1. bookVolume 57 (2018): Issue 4 (January 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
access type Open Access

THE RISK OF DISEASES TRANSMITTED BY INSECT VECTORS IN ANIMALS IN EUROPE

Published Online: 26 Feb 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 57 (2018) - Issue 4 (January 2018)
Page range: 385 - 397
Received: 01 Aug 2018
Accepted: 01 Nov 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
Abstract

Currently, the emergence of exotic diseases in areas where they have not previously occurred is reported more frequently. For these reasons, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) and individual countries are introducing regulations aimed at preventing and combating these diseases. Globalization and intensification of trade of animals and food products of animal origin contributes to the transmission of infectious animal diseases throughout the world. Global warming and human interference in nature affect the occurrence of diseases. The increase in temperature creates the right conditions for the growth and spread of vectors such as mosquitoes. Climate change may become a serious threat to the spread of infectious diseases in the future.

1. Introduction. 2. Diseases transmitted by insect vectors in Europe. 2.1. Vectors. 2.2. Participation of insects in mechanical transmission. 2.3. Primary and secondary vectors. 2.4. Transmission factor. 2.5. Emerging infectious diseases 3. Viral diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 3.1. Flaviviruses. 3.2. Buniaviruses. 3.3. Reoviruses. 3.4. Poxviruses. 3.5. Asfarviruses. 4. Bacterial diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 5. Protozoan diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 6. Nematode diseases transmitted by insect vectors. 7. Endosymbiotes. 8. Summary

Keywords

Słowa kluczowe

Adaszek Ł., Łyp P., Szczepaniak K., Skrzypek T., Winiarczyk S.: Komary jako wektory chorób ze szczególnym uwzględnieniem dirofilariozy psów. Magwet, https://magwet.pl/mw/27272,komaryjako-wektory-chorob-ze-szczegolnym-uwzglednieniemdirofilariozy-psow (2018)Search in Google Scholar

Anyamba A., Linthicum K.J., Tucker C.J.: Climate-disease connections: Rift Valley fever in Kenya. Cad. Saude Publica.17, 133–140 (2001)10.1590/S0102-311X2001000700022Search in Google Scholar

Beer J. i in.: Choroby zakaźne zwierząt domowych 1980, Państwowe Wyd. Rolnicze i Leśne, tom I, 84–89 ISBN 83-09-00332-3Search in Google Scholar

Bezirtzoglou C., Dekas K., Charvalos E.: Climate changes, environment and infection: Facts, scenarios and growing awareness from the public health community within Europe. Anaerobe,17, 337–340 (2011)10.1016/j.anaerobe.2011.05.016Search in Google Scholar

Bollino G.: Gorączka Zachodniego Nilu i japońskie zapalenie mózgu. Wiad. Zoot.47, 11–22 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Bowman D.D.: Georgis’ Parasitology for Veterinarians, wyd. 9., Saunders, St. Louis, 2008, s. 244–253Search in Google Scholar

Brinkmann A., Nitsche A. Claudia Kohl C.: Viral Metagenomics on Blood-Feeding Arthropods as a Tool for Human Disease Surveillance. Int. J. Mol. Sci.17, 1743, 1–14 (2016)Search in Google Scholar

Brown H.E.: Projection of Climate Change Influences on U.S. West Nile Virus Vectors. Earth Interact.19, 1–18 (2015)10.1175/EI-D-15-0008.1Search in Google Scholar

Carn V.M.: The role of Dipterous insects in the mechanical transmission of animal viruses. Br. Vet. J. 152, 377–393 (1996)Search in Google Scholar

Chamorro M.F., Passler T., Givens M.D., Edmondson M.A., Dwight F., Wolfe D.F., Paul H. Walz: Evaluation of transmission of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) between persistently infected and naive cattle by the horn fly (Haematobia irritans). Vet. Res. Commun.35, 123–129 (2011)10.1007/s11259-010-9453-7Search in Google Scholar

Chen A.Y.S., Walker G.P., Carter D., Ng J.C.K.: A virus capsid component mediates virion retention and transmission by its insect vector. PNAS, 108, 16777–16782 (2011)10.1073/pnas.1109384108Search in Google Scholar

Chihota C.M, Rennie L.F., Kitching R.P., Mellor P.S.: Attempted mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by biting insects. Med. Vet. Entomol.17, 294–300 (2003)Search in Google Scholar

Chihota C.M, Rennie L.F., Kitching R.P., Mellor P.S.: Mechanical transmission of lumpy skin disease virus by Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Epidemiol. Infect.126, 317–321 (2001)Search in Google Scholar

Chróst A., Giaurowie K., Kałużewski S., Rastawicki W.: Występowanie zakażeńwywoływanych przez Francisella tularensis u ludzi w Polsce oraz laboratoryjna diagnostyka tularemii. Med. Dośw. Mikrobiol.69, 55–63 (2017)Search in Google Scholar

Ciota A.T.: West Nile virus and its vectors. Curr. Opin. Insect Sci.22, 28–36 (2017)Search in Google Scholar

Clegg J.C.: Influence of climate change on the incidence and impact of arenavirus disease: a speculative assessment. Clin. Microbiol. Infect.15, 504–509 (2009)10.1111/j.1469-0691.2009.02847.xSearch in Google Scholar

Costard S., Wiegand B., de Glanville W., Jori F., Rowlands R., Vosloo W., Roger F., Pfeiffer D.U., Dixon L.K.: African swine fever: how can global spread be prevented? Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B.364, 2683–2696 (2009)10.1098/rstb.2009.0098Search in Google Scholar

Czujkowska A., Kruszewicz A.G.: Magazyn weterynaryjny, Choroby ptaków – monografia, 654–659 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Demiaszkiewicz A. W., Karamon J., Jasik A.: Przypadek wykrycia nicienia Dirofilaria repens w jądrze psa. Med. Weter.69, 124–127 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Di Cesare A., Otranto D., Di Giulio E., Simonato G., Latrofa M.S., La Torre F., Coccia G., Traversa D.: Microfilarial periodicity of Dirofilaria repens in naturally infested dogs. Parasitol. Res.112, 4273–4279 (2013)10.1007/s00436-013-3619-5Search in Google Scholar

Dick G.W.: Zika virus. II. Pathogenicity and physical properties. Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg.46, 521–534 (1952)10.1016/0035-9203(52)90043-6Search in Google Scholar

Dopieralska P., Krukowski H.: Wpływ zmian klimatycznych na występowanie wybranych chorób zakaźnych. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu,23, 152–157 (2017)10.26444/monz/75508Search in Google Scholar

Du Toit R.M.: The transmission of bluetongue and horse sickness by Culicoides. Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.19, 7–16 (1944)Search in Google Scholar

Epstein P.R.: Climate change and emerging infectious diseases. Microbes Infect.3, 747–754 (2001)10.1016/S1286-4579(01)01429-0Search in Google Scholar

ESCCAP (Europejska Rada ds. Parazytoz Zwierząt Towarzyszących): Zwalczanie chorób przenoszonych przez wektory u psów i kotów. Adaptacja przewodnika ESCCAP Nr 5. Wydanie drugie – wrzesień (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Forth J.H., Amendt J., Blome S., Depner K., Kampen H.: Evaluation of blowfly larvae (Diptera: Calliphoridae) as possible reservoirs and mechanical vectors of African swine fever virus. Transbound Emerg. Dis.65, e210–e213 (2018)10.1111/tbed.1268828762629Search in Google Scholar

Gavinelli A., Dilaveris D.: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) Epidemiological situation in Europe (update since LSD4). Standing Group of Experts on Lumpy Skin Disease in the South East Europe region under the GF-TADs umbrella Fifth meeting (SGE LSD5), Budva, Montenegro, 19–20 October 2017Search in Google Scholar

Genchi C., Mortarino M., Rinaldi L., Cringoli G., Traldi G., Genchi M.: Changing climate and changing vector borne disease distribution: the example of dirofilaria in Europe. Vet. Parasitol.176, 295–299 (2011)10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.01.01221300439Search in Google Scholar

Gliński Z.: Czy leiszmanioza odzwierzęca zagraża Europie? Życie Wet.91, 155–160 (2016)Search in Google Scholar

Gliński Z., Kostro K., Zoń M.T.: Choroba niebieskiego języka. Życie Wet.83, 380–383 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Gliński Z., Kostro K.: Czy gorączka Doliny Rift zagraża hodowli owiec i bydła w Europie? http://www.portalhodowcy. pl/hodowca-bydla-archiwum/178-hodowca-bydla11-11-2015/1915-czy-goraczka-doliny-rift-zagraza-hodowli-owiec-i-bydla-w-europieSearch in Google Scholar

Gliński Z., Kostro K.: Czy jest możliwe zakażenie zwierząt domowych wirusem Zika? Życie Wet.91, 228–231 (2016)Search in Google Scholar

Gliński Z., Kostro K.: Gorączka Doliny Rift. Życie Wet.84, 885–887 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Gliński Z., Kostro K., Luft-Deptuła D.: Krwotoczna choroba zwierzyny płowej (EHD) – nowa choroba zakaźna podlega-jąca zwalczaniu na terenie Polski. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska Lublin – Polonia60, 59–67(2005)Search in Google Scholar

Górski J., Mizak B., Chrobocińska M.: Control of rabbit myxomatosis in Poland. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz.13, 869–879 (1994)10.20506/rst.13.3.8037949359Search in Google Scholar

Grubaugh N.D., Ebel G.D.: Dynamics of West Nile virus evolution in mosquito vectors. Curr. Opin. Virol.21, 132–138 (2016)10.1016/j.coviro.2016.09.007538479427788400Search in Google Scholar

Gubler D.J.: Vector-borne diseases. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz.28, 583–588 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Gunn H.M.: Role of fomites and flies in the transmission of bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Vet. Rec.132, 584–585 (1993)10.1136/vr.132.23.5848393223Search in Google Scholar

Haddow A.D., Schuh A.J., Yasuda C.Y., Kasper M. R., Heang V., Huy R., Guzman H., Tesh R.B., Weaver S.C.: Genetic Characterization of Zika Virus Strains: Geographic Expansion of the Asian Lineage. Plos Neglect. Trop. D.6, e1477 (2012)10.1371/journal.pntd.0001477328960222389730Search in Google Scholar

Hayes E.B.: Zika Virus Outside Africa. Emerg. Infect. Dis.15, 1347–1350 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Henszel Ł., Janiec J., Izdebski R., Radziszewski F., Polański P.: Nowo pojawiające się choroby zakaźne niezwalczane drogą rutynowych szczepień na terenie Europy w latach 2010–2015 – przegląd powiadomień WHO i ECDC. Przegl. Epidemiol.69, 829–836 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Jaśkowski J.M., Gehrke M., Herudzińska M., Kierbić A., Kmiecik J.: Choroba guzowatej skóry bydła – nowe niebezpieczeństwo? Przegląd hodowlany,2, 13–16 (2017)Search in Google Scholar

Jones K.E., Patel N.G., Levy M.A., Storeygard A., Balk D., Fillteman J.L., Daszak P.: Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451, 990–993 (2008)10.1038/nature06536596058018288193Search in Google Scholar

Kaba J., Czopowicz M., Witkowski L.: Schmallenberg virus antibodies detected in Poland. Transbound. Emerg. Dis.60, 1–3 (2013)10.1111/tbed.1203923302324Search in Google Scholar

Kerr P.J., Merchant J.C., Silvers L., Hood G.M., Robinson A.J.: Monitoring of spread of myxoma virus in rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus populations on the southern tablelands of New South Wales, Australia. II. Selection of a strain of virus for release. Epidemiol. Infect.130, 123–133 (2003)10.1017/S0950268802007860Search in Google Scholar

Kilic A.U., Mehmet Doganay: Tularemia: A re-emerging disease. Ankara Univ. Vet. Fak. Derg.60, 275–280 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Kilpatrick A.M., Randolph S.E.: Zoonoses 2 Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vectorborne zoonotic diseases. Lancet, 380, 1946–1955 (2012)10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61151-9Search in Google Scholar

Klasson L., Westberg J., Sapountzis P., Näslund K., Lutnaes Y., Darby A.C., Veneti Z., Chen L., Braig H.R., Garrett R., Bourtzis K., and Andersson Siv G.E.: The mosaic genome structure of the Wolbachia wRi strain infecting Drosophila simulans. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 106, 5725–5730 (2009)10.1073/pnas.0810753106265971519307581Search in Google Scholar

Kłapeć T., Cholewa A.: Tularemia – wciąż groźna zoonoza. Medycyna Ogólna i Nauki o Zdrowiu, 17, 155–160 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Kramer L.D.: Complexity of virus – vector interactions. Curr. Opin. Virol.21, 81–86 (2016)10.1016/j.coviro.2016.08.008513808827580489Search in Google Scholar

Krzysiak M.K., Iwaniak W., Kęsik-Maliszewska J., Olech W., Larska M.: Serological study of exposure to selected arthropod-borne pathogens in European bison (Bison bonasus) in Poland. Transbound Emerg. Dis.64, 1411–1423 (2017)10.1111/tbed.1252427291825Search in Google Scholar

Kwit E., Chrobocińska M., Bigoraj E.: Myksomatoza królików, problem nadal aktualny. Życie Wet.86, 956–960 (2011)Search in Google Scholar

Kubiak K., Sielawa H., Chen W., Dzika E.: Endosymbiosis and its significance in dermatology. JEADV DOI: 10.1111/jdv.14721 (2017)10.1111/jdv.1472129194776Search in Google Scholar

Larska M., Jasik A., Żmudziński J.F.: Przypadki kliniczne zakażeń wirusem Schmallenberg w Polsce. Med. Weter.69, 428–431 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Larska M., Lechowski L., Grochowska M., Żmudziński J.F.: Detection of the Schmallenberg virus in nulliparous Culicoides obsoletus/scoticus complex and C. punctatus-the possibility of transovarial virus transmission in the midge population and of a new vector. Vet. Microbiol.166, 467–473 (2013)10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.07.01523928121Search in Google Scholar

Larska M., Polak M.P., Grochowska M., Lechowski L., Związek J.S., Żmudziński J.F.: First report of Schmallenberg virus infection in cattle and midges in Poland. Transbound. Emerg. Dis.60, 97–101 (2013)10.1111/tbed.1205723331471Search in Google Scholar

Larska M., Tarkowska K., Kuta A., Fidler-Kwiatek E., Ciastek M., Żmudziński J.F.: Obraz kliniczny zakażeń wirusem Schmallenberg. Życie Wet.88, 488–492 (2013)Search in Google Scholar

Larski Z.: Wirusologia weterynaryjna, Państwowe Wyd. Rolnicze i Leśne, Warszawa, 1975, s. 521–522Search in Google Scholar

Masny A., Sałamatin R., Wioletta Rożej-Bielicka W., Gołąb E.: Is molecular xenomonitoring of mosquitoes for Dirofilaria repenssuitable for dirofilariosis surveillance in endemic regions? Parasitol. Res.115, 511–525 (2016)10.1007/s00436-015-4767-626490684Search in Google Scholar

McDermott E.G., Mayo C.E., Gerry A.C, Laudier D., MacLachlan N.J., Mullens B.A.: Bluetongue virus infection creates light averse Culicoides vectors and serious errors in transmission risk estimates. Parasite. Vector.8, 1–9 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

McMeniman C.J., i in.: Stable Introduction of a Life-Shortening Wolbachia Infection into the Mosquito Aedes aegypti. Science, 323, 141–144 (2009)10.1126/science.116532619119237Search in Google Scholar

Mejssner M.: Denga i Gorączka Zachodniego Nilu – nowe zagrożenia w Europie. http://www.medonet.pl/zdrowie/zdrowie -dla-kazdego,denga-i-goraczka-zachodniego-nilu-nowezagrozenia-w-europie,artykul,1701426.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

Mellor P.S.: The Replication of Bluetongue Virus in Culicoides Vectors. (w) Bluetongue Viruses. Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology, vol 162, red. P. Roy, B.M. Gorman Springer, Heidelberg, 1990, s. 143–16110.1007/978-3-642-75247-6_62166644Search in Google Scholar

Mellor P.S., Hamblin, C. African horse sickness. Vet. Res.35, 445–466 (2004)10.1051/vetres:2004021Search in Google Scholar

Mellor P.S., Boned J., Hamblin C., Graham S.: Isolations of African horse sickness virus from vector insects made during the 1988 epizootic in Spain. Epidemiol. Infect.105, 447–454 (1990)10.1017/S0950268800048020Search in Google Scholar

Mellor P.S., Kitching R.P., Wilkinson P.J.: Mechanical transmission of African swine fever virus and capripox virus by Stomoxys calcitrans. Res. Vet. Sci.43, 109–112 (1987)10.1016/S0034-5288(18)30753-7Search in Google Scholar

Mills M.K., Michel K., Pfannenstiel R.S., Ruder M.G., Veronesi E., Nayduch D.: Culicoides– virus interactions: infection barriers and possible factors underlying vector competence. Curr. Opin. Insect Sci.22, 7–15 (2017)10.1016/j.cois.2017.05.00328805641Search in Google Scholar

Morens D.M., Gregory K. Folkers G.K., Fauci A.S.: The challenge of emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 430, 242–249 (2004)10.1038/nature02759709499315241422Search in Google Scholar

Morin C.W., Comrie A.C.: Modeled response of the West Nile virus vector Culex quinquefasciatus to changing climate using the dynamic mosquito simulation model. Int. J. Biometeorol.54, 517–529 (2010)10.1007/s00484-010-0349-620683620Search in Google Scholar

Morin C.W., Comrie A.C.: Regional and seasonal response of a West Nile virus vector to climate change. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 110, 15620–15625 (2013)10.1073/pnas.1307135110378572024019459Search in Google Scholar

Niziołek R., Rutkowska K.: Dirofilarioza u psów i kotów. Życie Wet.84, 798–805 (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Liberski P.P., Sikorska B., Bartosiewicz-Wąsik J., Smoleń J., Wąsik T.J., Kruszyński P.: Arbowirusy. Aktualn. Neurol.7, 85–95 (2007)Search in Google Scholar

Olesen A.S., Lohse L, Hansen M.F., Boklund A., Halasa T., Belsham G.J., Rasmussen T.B., Bøtner A., Bødker R.: Infection of pigs with African swine fever virus via ingestion of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans). Transbound Emerg. Dis. 1–6 (2018)10.1111/tbed.1291829877056Search in Google Scholar

Orłowska A., Trębas P, Smreczak M., Marzec A., Żmudziński J.F.: First detection of bluetongue virus serotype 14 in Poland. Arch. Virol.161, 1969-1972 (2016)10.1007/s00705-016-2857-0490816727068167Search in Google Scholar

Pejsak Z., Niemczuk K., Kowalczyk A., Woźniakowski G., Kozak E., Bocian Ł., Śmietanka K.: Osiemnaście miesięcy afrykańskiego pomoru świń w Polsce. Życie Wet.90, 640–644 (2015)Search in Google Scholar

Penrith M.-L., Guberti V., Depner K., Lubroth J.: Preparation of African swine fever contingency plans. Chapter 3: Risk analysis. FAO, Rome, 2009Search in Google Scholar

Pomorska D., Kuchar E.: Zakażenie wirusem Zika – nowe zagrożenie epidemiczne. Pediatr. Med. Rodz.12, 150–156 (2016)10.15557/PiMR.2016.0014Search in Google Scholar

Popiel M., Sygitowicz G., Laskus T.: Wirus Zachodniego Nilu. Post. Mikrobiol.53, 335–344 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Ritchie S.A., van der Hurk A.F., Smout M.J., Staunton K.M., Hoffmann A.A.: Mission accomplished? We need a guide to the “post release” world of Wolbachia for Aedes-borne disease control. Trepar,1715, 1–10 (2017)Search in Google Scholar

Rola J., Polak M., Żmudziński J.F.: 2016 – Aktualne dane na temat sytuacji epizootycznej w zakresie choroby guzowatej skóry bydła. Życie Wet.91, 897–899.Search in Google Scholar

Rossati A.: Global warming and its health impact. Int. J. Occup. Environ. Med.8, 7–20 (2018)Search in Google Scholar

Rozporządzenie Ministra Rolnictwa i Rozwoju Wsi z dnia 22 stycznia 2003 r. Dz.U. nr 18, poz. 163, 2003Search in Google Scholar

Saegerman C., Berkvens D., Mellor P.S.: Bluetongue epidemiology in the European Union. Emerg. Infect. Dis.14, 539–544 (2008)10.3201/eid1404.071441Search in Google Scholar

Sailleau C., Boogaerts C., Meyrueix A., Laloy E., Bréard E., Viarouge C., Desprat A., Vitour D., Doceul V., Boucher C., Zientara S., Nicolier A., Grandjean D.: Schmallenberg virus infection in dogs, France, 2012. Emerg. Infect. Dis.19, 1896– 1898 (2013)10.3201/eid1911.130464Search in Google Scholar

Sapierzyński R., Wojtczak M.: Dirofilarioza podskórna u psów. Życie Wet.89, 478–483 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Sellers R.F.: Weather, host and vector – their interplay in the spread of insect-borne animal virus diseases. J. Hyg.85, 65–102 (1980)10.1017/S0022172400027108Search in Google Scholar

Semenza J.C., Menne B.: Climate change and infectious disease in Europe. The Lancet Inf. Dis.9, 365–375 (2009)10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70104-5Search in Google Scholar

Sjöstedt A.: Tularemia: History, Epidemiology, Pathogen Physiology, and Clinical Manifestations. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci.1105, 1–29 (2007)10.1196/annals.1409.00917395726Search in Google Scholar

Syller J.: Mechanizmy przenoszenia wirusów roślinnych i zwierzęcych przez stawonogi. Kosmos, 50, 29–38 (2001)Search in Google Scholar

Szablewski. P.: Wolbachia – bakteria zmieniająca płeć owadów. http://www.biotechnolog.pl/wolbachia-bakteria-zmieniajaca-plec-owadow (07.07.2009)Search in Google Scholar

Świątalska A., Demiaszkiewicz A.W.: Pierwszy w Polsce rodzimy przypadek inwazji nicieni Dirofilaria immitis u psa. Życie Wet.87, 685–686 (2012)Search in Google Scholar

Tasioudi K.E., Antoniou S.E., Iliadou P., Sachpatzidis A., Plevraki E., Agianniotaki E.I., Fouki C., Mangana-Vougiouka O., Chondrokouki E., Dile C.: Emergence of lumpy skin disease in Greece, 2015. Transbound. Emerg. Dis.63, 260–265 (2016)10.1111/tbed.1249726991342Search in Google Scholar

Thompson G.M., Jess S., Murchie A.K.: A review of African horse sickness and its implications for Ireland. Ir. Vet. J.65, 9 (2012)10.1186/2046-0481-65-9339027322553991Search in Google Scholar

Truszczyński M., Pejsak Z.: Sytuacja epidemiologiczna afrykańskiego pomoru świń w krajach graniczących od wschodu z Unią Europejską. Życie Wet. 89, 560–563 (2014)Search in Google Scholar

Ustawa z dnia 11 marca 2004 r. "O ochronie zdrowia zwierząt oraz zwalczaniu chorób zakaźnych zwierząt” (Dz. U. z dnia 20 kwietnia 2004 r.)Search in Google Scholar

Verwoerd D.W.: Definition of a vector and a vector-borne disease. Rev. Sci. Tech. Off. Int. Epiz.34,29–31 (2015)10.20506/rst.34.1.234326470447Search in Google Scholar

Youle M.: https://schaechter.asmblog.org/schaechter/2009/01/ wolbachia-infection-a-good-thing.html (2009)Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo