1. bookVolume 25 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2450-5781
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Environmental Performance of Kettle Production: Product Life Cycle Assessment

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 25 (2017) - Issue 4 (December 2017)
Page range: 255 - 261
Received: 01 Apr 2017
Accepted: 01 Sep 2017
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2450-5781
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to compare the environmental impact caused by two different types of water boiling processes. The aim was achieved thanks to product life cycle assessment (LCA) conducted for stovetop and electric kettles. A literature review was carried out. A research model was worked out on the basis of data available in literature as well as additional experiments. In order to have a better opportunity to compare LCA results with reviewed literature, eco-indicator 99 assessment method was chosen. The functional unit included production, usage and waste disposal of each product (according to from cradle to grave approach) where the main function is boiling 3360 l of water during 4-year period of time. A very detailed life cycle inventory was carried out. The mass of components was determined with accuracy of three decimal places (0.001 g). The majority of environmental impact is caused by electricity or natural gas consumption during usage stage: 92% in case of the electric and kettle and 99% in case of stovetop one. Assembly stage contributed in 7% and 0.8% respectively. Uncertainty and sensitivity analyses took into consideration various waste scenario patterns as well as demand for transport. Environmental impact turned out to be strongly sensitive to a chosen pattern of energy delivery (electricity mix) which determined final comparison results. Basing on LCA results, some improvements of products were suggested. The boiling time optimization was pointed out for electric kettle's efficiency improvement. Obtained results can be used by manufacturers in order to improve their eco-effectiveness. Moreover, conclusions following the research part can influence the future choices of home appliances users.

Keywords

[1] A. Ayoub and C. Irusta, “Comparison between Electric Kettle and Stovetop Kettle, Life Cycle Assessment – Group LCA 2”, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[2] V. Bhakar, A. Aashray, A.K. Digalwar and K.S. Sangwan, “Life Cycle Assessment of CRT, LCD and LED Monitors”, Procedia CIRP, vol. 29, pp. 432-437, 2015.10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.003Search in Google Scholar

[3] ISO 14040:2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework, International Organization for Standardization, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[4] ISO 14044:2006 Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines, International Organization for Standardization, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[5] ISO 14004:2016 Environmental management systems – General guidelines on principles, systems and supporting, International Organization for Standardization, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[6] ISO 14001:2015 Environmental management systems – Requirements with guidance for use, International Organization for Standardization, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[7] R. Frischknecht and M. Stucki, “Scope-dependent modelling of electricity supply in life cycle assessments”, The Int. Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 806-816, 2010.10.1007/s11367-010-0200-7Search in Google Scholar

[8] Gizmo Highway Website. (2016, Sept. 4). The History of the Kettle [Online]. Available: http://www.gizmohighway.comSearch in Google Scholar

[9] K. Grzesik and K. Guca, “Screening Study of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of the Electric Kettle with SimaPro Software”, Geomatics and Environmental Engineering, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 57-68, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[10] T. Joseph, K. Baah, A. Jahanfar and B. Dubey, “A comparative life cycle assessment of conventional hand dryer and roll paper towel as hand drying methods”, Science of the Total Environment, vol. 515-516, pp. 109-117, 2015.10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.01.11225704267Search in Google Scholar

[11] Kulinaria Website. (2017, April 23). Historia czajnika [Online]. Available: http://kulinaria.xn--wietna-dieta-mlc.plSearch in Google Scholar

[12] D.M. Murray, J. Liao, L. Stankovic and V. Stankovic, “Understanding usage patterns of electric kettle and energy saving potential”, Applied Energy, vol. 171, pp. 231-242, 2016.10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.03.038Search in Google Scholar

[13] Regulation (EC) No 1221/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2009 on the voluntary participation by organisations in a Community eco-management and audit scheme (EMAS), re-pealing Regulation (EC) No 761/2001 and Commission Decisions 2001/681/EC and 2006/193/EC, EEA Joint Committee, 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Rozporządzenie Ministra Infrastruktury z dnia 12 kwietnia 2002 r. w sprawie warunków technicznych, jakim powinny odpowiadać budynki i ich usytuowanie (Dz.U. 2002 nr 75 poz. 690), Ministerstwo Infrastruktury, 2002.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Swiss Centre for Life Cycle Inventories, The ecoinvent database 2.2, data included in SimaPro 7.3 software, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[16] L. Wood. (2017, April 23). Global Household Appliances Market Worth 343.98 Billion USD by 2020 – Major Growth in China, India & Middle East – Research and Markets [Online]. Available: http://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20160510006126/en/Global-Household-Appliances-Market-Worth-343.98-BillionSearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo