1. bookVolume 4 (2017): Issue 2 (December 2017)
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Between Individualism and Collectivism: Perception and Profiles of Creativity in Poland and Japan

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 4 (2017) - Issue 2 (December 2017)
Page range: 198 - 217
Received: 13 May 2017
Accepted: 05 Aug 2017
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

The aim of the study was to analyze creativity profiles and understanding of creativity in Poland and Japan. The study included 597 participants (233 Polish and 364 Japanese). Qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out (mixed method). We identified the existence of five different creativity profiles and ten categories for defining creativity, with significant differences in frequency between the two countries. The obtained results are discussed from the perspective of intercultural differences and the individualism / collectivism theory (Hofstede, 1983).


APA (2010, 2016). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychological Association. http://www.apa.org/ethics/code/Search in Google Scholar

Basic Act on Education (2006). Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT). Japan. http://www.mext.go.jp/en/policy/education/lawandplan/title01/detail01/1373798.htmSearch in Google Scholar

Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and conformity: A meta-analysis of studies using Asch’s (1952b, 1956) line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111-137.10.1037/0033-2909.119.1.111Search in Google Scholar

Boski, P. (2006). Humanism-materialism: Centuries-long Polish cultural origins and 20 years of research in cultural psychology. In: Kim U Yang K-S, Kwang K-K (Eds). Indigenous and Cultural Psychology: Understanding People in Context. New York: Springer, pp 373-403.Search in Google Scholar

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1999). Implications of a systems perspective for the study of creativity. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity. New York: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

De Dreu, C. K. W., Baas, M., Nijstad, B. A. (2008). Hedonic tone and activation in the mood-creativity link: Towards a dual pathway to creativity model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94, 739-756.10.1037/0022-3514.94.5.739Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dweck, C. S. (2006). Mindset. New York, NY: Random House.Search in Google Scholar

Dollinger, M. J., & Danis, W. (1998). Preferred decision-making styles: a cross-cultural comparison. Psychological Reports, 82(3), 755-761.10.2466/pr0.1998.82.3.755Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Galenson, D. W. (2001). Painting outside the Lines. Patterns of Creativity in Modern Art. Cambridge, Massachusetts, London: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. New York: Aldine De Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Goncalo, J. A., & Staw, B. M. (2006). Individualism-collectivism and group creativity. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 100, 96-10910.1016/j.obhdp.2005.11.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gralewski, J. (2016). Teachers’ Beliefs About Creativity and Possibilities for its Development in Polish High Schools: A Qualitative Study. Creativity. Theories-Research- Applications, 3(2), 292-329.10.1515/ctra-2016-0019Search in Google Scholar

Gralewski, J., & Karwowski, M. (2016). Are teachers’ implicit theories of creativity related to the recognition of their students’ creativity? Journal of Creative Behavior, 1-17, DOI: 10.1002/jocb.14010.1002/jocb.140Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Góralski, A. (1978). Czymże jest twórczość? [What is creativity]. In A. Goralski (Ed.) Zadanie, metoda, rozwiązanie: techniki twórczego myślenia, z. 3 [Task, method, solution: techniques of creative thinking]. Warsaw: Wydawnictwo Naukowo-Techniczne.Search in Google Scholar

Hahn, T. (2007). Sensational knowledge: Embodying culture through Japanese dance. Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Herbig, P., Jacobs, L. (1996). Creative problem-solving styles in the USA and Japan. International Marketing Review, 13(2), 63-71.10.1108/02651339610115782Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture’s consequences: International differences in work-related values. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Search in Google Scholar

Hofstede, G. (1983). National cultures in four dimensions: A research-based theory of cultural differences among nations. International Studies of Management & Organization, 13 (1-2), 46-74.10.1080/00208825.1983.11656358Search in Google Scholar

Howard, A., Shudo, K., & Umeshima, M. (1983). Motivation and values among Japanese and American managers. Personnel Psychology, 36, 883-898.10.1111/j.1744-6570.1983.tb00517.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Hui, C. H., Triandis, H. C., & Yee, C. (1991). Cultural differences in reward allocation: Is collectivism the explanation? British Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 145-157.10.1111/j.2044-8309.1991.tb00931.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Japan Creativity Society. (2003). The definition of creativity. Japan Creativity Society Retrieved from http://www.japancreativity.jp/definition.html (12/04/2017: in Japanese)Search in Google Scholar

Jaquish, G. A., & Ripple, R. E. (1984). A life-span developmental cross-cultural study of divergent thinking abilities. Human Development, 20, 1-11.Search in Google Scholar

Jellen, H. U., & Urban, K. (1989). Assessing creative potential worldwide: The first crosscultural application of the test for creative thinking-drawing production (TCT-DP). Gifted Education, 6, 78-86.10.1177/026142948900600204Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2008). Spory wokół pojęcia kreatywności w pedagogice twórczosci [Controversies around concept of creativity in education] Ruch pedagogiczny [Pedagogical Movement], 79(5-6), 5-18.Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2009). I'm creative, but am I Creative? Similarities and differences between self-evaluated small and Big C creativity in Poland. The International Journal of Creativity & Problem Solving, 19(2), 7-26.Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2010a). Are creative students really welcome in the classrooms? Implicit theories of “good” and “creative” student’ personality among polish teachers. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences 2, 1233-1237.10.1016/j.sbspro.2010.03.179Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2010b). Creativity - a palette of understanding, entanglement, reasons. Theoretical-empirical prolegomena In: M. Karwowski, A. Gajda (Eds.) Creativity (not only) in the classroom [Kreatywność - feeria rozumień uwikłań, powodów. Teoretyczno- empiryczna prolegomena. W: M. Karwowski, A. Gajda (Red.) Kreatywność (nie tylko) w klasie szkolnej]. Warsaw: The Maria Grzegorzewska University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M. (2014). Creative mindsets: measurement, correlates, consequences. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 8(1), 62-70.10.1037/a0034898Search in Google Scholar

Karwowski, M., Jankowska, D. M., & Gajda, A. (2015). The Creativity Types Questionnaire (in press).Search in Google Scholar

Kaufman, J. C., & Beghetto, R.A. (2009). Beyond big and little: The Four C Model of Creativity. Review of General Psychology, 13, 1-12.10.1037/a0013688Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kirton, M. J. (1976). Adaptors and innovators. A description and measure. Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 622-629.10.1037/0021-9010.61.5.622Search in Google Scholar

Korniłowicz, K. (1976). Pomoc w tworzeniu jako zadanie pracy kulturalnej, W: Pomoc społeczno-kulturalna dla młodzieży pracującej i dorosłych. Wybór pism [Helping to create as a task of cultural work, In: Socio-cultural assistance for working youth and adults. Choice of scripts] (Ed.) O. Czerniawska. Wrocław: OssolineumSearch in Google Scholar

Lewandowska, M. (2010). Zmotywowany umysł adaptatorów i innowatorów. Czy efektywność treningów twórczości wśród uczniów gimnazjów zależy od ich stylu twórczości? [Adaptors and innovators’ motivated mind. Does effectiveness of creativity trainings depend on students’ creativity style?]. Unpublished master’s thesis, Warsaw, Academy of Special Education.Search in Google Scholar

Lubart, T. I. (1999). Creativity across culture. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp. 339-350). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Matsunobu, K. (2013). Performing, creating, and listening to nature through music: The art of self-integration. Journal of Aesthetic Education, 47, 64-79.10.5406/jaesteduc.47.4.0064Search in Google Scholar

Markus, H. R., & Kitayama, S. (1991). Culture and self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation. Psychological Review, 98, 224-253.10.1037/0033-295X.98.2.224Search in Google Scholar

Martinsen, O., Kaufman, G. (1991). Effect of imagery, strategy, and individual differences in solving insight problems. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 35, 69-76.10.1080/0031383910350105Search in Google Scholar

Mito, H. (2015). Creativity in musical performance: Musicians’ notion of tradition, originality and value of performance. In A. G. Tan & C. Perleth (Eds.), Creativity, culture, and development (pp. 221-233). Singapore: Springer.Search in Google Scholar

Nemeth, C. (1985). Dissent, group processes and creativity. In E. Lawler (Ed.), Advances in Group Processes Theory and Research (57-75). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Search in Google Scholar

Nęcka, E. (2001). Psychologia twórczości [Psychology of creativity]. Gdańsk: GWP.Search in Google Scholar

Okazaki, S. (1997). Sources of ethnic differences between Asian American and White American college students on measures of depression and social anxiety. Journal of Abnortnal Psychology, 106, 52-60.10.1037/0021-843X.106.1.52Search in Google Scholar

Oyserman, D., Coon, H. M., & Kemmelmeier, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism: evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin,128, 3-72.10.1037/0033-2909.128.1.3Search in Google Scholar

Pufal-Struzik, I. (2006). Podmiotowe i społeczne warunki twórczej aktywności artystów [Personal and social conditions of artists’ creative activity]. Kielce: WS.Search in Google Scholar

Rowid, H. (1926). Szkoła twórcza [Creative school]. Cracow: Gebethner & Wolff. Rudowicz, E., Lok, D., & Kitto, J. (1995). Use of the Torrance Test of Creative Thinking in an exploratory study of creativity in Hong Kong primary school children: A crosscultural comparison. Journal of Psychology, 30, 417-430.Search in Google Scholar

Rudowicz, E. (2003) Creativity and Culture: A two way interaction. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 47(3), 273-290, DOI: 10.1080/0031383030860210.1080/00313830308602Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Rudowicz, E. (2004). Creativity among Chinese people: Beyond western perspective. In S. Lau, A. H. H. Hui & G. Y. C. Ng (Eds.), Creativity: When east meets west (pp. 55-86). River Edge: NJ: World scientific publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Rhodes, M. (1961). An analysis of creativity. Phi Delta Kappan, 42, 305-310. Schwartz, S. H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism: New cultural dimensions of values. Sage Publications, Inc.Search in Google Scholar

Singelis, T. M., Triandis, H. C., Bhawuk, D. P. S., & Gelfand, M. J. (1995). Horizontal and vertical dimensions of individualism and collectivism: A theoretical and measurement refinement. Cross-Cultural Research, 29, 240-275.10.1177/106939719502900302Search in Google Scholar

Sternberg, R. J., & Lubart, T. I. (1999). The concept of creativity: Prospects and paradigms. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of creativity (pp.3-15). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Strauss, A., & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Strzałecki, A. (1969). Wybrane zagadnienia psychologii twórczości [Selected issues of psychology of creativity]. Warsaw: PWN.Search in Google Scholar

Szmidt, K. J. (2007). Pedagogika twórczości. [Education for creativity]. Gdańsk: GWP.Search in Google Scholar

Triandis, H. C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Search in Google Scholar

Triandis, H. C. (2001). Individualism‐collectivism and personality. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 907-924.10.1111/1467-6494.696169Search in Google Scholar

Triandis, H. C., & Gelfand, M. J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74(1), 118-128. DOI: 10.1037/0022-3514.74.1.11810.1037/0022-3514.74.1.118Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

The Hofstede Centre (2015). What about Poland? Retrieved from: http://geert-hofstede.com/poland.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

Wagner, J. A., & Moch, M. K. (1986). Individualism-collectivism: Concept and measure. Group and Organization Studies, 11, 280-303.10.1177/105960118601100309Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wagner, J. A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism: Effects on cooperation in groups. Academy of Management Journal, 38(1), 152-173.10.2307/256731Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yao, X., Wang, S., Dang, J., & Wang, L. (2012). The role of Individualism-Collectivism in the individual creative process. Creativity Research Journal, 24(4), 296-303.10.1080/10400419.2012.730001Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zimbardo, I. G. (1977). Shyness: what is it: what to do about it. New York: Jove. at to do about it. New York: Jove.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo