1. bookVolume 56 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
Open Access

Pathogenic free-living amoeba

Published Online: 21 May 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 56 (2017) - Issue 1 (January 2017)
Page range: 106 - 112
Received: 01 Aug 2016
Accepted: 01 Sep 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2545-3149
First Published
01 Mar 1961
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English, Polish
Abstract

Invasions caused by free-living and parasitic limax amoeba can pose a major threat to human health and life. The amoeba from the genera Acanthamoeba and Naegleria as well as the following species: Sappina diploidea, S. pedata, Balamuthia mandrillaris, and probably Hartmannella vermiformis, are the major cause of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) and amoebic keratitis (AK). Furthermore, free-living amoeba can be vectors of bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Stenotrophomonas maltophila, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marces cens and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. There is a need for more research on free-living amoeba invasions in humans, particularly on the methods of diagnosis and appropriate forms of pharmacological therapy. Despite the undeniable role of free-living amoeba in the transmission of pathogenic bacteria, there is still insufficient amount of research and optimal diagnostic methods to identify the mechanisms of penetration, proliferation and exocytosis of many pathogenic microorganisms.

1. Introduction. 2. Morphology and growth of parasites. 3. Presence of free-living amoeba in the environment. 4. Pathogenicity of limax amoeba 4.1. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE). 4.2. Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). 4.3. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). 5. Basic diagnosis of infections caused by free-living amoeba. 5.1. Direct testing. 5.2. Cerebral spinal fluid analysis. 5.3. Smear test or biopsy of abnormal tissue. 5.4. Proliferation methods. 5.5. Molecular diagnostics. 6. Treatment. 7. Amoeba as vectors of pathogenic microorganisms. 8. Summary

1. Wstęp. 2. Budowa morfologiczna i rozwój pasożytów. 3. Występowanie pełzaków wolno żyjących w środowisku. 4. Chorobotwórczość pełzaków z "grupy limax”. 4.1. Przewlekłe ziarniniakowe zapalenie mózgu (GAE). 4.2. Pełzakowe zapalenie rogówki oka (AK). 4.3. Pierwotne zapalenie mózgu i opon mózgowo-rdzeniowych (PAM). 5. Podstawy diagnostyki zarażeń wywołanych przez pełzaki wolno żyjące. 5.1. Badania bezpośrednie. 5.2. Badanie płynu mózgowo-rdzeniowego. 5.3. Badania wymazu lub bioptatu pobranego ze zmian w narządach. 5.4. Metody hodowlane. 5.5. Diagnostyka molekularna. 6. Leczenie. 7. Pełzaki jako wektory chorobotwórczych drobnoustrojów. 8. Podsumowanie

Key words

Słowa kluczowe

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