1. bookVolume 68 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Application of the 3R Concept in the Production of European Antiviperinum on Horses – Multisite, Low Volumes Immunization Protocol and Elisa

Published Online: 01 Jan 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 68 (2018) - Issue 4 (December 2018)
Page range: 401 - 419
Received: 20 Jul 2018
Accepted: 31 Oct 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

During time, both professionals and general public became aware of the importance of animal welfare. This term not only covers endangered wild animal species, animals used in food industry, pets and experimental animals, but also animals used in production of biologics. The implementation of the 3R concept (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) is especially important in this type of production. In this article, we describe for the first time the low dose, low volume and multi-site immunization protocol, as well as appropriate ELISA we developed for production of European anti-viper (V. ammodytes, long horned) antivenom in horses, which can help to significantly improve the welfare of the used animals.

Keywords

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