1. bookVolume 6 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Does the Frequency of Using Emoticons in Computer-Mediated Communication Signal Creativity?

Published Online: 28 Jun 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 6 (2019) - Issue 1 (June 2019)
Page range: 66 - 76
Received: 20 Jun 2019
Accepted: 09 Jul 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2354-0036
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Nowadays many human interactions take place in the virtual environment. To express emotions and attitudes in computer-mediated communication (CMC) individuals use emoticons - graphic representations of emotions and ideas. Contemporary applications serving computer-mediated communication (CMC) are provided with a broad spectrum of emoticons which may be used in communication. Variety of emoticons gives users of CMC an opportunity to create unique messages and express emotions in a creative manner. This study involved 275 online respondents and aimed to verify whether the frequency of emoticons use may be predicted by the three characteristics of creativity (creative abilities, openness, independence). Bayesian regression analysis showed that creativity does not predict frequency of emoticons use in CMC. No correspondence between creativity and frequency of emoticons use may be explained by pragmatic function of emoticons as they are used to communicate efficiently with an emphasis on the sender-recipient shared understanding of the emoticons meaning. What is more, robust popularity of communication applications leads to widespread employment of emoticons by CMC users. Therefore, with growing number of emoticons users’ creative individuals may seek less common means of expressing own creativity.

Keywords

Baas, M., De Dreu, C. K., & Nijstad, B. A. (2008). A meta-analysis of 25 years of mood-creativity research: Hedonic tone, activation, or regulatory focus?. Psychological Bulletin, 134(6), 779-806. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a001281510.1037/a0012815Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Baron, N. S. (2004). See you online: Gender issues in college student use of instant messaging. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 23(4), 397-423. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0261927X0426958510.1177/0261927X04269585Search in Google Scholar

Boldea, O. & Norley, N. (2008). Emoticons and their role in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Linguistic Studies, 1(1), 43-46.Search in Google Scholar

Carter, K. A. (2003). Type me how you feel: Quasi-nonverbal cues in computer-mediated communication. Journal of Language and Social Psychology, 60(1), 29-39. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0261927X04269585Search in Google Scholar

Carter, R. (2002). A response to Neal R. Norrick. Connotations 11(2-3), 291–297.Search in Google Scholar

Conner, T. S. & Silvia, P. J. (2015). Creative days: A daily diary study of emotion, personality, and everyday creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 9(4), 463-470. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/aca000002210.1037/aca0000022Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Daisley, M. (1994). The game of literacy: The meaning of Play in computer-mediated communication. Computers and Composition, 11(2), 107–119. https://doi.org/10.1016/S8755-4615(06)80003-410.1016/S8755-4615(06)80003-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Danet, B., Ruedenberg, L., Gurion, B., & Rosenbaum-Tamari, Y. (1997). ‘Hmmm Where’s that smoke coming from?’ Writing play and performance on Internet Relay Chat. In F. Sudweeks, M. McLaughlin, & S. Rafaeli (Eds.), Network and netplay: Virtual groups on the internet. Cambridge. MA: MIT PressSearch in Google Scholar

del-Teso-Craviotto, M. (2006). Language and sexuality in Spanish and English dating chats. Journal of Sociolinguistics 10(4), 460–480. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9841.2006.00288.x10.1111/j.1467-9841.2006.00288.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Derks, D., Bos, A. E., & Von Grumbkow, J. (2008a). Emoticons and online message interpretation. Social Science Computer Review, 26(3), 379-388. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F089443930731161110.1177/0894439307311611Search in Google Scholar

Derks, D., Bos, A. E., & Von Grumbkow, J. (2008b). Emoticons in computer-mediated communication: Social motives and social context. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11 (1), 99-101. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.992610.1089/cpb.2007.9926Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dresner, E., & Herring, S. C. (2010). Functions of the nonverbal in CMC: Emoticons and illocutionary force. Communication Theory, 20(3), 249-268. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.2010.01362.x10.1111/j.1468-2885.2010.01362.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dziedziewicz, D., & Karwowski, M. (2015). Development of children’s creative visual imagination: A theoretical model and enhancement programmes. Education 3-13, 43(4), 382-392. https://doi.org/10.1080/03004279.2015.102064610.1080/03004279.2015.1020646Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fabri, M., Moore, D. J., & Hobbs, D. J. (2005, September). Empathy and enjoyment in instant messaging. In Proceedings of 19th British HCI group annual conference (HCI2005), Edinburgh, UK (pp. 4-9).Search in Google Scholar

Feist, G. J. (1998). A meta-analysis of personality in scientific and artistic creativity. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 2(4), 290-309. https://doi.org/10.1207%2Fs15327957pspr0204_510.1207/s15327957pspr0204_5Search in Google Scholar

Garrison, A., Remley, D., Thomas, P., & Wierszewski, E. (2011). Conventional faces: Emoticons in instant messaging discourse. Computers and Composition, 28, 112-125. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.compcom.2011.04.00110.1016/j.compcom.2011.04.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hogenboom, A., Bal, D., Frasincar, F., Bal, M., de Jong, F., & Kaymak, U. (2013, March). Exploiting emoticons in sentiment analysis. In: Proceedings of the 28th annual ACM symposium on applied computing (pp. 703-710). ACM10.1145/2480362.2480498Search in Google Scholar

Hsieh, S. H., & Tseng, T. H. (2017). Playfulness in mobile instant messaging: Examining the influence of emoticons and text messaging on social interaction. Computers in Human Behavior, 69, 405-414. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.12.05210.1016/j.chb.2016.12.052Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Huang, A. H., Yen, D. C., & Zhang, X. (2008). Exploring the potential effects of emoticons. Information & Management, 45(7), 466-473. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2008.07.00110.1016/j.im.2008.07.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jankowska, D. M., & Karwowski, M. (2015). Measuring creative imagery abilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1591. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.0159110.3389/fpsyg.2015.01591Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Jankowska, D. M., Omelańczuk, I., Czerwonka, M., & Karwowski, M. (2019). Exploring links between creative abilities, creative personality and subclinical autistic traits. Personality and Individual Differences, 142, 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.05.00810.1016/j.paid.2018.05.008Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2017). Subordinated and Rebellious Creativity at School. In R. A. Beghetto & B. Sriraman (Eds.), Creative Contradictions in Education. Cross Disciplinary Paradoxes and Perspectives (pp. 89–115). Springer, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-21924-010.1007/978-3-319-21924-0Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M., & Jankowska, D. M. (2016). Four Faces of Creativity at School. In R. A. Beghetto & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), Nurturing Creativity in the Classroom (pp. 337–354). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316212899.01910.1017/9781316212899.019Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M., & Lebuda, I. (2016). The big five, the huge two and creative self-beliefs: A meta-analysis. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 10(2), 214–232. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/aca000003510.1037/aca0000035Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kato, S., Kato, Y., & Scott, D. (2009). Relationships between emotional states and emoticons in mobile phone email communication in Japan. International Journal on E-learning, 8(3), 385-401.Search in Google Scholar

Li, D., Chau, P. Y. K., & Lou, H. (2005). Understanding individual adoption of instant messaging: An empirical investigation. Journal of the Association for Information Systems, 6(4), 102–129.10.17705/1jais.00066Search in Google Scholar

Lo, S. K. (2008). The nonverbal communication functions of emoticons in computer-mediated communication. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(5), 595-597. https://doi.org/10.1089/cpb.2007.013210.1089/cpb.2007.0132Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Luor, T. T., Wu, L. L., Lu, H. P., & Tao, Y. H. (2010). The effect of emoticons in simplex and complex task-oriented communication: An empirical study of instant messaging. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 889-895. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.02.00310.1016/j.chb.2010.02.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

North, S. (2007). ‘The voices, the voices’: Creativity in online conversation. Applied linguistics, 28(4), 538-555. https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/amm04210.1093/applin/amm042Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Novak, P. K., Smailović, J., Sluban, B., & Mozetič, I. (2015). Sentiment of emojis. PloS one, 10(12). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.014429610.1371/journal.pone.0144296Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Oleszkiewicz, A., Frackowiak, T., Sorokowska, A., & Sorokowski, P. (2017a). Children can accurately recognize facial emotions from emoticons. Computers in Human Behavior, 76, 372-377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.07.04010.1016/j.chb.2017.07.040Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Oleszkiewicz, A., Karwowski, M., Pisanski, K., Sorokowski, P., Sobrado, B., & Sorokowska, A. (2017b). Who uses emoticons? Data from 86 702 Facebook users. Personality and Individual Differences, 119, 289-295. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.07.03410.1016/j.paid.2017.07.034Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Oum, S., & Han, D. (2011). An empirical study of the determinants of the intention to participate in user-created contents (UCC) services. Expert Systems with Applications, 38(12), 15110-15121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eswa.2011.05.09810.1016/j.eswa.2011.05.098Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pavalanathan, U., & Eisenstein, J. (2016). More emojis, less:) The competition for para-linguistic function in microblog writing. First Monday, 21(11). Pavalanathan http://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i11.687910.5210/fm.v21i11.6879Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pool, C., & Nissim, M. (2016). Distant supervision for emotion detection using Facebook reactions. arXiv preprint arXiv:1611.02988.Search in Google Scholar

Prada, M., Rodrigues, D. L., Garrido, M. V., Lopes, D., Cavalheiro, B., & Gaspar, R. (2018). Motives, frequency and attitudes toward emoji and emoticon use. Telematics and Informatics, 35(7), 1925-1934. https://doi.org/10.5210/fm.v21i11.687910.5210/fm.v21i11.6879Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Preece, J., & Ghozati, K. (2001). Experiencing empathy online. The Internet and health communication: Experiences and expectations , 147-166. http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781452233277.n1110.4135/9781452233277.n11Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rezabeck, L. L. & Cochenour, J. J. (1995). Emoticons: Visual cues for computer-mediated communication. In: Imagery and visual literacy: Selected readings from the Annual Conference of the International Visual Literacy Association (26th, Tempe, Arizona, October 12–16).Search in Google Scholar

Rosen, L. D., Chang, J., Erwin, L., Carrier, L. M., & Cheever, N. A. (2010). The relationship between “textisms” and formal and informal writing among young adults. Communication Research , 37(3), 420-440. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F009365021036246510.1177/0093650210362465Search in Google Scholar

Settanni, M., & Marengo, D. (2015). Sharing feelings online: studying emotional well-being via automated text analysis of Facebook posts. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1045. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.0104510.3389/fpsyg.2015.01045Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Silvia, P. J., Beaty, R. E., Nusbaum, E. C., Eddington, K. M., Levin-Aspenson, H., & Kwapil, T. R. (2014). Everyday creativity in daily life: An experience-sampling study of “little c” creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(2), 183-188. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a003572210.1037/a0035722Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Spinuzzi, C. (1992). Emoticons and non-verbal communication on the USENET. Unpublished study provided on an internet posting.Search in Google Scholar

Taiwo, R. (2010). The thumb tribe: Creativity and social change through SMS in Nigeria. California Linguistic Notes, 35(1), 1-17.Search in Google Scholar

Thompson, D., & Filik, R. (2016). Sarcasm in written communication: Emoticons are efficient markers of intention. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 21(2), 105-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111%2Fjcc4.1215610.1111/jcc4.12156Search in Google Scholar

Tossell, C. C., Kortum, P., Shepard, C., Barg-Walkow, L. H., Rahmati, A., & Zhong, L. (2012). A longitudinal study of emoticon use in text messaging from smartphones. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(2), 659-663. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2011.11.01210.1016/j.chb.2011.11.012Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Urban, K. K. (2005). Assessing creativity: The Test for Creative Thinking-Drawing Production (TCT-DP). International Education Journal, 6(2), 272–280.Search in Google Scholar

Voss, J. F., & Means, M. L. (1989). Toward a model of creativity based upon problem solving in the social sciences. In J. A. Glover, R. R. Ronning, & C. R. Ronning (Eds.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 399–410). New York: Plenum Press.Search in Google Scholar

Vygotsky, L. S. (2004). Imagination and creativity in childhood. Journal of Russian & East European Psychology, 42(1), 7-97. https://doi.org/10.1080/10610405.2004.1105921010.1080/10610405.2004.11059210Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Walther, J. B., & D’Addario, K. P. (2001). The impacts of emoticons on message interpretation in computer-mediated communication. Social Science Computer Review, 19 (3), 324-347. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F08944393010190030710.1177/089443930101900307Search in Google Scholar

Weisfeld, G. E. (2006). Humor appreciation as an adaptive esthetic emotion. Humor, 19 (1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1515/HUMOR.2006.00110.1515/.2006.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wolf, A. (2000). Emotional expression online: Gender differences in emoticon use. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 3(5), 827-833. https://doi.org/10.1089/1094931005019180910.1089/10949310050191809Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zaman, M., Anandarajan, M., & Dai, Q. (2010). Experiencing flow with instant messaging and its facilitating role on creative behaviors. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(5), 1009–1018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.00110.1016/j.chb.2010.03.001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo