of how to restore and preserve these destroyed buildings. The following article explains the starting points and selected methods of post-war monument care on the example of three churches in the former Czechoslovakia. Buildings selected for comparison originated in approximately the same epoch, underwent a rather complex building developments, and the extent of their damage was also similar. Specifically, we focus on the Church of St. Catherine of Alexandria in Handlová, the Church of the Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Bíňa and the Church of the Virgin Mary and the Holy Slavic Patrons in Prague. Although the three compared cases show similarities, different restoration methodologies were used. The majority opinion of the then professional public tended towards reconstructing historic buildings to the state before their destruction, as is also evident in the cases being compared. Nevertheless, each of the churches is restored with some deviations from the original condition. In the case of the church in Bíňa, we follow traces of a purist reconstruction, in Prague we witness a restoration by indicative reconstruction, also applied in Handlová, where, moreover, the methodology of reconstruction to the state before destruction was completely abandoned. Our ambition is to point out the diversity of opinion in the care of monuments, which at that time saw a change in paradigm and began to accept authors’ new inputs while preserving the historical essence of the building.

Keywords

[1] The development of approaches in the care of monuments was dealt with by Ingrid Ciulisová in her publication “Historizmus a moderna v pamiatkovej ochrane” (Historicism and Modernity in Monument Protection), where she focused on the period up to the middle of the 20th century. Several articles in periodicals, authored by Vendelín Jankovič, are dedicated to the post-war development. However, a comprehensive overview of the development of monument care after the Second World War has not been compiled yet. Search in Google Scholar

[2] We consider the immediate events preceding the present to be the youngest history. Search in Google Scholar

[3] Innovations in monument care we understand as the imposing of something new in terms of methodology, morphology, or material. Search in Google Scholar

[4] Alfréd Piffl is mentioned as the author of the restoration of the church in Bíňa. However, it is clear from Lucia Porubská’s document “Alfréd Piffl a pamiatková obnova vo svetle dokumentov Archívu PÚ SR” (Alfred Piffl and Monument Restoration in the Light of the Documents of The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic) that the final form reflects his project only partially, which fact is also confirmed by our research. Search in Google Scholar

[5] Slovak Institute of Monument Care and Nature Protection. (1967) “Súpis pamiatok na Slovensku. Zväzok prvý A-J” (List of Monuments in Slovakia. Volume One A-J), Obzor, Bratislava, Slovakia. Search in Google Scholar

[6] Chudomelka, K. (1957) “Rekonštrukcia kostola sv. Kataríny” (Reconstruction of the church of St. Catherine), [text part of the architectural study, pp. 1-16] A 238, Archive of The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic, Bratislava, Slovakia. Search in Google Scholar

[7] Fund of Handlová Parish, box 12, 13, Diocesan Archive – Bishopric of Banská Bystrica, Badín, Slovakia. Search in Google Scholar

[8] Ciulisová, I. (2000) “Historizmus a moderna v pamiatkovej ochrane” (Historicism and Modernity in Monument Protection), Veda, Bratislava, Slovakia. ISBN 80-224-0647-3 Search in Google Scholar

[9] The Romanesque Rotunda of the Twelve Apostles stands near the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Search in Google Scholar

[10] Porubská, L. (2012) “Alfréd Piffl a pamiatková obnova vo svetle dokumentov Archívu PÚ SR” (Alfred Piffl and Monument Restoration in the Light of the Documents of The Monuments Board of the Slovak Republic). [online] Available at: http://www.pamiatky.sk/Content/Data/File/ARCHIV/piffl_porubska.pdf [Accessed: 6 Oct 2021] Search in Google Scholar

[11] Dostál, O., Vošáhlík, A. (1965) “Obnova západního průčelí bývalého Emauzského kostela v Praze” (Restoration of the Western Facade of the Former Emmaus Church in Prague), Architektura ČSSR (Architecture of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic), 9, pp. 581-590. Search in Google Scholar

[12] Urlich, P., Vorlík, P., Filsaková, B. (2006) “Šedesátá léta v architektuře očima pamětníků” (The Sixties in Architecture through the Eyes of Witnesses), Czech Technical University Publishing House, Prague, Czech Republic. ISBN 80-01-03413-5 Search in Google Scholar

[13] As a deliberate monumental restoration, we mention the restoration after the war devastation, although in the case of the Bíňa Church, even interventions in the 19th century are considered reconstructions in terms of monument care. Search in Google Scholar

[14] The Beuron Art School had several principles for creating the proportions and dimensions of the whole work, as well as the overall effect of the space. These principles were also applied in the reconstruction of the Emmaus Church. Search in Google Scholar

[15] Part IV of the Athens Charter, “Restoration of Monuments”, refers to the use of modern materials in the consolidation of ancient monuments and is permitted where the disintegration of protected objects or the loss of their statics is thus prevented. Search in Google Scholar

[16] The recommendation for the occupation of buildings with respect to their historic or artistic character, which ensures the continuity of their life is set out in Part I “Doctrines. General Principles”, Athens Charter. Search in Google Scholar

[17] In an interview with architect Karel Kibic, the publication “Šedesátá léta v architektuře očima pamětníků” (The Sixties in Architecture through the Eyes of Witnesses) mentions the reconstruction of the Emmaus Church in the context of interesting new buildings in the historical environment. Search in Google Scholar

[18] The effort to maximize the preservation of destroyed architectural heritage sites after World War II is evidenced not only by interviews with architects in the publication “Šedesátá léta v architektuře očima pamětníků” (The Sixties in Architecture through the Eyes of Witnesses), but also by a conference paper by Milena Hauserová from a recent international conference “Monuments and Monument Care in Czechoslovakia and Other Central European Countries during the Second Half of the 20th Century” held online in April 2021. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo