1. bookVolume 71 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
28 Feb 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

The controversies of parabens – an overview nowadays

Published Online: 20 Jul 2020
Volume & Issue: Volume 71 (2021) - Issue 1 (March 2021)
Page range: 17 - 32
Accepted: 08 Mar 2020
Journal Details
First Published
28 Feb 2007
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

1. P. D. Darbre, Endocrine Disruption and Human Health, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam 2015, pp. 4–23, 28–43.Search in Google Scholar

2. World Health Organization and United Nations Environment Programme, State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals – 2012, An assessment of the state of the science of endocrine disruptors prepared by a group of experts for the United Nations Environment Programme and World Health Organization, Inter-Organization Programme For the Sound Management of Chemicals, (Eds. Å. Bergman, J. J. Heindel, S. Jobling, K. A. Kidd and R. T. Zoeller), WHO Library Cataloguingin-Publication Data, Geneva 2013; https://www.who.int/ceh/publications/endocrine/en/; last access date December 19, 2019Search in Google Scholar

3. L. N. Vandenberg, T. Colborn, T. B. Hayes, J. J. Heindel, D. R. Jacobs, Jr., D.-H. Lee, T. Shioda, A. M. Soto, F. S. vom Saal, W. V. Welshons, R. T. Zoeller and J. P. Myers, Hormones and endocrine-disrupting chemicals: Low dose effects and nonmonotonic dose responses, Endocr. Rev.33 (2012) 378–455; https://doi.org/10.1210/er.2011-105010.1210/er.2011-1050336586022419778Search in Google Scholar

4. A. Myridakis, E. Fthenou, E. Balaska, M. Vakinti, M. Kogevinas and E. G. Stephanou, Phthalate esters, parabens and bisphenol-A exposure among mothers and their children in Greece (Rhea cohort), Environ. Int.83 (2015) 1–10; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.05.01410.1016/j.envint.2015.05.01426072145Search in Google Scholar

5. Y. Guo and K. Kannan, A survey of phthalates and parabens in personal care products from the United States and its implications for human exposure, Environ. Sci. Technol.47 (2013) 14442–14449; https://doi.org/10.1021/es404203410.1021/es404203424261694Search in Google Scholar

6. American Council on Science and Health, Fear of Parabens Compromises Safety of Certain Cosmetic Products, ACSH, New York, August 2014; https://www.acsh.org/news/2014/08/26/fear-parabens-compromises-safety-certain-cosmetic-products; last access date December 19, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

7. McGill University, Office for Science and Society, Separating Sense from Nonsense, J. Schwarcz, Paraben phobia is unjustified, Pseudoscience, March 20, 2017; https://www.mcgill.ca/oss/article/cancer-controversial-science-cosmetics-health-news-quackery-toxicity/joe-schwarczs-right-chemistry-paraben-phobia-unjustified; last access date December 19, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

8. P. J. Sheskey, W. G. Cook and C. G. Cable, Handbook of Pharmaceutical Excipients, 8th ed., Pharmaceutical Press, London, and American Pharmacists Association, Washington D.C. 2017, pp. 130–133, 379–382, 604–608, 803–806.Search in Google Scholar

9. C. G. Abrantes, D. Duarte and C. P. Reis, An overview of pharmaceutical excipients: Safe or not safe?, J. Pharm. Sci.105 (2016) 2019–2026; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xphs.2016.03.01910.1016/j.xphs.2016.03.01927262205Search in Google Scholar

10. M. G. Soni, I. G. Carabin and G. A. Burdock, Safety assessment of esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (parabens), Food Chem. Toxicol.43 (2005) 985–1015; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fct.2005.01.02010.1016/j.fct.2005.01.02015833376Search in Google Scholar

11. C. Liao, F. Liu and K. Kannan, Occurrence of and dietary exposure to parabens in foodstuffs from the United States, Environ. Sci. Technol. 47 (2013) 3918–3925; https://doi.org/10.1021/es400724s10.1021/es400724s23506043Search in Google Scholar

12. P. D. Darbre, A. Aljarrah, W. R. Miller, N. G. Coldham, M. J. Sauer and G. S. Pope, Concentrations of parabens in human breast tumours, J. Appl. Toxicol.24 (2004) 5–13; https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.95810.1002/jat.95814745841Search in Google Scholar

13. N. Raza, K.-H. Kim, M. Abdullah, W. Raza and R. J. C. Brown, Recent developments in analytical quantitation approaches for parabens in human-associated sample, Trends Anal. Chem. 98 (2018) 161–173; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trac.2017.11.00910.1016/j.trac.2017.11.009Search in Google Scholar

14. M. Fisher, S. MacPherson, J. M. Braun, R. Hauser, M. Walker, M. Feeley, R. Mallick, R. Bérubé and T. E. Arbuckle, Paraben concentrations in maternal urine and breast milk and its association with personal care product use, Environ. Sci. Technol.51 (2017) 4009–4017; https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.6b0430210.1021/acs.est.6b0430228318231Search in Google Scholar

15. S. Shekhar, S. Sood, S. Showkat, C. Lite, A. Chandrasekhar, M. Vairamani, S. Barathi and W. Santosh, Detection of phenolic endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) from maternal blood plasma and amniotic fluid in Indian population, Gen. Comp. Endocr. 241 (2017) 100–107; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.05.02510.1016/j.ygcen.2016.05.02527235644Search in Google Scholar

16. E. V. S Hessel, P. E. Boon, S.P. den Braver-Sewradj, J. A. J. Meesters, M. Weda and W. Brand, Review on butylparaben: exposure, toxicity and risk assessment – With a focus on endocrine disrupting properties and cumulative risk assessment, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM Report 2018-0161, Bilthoven (The Netherlands) 2018; https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/2018-0161.pdf; last access date October 30, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

17. W. Brand, P. E. Boon, E. V. S. Hessel, J. A. J. Meesters, M. Weda and A. G. Schuur, Exposure to and toxicity of methyl-, ethyl- and propylparaben – A literature review with a focus on endocrine-disrupting properties, RIVM Report 2017-0028, The Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority (NVWA), National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, RIVM Report 2018-0161, Bilthoven (The Netherlands) 2018; https://www.rivm.nl/bibliotheek/rapporten/2017-0028.pdf; last access date October 30, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

18. European Commision (EC), Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS), Opinion on Parabens. Updated Request for a Scientific Opinion on Propyl- and Butylparaben; SCCS/1514/13, SCCS, Luxembourg, May 3, 2013; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_132.pdf; last access date October 29, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

19. N. R. Janjua, H. Fredericksen, N. E. Skakkebaek, H. C. Wulf and A. M. Andersson, Urinary excretion of phthalates and paraben after repeated whole-body topical application in humans, Int. J. Androl.31 (2008) 118–130; https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00841.x10.1111/j.1365-2605.2007.00841.xSearch in Google Scholar

20. R. T. Engeli, S. R. Rohrer, A. Vuorinen, S. Herdlinger, T. Kaserer, S. Leugger, D. Schuster and A. Oder-matt, Interference of paraben compounds with estrogen metabolism by inhibition of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases, Int. J. Mol. Sci. 18 (2017) 1–13; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms1809200710.3390/ijms18092007Search in Google Scholar

21. M. Y. Shin, C. Shin, J. W. Choi, J. Lee, S. Lee and S. Kim, Pharmacokinetic profile of propyl paraben in humans after oral administration, Environ. Int.130 (2019) Article ID 104917 (9 pages); https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2019.10491710.1016/j.envint.2019.104917Search in Google Scholar

22. M. G. Soni, S. L. Taylor, N. A. Greenberg and G. A. Burdock, Evaluation of the health aspects of methyl paraben: a review of the published literature, Food Chem. Toxicol.40 (2002) 1335–1373; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00107-210.1016/S0278-6915(02)00107-2Search in Google Scholar

23. M. Lakeram, A. J. Paine, D. J. Lockley, D. J. Sanders, R. Pendlington and B. Forbes, Transesterification of p-hydroxybenzoate esters (parabens) by human intestinal (Caco-2) cells, Xenobiotica36 (2006) 739–749; https://doi.org/10.1080/0049825060073863710.1080/0049825060073863716971340Search in Google Scholar

24. H. M. Harville, R. Voorman and J. J. Prusakiewicz, Comparison of paraben stability in human and rat skin, Drug Metab. Lett.1 (2007) 17–21, https://doi.org/10.2174/18723120777981430010.2174/18723120777981430019356013Search in Google Scholar

25. W. L. Ma, X. Zhao, Z. Y. Lin, M. O. Mohammed, Z. F. Zhang, L. Y. Liu, W. W. Song and Y. F. Li, A survey of parabens in commercial pharmaceuticals from China and its implications for human exposure, Environ. Int.95 (2016) 30–35; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2016.07.01310.1016/j.envint.2016.07.01327476643Search in Google Scholar

26. S. M. Bell, X. Chang, J. F. Wambaugh, D. G. Allen, M. Bartels, K. L. R. Brouwer, W. M. Casey, N. Choksi, S. S. Ferguson, G. Fraczkiewicz, A. M. Jarabek, A. Ke, A. Lumen, S. G. Lynn, A. Paini, P. S. Price, C. Ring, T. W. Simon, N. S. Sipes, C. S. Sprankle, J. Strickland, J. Troutman, B. A. Wetmore and N. C. Kleinstreuer, In vitro to in vivo extrapolation for high throughput prioritization and decision making, Toxicol. In Vitro47 (2018) 213–227; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2017.11.01610.1016/j.tiv.2017.11.016739369329203341Search in Google Scholar

27. A. Kizhedath, S. Wilkinson and J. Glassey, Assessment of hepatotoxicity and dermal toxicity of butyl paraben and methyl paraben using HepG2 and HDFn in vitro models, Toxicol. In Vitro55 (2019) 108–115; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2018.12.00710.1016/j.tiv.2018.12.00730572011Search in Google Scholar

28. M. Calafat, X. Ye, L. Y. Wong, A. M. Bishop and L. L. Needham, Urinary concentrations of four parabens in the U.S. population, Environ. Health Perspect. 118 (2010) 679–685; https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.090156010.1289/ehp.0901560286668520056562Search in Google Scholar

29. R. S. Tade, M. P. More, V. K. Chatap, P. K. Deshmukh and P. O. Patil, Safety and toxicity of parabens in pharmaceutical and food products, Inventi Rapid Pharm. Pract. No. 3 (2018) 1–9.Search in Google Scholar

30. F. Artacho-Cordón, J. P. Arrebola, O. Nielsen, P. Hernández, N. E. Skakkebaek, M. F. Fernández, A. M. Andersson, N. Olea and H. Frederiksen, Assumed nonpersistent environmental chemicals in human adipose tissue; matrix stability and correlation with levels measured in urine and serum, Environ. Res.156 (2017) 120–127; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2017.03.03010.1016/j.envres.2017.03.030Search in Google Scholar

31. P. M. Ashrap, D. J. Watkins, A. M. Calafat, X. Ye, Z. Rasario, F. Brown, C. M. Vélez-Vegae, A. Alshawabkeh, J. F. Corfero and J. D. Meeker, Elevated concentrations of urinary triclocarban, phenol and paraben among pregnant women in Northern Puerto Rico: predictors and trends, Environ. Int.121 (2018) 990–1002; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.02010.1016/j.envint.2018.08.020Search in Google Scholar

32. H. Frederiksen, N. Jørgensen and A. M. Andersson, Parabens in urine, serum and seminal plasma from healthy Danish men determined by liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC– MS/MS), J. Expo. Sci. Env. Epid.21 (2011) 262–271; https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2010.610.1038/jes.2010.6Search in Google Scholar

33. B. F. Pycke, L. A. Geer, M. Dalloul, O. Abulafia and R. U. Halden, Maternal and fetal exposure to parabens in a multiethnic urban US population, Environ. Int.84 (2015) 193–200; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2015.08.01210.1016/j.envint.2015.08.012Search in Google Scholar

34. C. V. Towers, P. D. Terry, D. Lewis, B. Howard, W. Chambers, C. Armistead, B. Weitz, S. Porter, C. J. Borman, R. C. M. Kennedy and J. Chen, Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives, J. Expo. Sci. Env. Epid. 25 (2015) 604–607; https://doi.org/10.1038/jes.2015.2710.1038/jes.2015.27Search in Google Scholar

35. E. J. Routledge, J. Parker, J. Odum, J. Ashby and J. P. Sumpter, Some alkyl hydroxy benzoate preservatives (parabens) are estrogenic, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.153 (1998) 12–19; https://doi.org/10.1006/taap.1998.854410.1006/taap.1998.8544Search in Google Scholar

36. J. R. Byford, L. E. Shaw, M. G. B. Drew, G. S. Pope, M. J. Sauer and P. D. Darbre, Oestrogenic activity of parabens in MCF7 human breast cancer cells, J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol. 80 (2002) 49–60; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-0760(01)00174-110.1016/S0960-0760(01)00174-1Search in Google Scholar

37. R. Golden, J. Gandy and G. Vollmer, A review of the endocrine activity of parabens and implications for potential risks to human health, Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 35 (2005) 435–458; https://doi.org/10.1080/1040844049092010410.1080/1040844049092010416097138Search in Google Scholar

38. A. F. Fransway, P. J. Fransway, D. V. Belsito and J. A. Yiannias, Paraben toxicology, Dermatitis30 (2019) 32–45; https://doi.org/10.1097/DER.000000000000042810.1097/DER.000000000000042830570577Search in Google Scholar

39. J. A. van Meeuwen, O. van Son, A. H. Piersma, P. C. de Jong and M. van den Berg, Aromatase inhibiting and combined estrogenic effects of parabens and estrogenic effects of other additives in cosmetics, Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 230 (2008) 372–382; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2008.03.00210.1016/j.taap.2008.03.00218486175Search in Google Scholar

40. R. J. Witorsch and J. A. Thomas, Personal care products and endocrine disruption: A critical review of the literature, Crit. Rev. Toxicol.40 (2010) 1–30; https://doi.org/10.3109/10408444.2010.51556310.3109/10408444.2010.515563Search in Google Scholar

41. A. M. Wróbel and E. Ł. Gregoraszczuk, Actions of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on estrogen receptor-α and -β and the progesterone receptor in MCF-7 cancer cells and non-cancerous MCF-10A cells, Toxicol. Lett.230 (2014) 375–381; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.08.01210.1016/j.toxlet.2014.08.012Search in Google Scholar

42. J. H. Lee, M. Lee, C. Ahn, H. Y. Kang, D. N. Tran and E. B. Jeung, Parabens accelerate ovarian dys-function in a 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide-induced ovarian failure model, Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health14 (2017) Article ID 161 (13 pages); https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph1402016110.3390/ijerph14020161Search in Google Scholar

43. Y. Nishihama, J. Yoshinaga, A. Iida, S. Konishi, H. Imai, M. Yoneyama, D. Nakajima and H. Shiraishi, Association between paraben exposure and menstrual cycle in female university students in Japan, Reprod. Toxicol.63 (2016) 107–113; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2016.05.01010.1016/j.reprotox.2016.05.010Search in Google Scholar

44. S. Oishi, Effects of butyl paraben on the male reproductive system in mice, Arch. Toxicol.76 (2002) 423–429; https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-002-0360-810.1007/s00204-002-0360-8Search in Google Scholar

45. S. Oishi, Effects of propylparaben on the male reproductive system, Food Chem. Toxicol. 40 (2002) 1807–1813; https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(02)00204-110.1016/S0278-6915(02)00204-1Search in Google Scholar

46. A. M. Hoberman, D. K. Schreur, T. Leazer, G. P. Daston, P. Carthew, T. Re, L. Loretz and P. Mann, Lack of effect of butylparaben and methylparaben on the reproductive system in male rats, Birth Defects Res. B Dev. Reprod. Toxicol.83 (2008) 123–133; https://doi.org/10.1002/bdrb.2015310.1002/bdrb.2015318393383Search in Google Scholar

47. S. Khanna, P. R. Dash and P. D. Darbre, Exposure to parabens at the concentration of maximal proliferative response increases migratory and invasive activity of human breast cancer cells in vitro, J. Appl. Toxicol. 34 (2014) 1051–1059; https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.300310.1002/jat.300324652746Search in Google Scholar

48. P. D. Darbre, Endocrine disruptors and obesity, Curr. Obes. Rep.6 (2017) 18–27; https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-017-0240-410.1007/s13679-017-0240-4535937328205155Search in Google Scholar

49. D. G. Bayülken, B. A. Tüylü, H. Sinan and H. Sivaset, Investigation of genotoxic effects of paraben in cultured human lymphocytes, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 42 (2019) 349–356; https://doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2017.141483410.1080/01480545.2017.141483429281926Search in Google Scholar

50. D. G. Bayülken and B. A. Tüylü, In vitro genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of some paraben esters on human peripheral lymphocytes, Drug Chem. Toxicol. 42 (2019) 386–393; https://doi.org/10.1080/01480545.2018.145704910.1080/01480545.2018.145704929681198Search in Google Scholar

51. M. M. Smarr, M. Honda, K. Kannan, Z. Chen, S. Kim and G. M. B. Louis, Male urinary biomarkers of antimicrobial exposure and bi-directional associations with semen quality parameters, Reprod. Toxicol. 77 (2018) 103–108; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2018.02.00810.1016/j.reprotox.2018.02.008587814729474822Search in Google Scholar

52. M. M. Smarr, R. Sundaram, M. Honda, K. Kannan and G. M. B. Louis, Urinary concentrations of parabens and other antimicrobial chemicals and their association with couples’ fecundity, Environ. Health Perspect. 125 (2017) 730–736; https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP18910.1289/EHP189538197427286252Search in Google Scholar

53. L. Mínguez-Alarcón, Y.-H. Chiu, C. Messerlian, P. L. Williams, M. E. Sabatini, T. L. Toth, J. B. Ford, A. M. Calafat and R. Hauser – EARTH Study Team, Urinary paraben concentrations and in vitro fertilization outcomes among women from a fertility clinic, Fertil. Steril. 105 (2016) 714–721; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.11.02110.1016/j.fertnstert.2015.11.021477971826654974Search in Google Scholar

54. The European Medicinal Agency (EMA), The Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use and The Safety Working Party (SWP), Reflection Paper on the Use of Methyl- and Propylparaben as Excipients in Human Medicinal Products for Oral Use, London, October 2015; https://www.ema.europa.eu/en/documents/scientific-guideline/reflection-paper-use-methyl-propylparaben-excipients-human-medicinal-products-oral-use_en.pdf; last access date October 30, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

55. L. E. Dodge, K. E. Kelley, P. L. Williams, M. A. Williams, S. Hernandez-Diaz, S. A. Missmer and R. Hauser, Medications as a source of paraben exposure, Reprod. Toxicol. 52 (2015) 93–100; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2015.02.00210.1016/j.reprotox.2015.02.002442604325728410Search in Google Scholar

56. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Environmental Health, Division of Laboratory Sciences, Fourth National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals, CDC, Atlanta (GA), January 2019; https://www.cdc.gov/exposurereport/pdf/FourthReport_UpdatedTables_Volume1_Jan2019-508.pdf; last access date March 5, 2020.Search in Google Scholar

57. L. E. Dodge, J. W. Choi, K. E. Kelley, S. Herńandez-Diaz and R. Hauser, Medications as a potential source of exposure to parabens in the U.S. population, Environ. Res. 164 (2018) 580–584, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2018.03.03510.1016/j.envres.2018.03.035591794429625341Search in Google Scholar

58. A. Pop, T. Drugan, A. C. Gutleb, D. Lupu, J. Cherfan J, F. Loghin and B. Kiss, Estrogenic and anti-estrogenic activity of butylparaben, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene and propyl gallate and their binary mixtures on two estrogen responsive cell lines (T47D-Kbluc, MCF-7), J. Appl. Toxicol.38 (2018) 944–957; https://doi.org/10.1002/jat.360110.1002/jat.360129460325Search in Google Scholar

59. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 November 2009 on cosmetic products (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 342 (2009) 59-209, November 2009; https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32009R1223&from=EN; last access date December 20, 2019Search in Google Scholar

60. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on food additives (Text with EEA relevance), OJ L 354 (2008) 16–33, December 2008; https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008R1333&from=EN; last access date December 20, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

61. The European Parliament and the Council of the European Union, Regulation (EC) No 648/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 31 March 2004 on detergents (Text with EEA relevance) OJ L 104 (2004) 1–35, March 2004; https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32004R0648; last access date December 20, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

62. European Commission, Report from The European Commission to The European Parliament and the Council, Review of Regulation (EC) No 1223/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council on cosmetic products with regard to substances with endocrine-disrupting properties, November 2018; https://www.europarl.europa.eu/RegData/docs_autres_institutions/commission_europeenne/com/2018/0739/COM_COM(2018)0739_EN.pdf; last access date October 9, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

63. The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Opinion of the scientific panel on food additives, flavourings, processing aids and materials in contact with food on a request from the commission related to para hydroxybenzoates (E 214-219), Question number EFSA-Q-2004-063 (adopted on 13 July 2004), EFSA J. 83 (2004) 1–26; https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2004.8310.2903/j.efsa.2004.83Search in Google Scholar

64. L. Cuzzolin, Neonates exposed to excipients: concern about safety, J. Pediatr. Neonat. Individual Med. 7 (2018) e070112 (10 pages); https://doi.org/10.7363/070112Search in Google Scholar

65. The European Commission (EC), Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS), Clarification on opinion SCCS/1348/10 in the light of the Danish clause of safeguard banning the use of parabens in cosmetic products intended for children under three years of age, SCCS, Luxembourg, October 2011; https://ec.europa.eu/health/scientific_committees/consumer_safety/docs/sccs_o_069.pdf; last access date December 20, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

66. K. S. Valeur, H. Holst and K. Allegaert, Excipients in neonatal medicinal products: Never prescribed, commonly administered, Pharm. Med. 32 (2018) 251–258; https://doi.org/10.1007/s40290-018-0243-910.1007/s40290-018-0243-9610518130174435Search in Google Scholar

67. S. Kang, S. Kim, J. Park, H. J. Kim, J. Lee, G. Choi, S. Choi, S. Kim, S. Y. Kim, H. B. Moon, S. Kim, Y. L. Kho and K. Choi, Urinary paraben concentrations among pregnant women and their matching newborn infants of Korea, and the association with oxidative stress biomarkers, Sci. Total Environ. 461462 (2013) 214–221, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.09710.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.04.09723727995Search in Google Scholar

68. N.-Y. Park, Y. H. Cho, K. Choi, E.-H. Lee, Y. J. Kim, J. H. Kim and Y. Kho, Parabens in breast milk and possible sources of exposure among lactating women in Korea, Environ. Poll. 255 (2019) Article ID 113142; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.11314210.1016/j.envpol.2019.11314231563777Search in Google Scholar

69. S. Yakkundi, H. Mulla, H. Pandya, M. A. Turner and J. McElnay, Quantitative analysis of methyl and propyl parabens in neonatal DBS using LC-MS/MS, Bioanalysis8 (2016) 1173–1182; https://doi.org/10.4155/bio-2016-002910.4155/bio-2016-002927212021Search in Google Scholar

70. M. A. Turner, J. C. Duncan, U. Shah, T. Metsvaht, H. Varendi, G. Nellis, I. Lutsar, S. Yakkundi, J. C. McElnay, H. Jandya, H. Mulla, P. Vaconsin, T. Storme, A. Rieutord and A. J. Nunn, Risk assessment of neonatal excipient exposure: lessons from food safety and other areas, Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev.73 (2014) 89–101; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addr.2013.11.00310.1016/j.addr.2013.11.00324239480Search in Google Scholar

71. M. Bilal and H. M. N. Iqbal, An insight into toxicity and human-health-related adverse consequences of cosmeceuticals – A review, Sci. Total Environ.670 (2019) 555–568; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.26110.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.26130909033Search in Google Scholar

72. C. L. Burnett, I. Boyer, W. F. Bergfeld, D. V. Belsito, R. A. Hill, C. D. Klaassen, D. C. Liebler, J. G. Marks, Jr., R. C. Shank, T. J. Slaga, P. W. Snyder, L. J. Gill and B. Heldreth, Amended safety assessment of methylisothiazolinone as used in cosmetics, Int. J. Toxicol. 38 (2019) 70–84; https://doi.org/10.1177/109158181983879210.1177/109158181983879231170842Search in Google Scholar

73. J. D. Lee, J. Y. Lee, S. J. Kwack, C. Y. Shin, H. J. Jang, H. Y. Kim, M. K. Kim, D. W. Seo, B. M. Lee and K. B. Kim, Risk assessment of triclosan, a cosmetic preservative, Toxicol. Res.35 (2019) 137–154; https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2019.35.2.13710.5487/TR.2019.35.2.137646735531015896Search in Google Scholar

74. The SUBSPORTplus Portal, SUBSPORT project, SUBSPORT Specific Substances Alternatives Assessment – Parabens, March 2013; http://www.subsportplus.eu/wp-content/uploads/data/parabens.pdf; last access date December 20, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

75. M. Eisenhut, The toxicity of essential oils, Int. J. Infect. Dis. 11 (2007) 365; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2006.07.00410.1016/j.ijid.2006.07.00417321181Search in Google Scholar

76. Council of Europe, European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM), Guidance on essential oils in cosmetic products, 2016; https://zdravlje.gov.hr/UserDocsImages/2017%20dokumenti%20razni/Guidance%20on%20essential%20oils%20in%20cosmetic%20products_EDQM%202016.PDF; last access date December 22, 2019Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD