1. bookVolume 42 (2015): Issue 1 (January 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1897-1695
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Historical water-powered ferrous metallurgy reconstructed from tree-rings and lacustrine deposits (Mała Panew basin, southern Poland)

Published Online: 20 May 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 42 (2015) - Issue 1 (January 2015)
Page range: -
Received: 26 Aug 2014
Accepted: 05 Feb 2015
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1897-1695
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

According to historical sources in the basin of Mała Panew River there were at least 56 water-powered iron smelters from 14th-19th century. Now only two metallurgy plants work in the area. Many of the former smelting settlements ceased to exist. Historical data on the smelting industry in the area are often scarce. The aim of the study was to reconstruct the history of ferrous metallurgy from (1) the remains of wooden historical buildings, (2) remains of charcoal kilns and (3) deposits from former smelter pond. Results show that Regolowiec smelting settlement existed already in the 17th century (at least several decades earlier than historical written sources suggest) and was later re-paired after destruction caused probably by floods. Charcoal used for iron smelting in the ironworks in Brusiek on the Mała Panew River was burnt at the turn of the 18th century. This is in accordance with historical sources indicating particular prosperity of the metallurgy in that period. Upstream of the ironworks in Brusiek in the first half of the 17th century a large pond existed flooding the floor of the Mała Panew valley. Study has shown that the pond was at least 100 years older than historical sources have indicated.

Keywords

Backmeroff C and Di Pasquale G, 2001. Dendrochronological dating of charcoal kilns: a new method for dating historical land use at the upper timberline. In: Kaennel Dobbertin M, Bräker OU, eds., In-ternational Conference Tree Rings and People. Davos, 22-26 Sep-tember 2001, Abstracts. Birmensdorf, Swiss Federal Research In-stitute WSL. Search in Google Scholar

Baillie MGL, 2005. A slice through time: dendrochronology and preci-sion dating. Routledge, London: 176pp. Search in Google Scholar

Bednarek A, 1992. Hutnictwo na ziemiach polskich (Iron metallurgy in the Polish lands). Stowarzyszenie Inżynierów i Techników Prze-mysłu Hutniczego w Polsce, Katowice: 367pp (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Bilamboz A, 2008. Dealing with heteroconnections and short tree-ring series at different levels of dating in the dendrochronology of the Southwest German pile-dwellings. Dendrochronologia 26: 145-155, DOI 10.1016/j.dendro.2008.07.001. 10.1016/j.dendro.2008.07.001Search in Google Scholar

Ciszewski D, Kramarz P, Malik I, Owczarek P and Zygmunt E, 2005. Geomorfologiczne skutki funkcjonowania i degradacji sztucznych progów wodnych (Geomorphic effects of the existance and degra-dation of water dams). Czasopismo Geograficzne 76(4): 329-343 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Ciszewski D and Malik I, 2004. The use of heavy metal concentrations and dendrochronology in the reconstruction of sediment accumula-tion, Mała Panew River Valley, southern Poland. Geomorphology 58: 161-174, DOI 10.1016/S0169-555X(03)00230-7. 10.1016/S0169-555X(03)00230-7Search in Google Scholar

Ciszewski D, Malik I and Szwarczewski P, 2004. Pollution of the Mała Panew River Sediments by Heavy Metals: Part II. Effect of Changes in River Valley Morphology. Polish Journal of Environ-mental Studies 13: 597-605. Search in Google Scholar

Globisch W, 2004. Z dziejów wspólnoty parafialnej i kościoła w Kolo-nowskiem (History of the parisch community and church in Kolo-nowskie). Wydawnictwo Świętego Krzyża, Opole: 212pp (in Po-lish). Search in Google Scholar

Goszyk E, 2001. Kartki z dziejów żelaznego Bruśka (History of Bru-siek). Wyd. Brusiek: 55pp (in Polish). Goszyk E, 2004. Kartki z dziejów Drutarni (History of Drutarnia). Wyd. Drutarnia: 74pp (in Polish). Holmes RL, 1983. Computer-assisted quality control in tree-ring dating and measurement. Tree-Ring Research 43: 69-78. Search in Google Scholar

Juros JT, 2012. Historia, zabytki i ślady hutnictwa w dolinie Małej Panwi na obszarze działania Stowarzyszenia LGD Kraina Dino-zaurów. Stowarzyszenie LGD Kraina Dinozaurów (History, mon-uments and traces of iron metallurgy within the Mała Panew Val-ley in the area of the LAG ‘Kraina Dinozaurów’ Association), Spórok: 141pp (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Kaczmarzyk J, Florek W and Olszak IJ, 2008. Late Holocene and recent landforms and floodplain deposits in the middle Wieprza valley (The Ruda alluvia as an indicator of the 1000 years land degrada-tion of the Rybnik Plateau). Landform Analysis 7: 80-94 (in Po-lish). Search in Google Scholar

Klimek K, 1996. Aluwia Rudy jako wskaźnik 1000-letniej degradacji Płaskowyżu Rybnickiego. In: Kostrzewski A, ed., Geneza, Litolo-gia i Stratygrafia Utworów Czwartorzędowych 2, Wydawnictwo UAM Poznań: 155-166 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Klimek K, Kocel K, Łokas E and Wachniew P, 2003. Osady denne stawu w dolinie Rudy, dorzecze górnej Odry; zastosowanie metod kartograficznych i radioizotopowych w określaniu tempa sedymen-tacji (Bottom deposits of the pond in the Ruda Valley, Upper Oder Basin; the application of cartographic and radio-isotope methods in determining sedimentation rates). In: Waga JM, Kocel K, eds, Człowiek w środowisku przyrodniczym - zapis działalności, Pol-skie Towarzystwo Geograficzne Oddział Katowicki, Sosnowiec: 74-78 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Kraler A, Beikircher W and Zingerle P, 2012. Suitability of drill re-sistance measurements for dendrochronological determination. World Conference on Timber Engineering, Auckland: 302-309. Search in Google Scholar

Krąpiec M, Michczyńska D, Pazdur A, Pazdur MF, Rola J and Su-chorska-Rola M, 1996. Chronologia osadnictwa w Żuławce Małej, gm. Wyrzysk, woj. pilskie, stan. 1 w świetle analiz archeologicz-nych, dendrochronologicznych i radiowęglowych (The chronology of settlement in Żuławka Mała, Wyrzysk department, Piła voivo-deship, site 1, achieved through archaeological, dendrochronologi-cal and radiocarbon analyses). Zeszyty Naukowe Politechniki Ślą-skiej, Seria Mat.-Fiz. 80: 215-227 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Krąpiec M, 1998. Bezwzględne datowanie zwęglonego drzewna z wału wczesnośredniowiecznego grodziska w Stradowie (Absolute da-ting of carbonized wood from the embankment of early medieval fortified settlement in Stradów). Sprawozdania Archeologiczne 50, Kraków: 265-270 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Kukulak J, 2000. Origin of laminated sediments in alluvium of the upper San valley in the Bieszczady Mountains, Eastern Carpathi-ans. Geochronometria 18: 47-52. Search in Google Scholar

Kukulak J, 2004. Zapis skutków osadnictwa i gospodarki rolnej w osadach rzeki górskiej na przykładzie aluwiów dorzecza górnego Sanu w Bieszczadach Wysokich (Record of the results of settlement and rural activity in the deposits of a mountain river at the exam-ple of Upper San River alluvia in the High Bieszczady Mts). Wy-dawnictwo Naukowe Akademii Pedagogicznej - Kraków:128pp. (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Lucas AR, 2005. Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe. Technology and Culture 46(1): 30pp. 10.1353/tech.2005.0026Search in Google Scholar

Malik I, 2006. Contribution to understanding the historical evolution of meandering rivers using dendrochronological methods: example of the Mała Panew River in southern Poland. Earth Surface Proces-ses and Landforms 31: 1227-1245, DOI 10.1002/esp.1331. 10.1002/esp.1331Search in Google Scholar

Mańczyk G, 2007. Jest takie miejsce na ziemi... Kolonowskie (There is a place… Kolonowskie). Wydawnictwo Amat, Kolonowskie: 177pp (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Muhly JD, Maddin R, Stech T and Ozge E, 1985. Iron in Anatolia and the nature of the Hittite iron industry, Anatolian Studies 35: 67-84, DOI 10.2307/3642872. 10.2307/3642872Search in Google Scholar

Opała M, 2012. Rekonstrukcja warunków klimatycznych Górnego Śląska w ostatnich stuleciach na podstawie drewna historycznego (Reconstruction of the climatic conditions in the Upper Silesia du-ring the last centuries based on historical wood). Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Silesia, Faculty of Earth Science, Sos-nowiec: 142pp (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Opała M, 2015. The 443-year tree-ring chronology for the Scots pine from Upper Silesia (Poland) as a dating tool and climate proxy. Geochronometria 42: 41-52, DOI 10.1515/geochr-2015-0005. 10.1515/geochr-2015-0005Search in Google Scholar

Poleski J and Krąpiec M, 2000. Archaeological and dendrochronologi-cal dating of selected Early Mediaeval sites from the area of Mało-polska. Geochronometria 19: 19-26. Search in Google Scholar

Rinn F, 2010. TSAP - Reference Manual. Frank Rinn. Heidelberg, Germany: 264pp. Roździeński W, 1612. Officina ferraria, abo Huta y Warstat z Kuźniami szlachetnego dzieła Żelaznego (Officina ferraria, or a foundry and workshop with an iron producing smithy). drukarnia S. Kempini Kraków. (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Schubert HR, 1957. History of the British iron and steel industry. Routledge and Keegan Paul, London: 60pp Speer JH, 2010. Fundamentals of tree-ring research. University of Arizona Press, Tucson: 368pp Search in Google Scholar

Stokes MA and Smiley TL, 1996. An introduction to tree-ring dating. University of Arizona Press, Tucson: 73pp. Szczech B, 2001. Z dziejów hutnictwa nad Małą Panwią (History of iron industry on the Mała Panew River). Montes Tarnovicensis: 1-8 (in Polish). Search in Google Scholar

Triest F, 1864. Topographisches Handbuch von Oberschlesien (Topo-graphic handbook of the Upper Silesia). Verlag von Bilb. Gottl. Rorn. Breslau. (in German). Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo