1. bookVolume 67 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Physiological Effects of Balanced Anesthesia during Dental Procedures in Brown Bears (Ursus Arctos)

Published Online: 23 Sep 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 67 (2017) - Issue 3 (September 2017)
Page range: 331 - 339
Received: 23 Jan 2017
Accepted: 07 Jun 2017
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1820-7448
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The goal of the present study was to monitor the physiological effects of a standardized balanced anesthetic protocol in brown bears (Ursus arctos) during routine dental procedures. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation) were evaluated in twelve brown bears, anesthetized with a balanced drug combination for 90 minutes during dental procedures. The animals were kept in the „Park for Dancing Bears“ Belitza, Bulgaria. A standardized premedication protocol of a combined intramuscular injection of tiletamine HCl and zolazepam HCl (Zoletil 100® Virbac, France) 1mg/kg, medetomidine HCl 0.003mg/kg and 0.05 mg/kg of butorphanol was administered intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced intravenously with a combined bolus of ketamine at 2 mg/kg and propofol at 2 mg/kg, and maintained with a constant rate infusion (CRI) of ketamine at 0.8 mg/kg/h and propofol 0.04 at mg/kg/min. Rectal temperature decreased significantly during anesthesia, whereas: heart rate, respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were stable with no significant changes in these parameters for the duration of anesthesia. In conclusion, this anesthetic drug combination is suitable for oral surgery of medium duration in brown bears.

Keywords

1. Caulkett N., Cattet M.R.L. Anesthesia of Bears. Zoological Restraint and Anesthesia. 2002 Publisher: International Veterinary Information Service (www.ivis.org), Ithaca, New York, USASearch in Google Scholar

2. Boever, W. J., Holden J., Kane K. K. Use of Telazol TM (CI-744) for chemical restraint and anesthesia in wild and exotic carnivores. Vet. Med. Small Anim. Clin. 1977; 72: 1722-1725.Search in Google Scholar

3. Schobert E. Telazol use in wild and exotic animals. Vet. Med. 1987; 82: 1080-1088.Search in Google Scholar

4. Bush M., Custer R., Smith E. Use of dissociative anesthetics for the immobilization of captive bears: blood gas, hematology and biochemistry values. J. Wildl. Dis. 1980;16: 481-489.Search in Google Scholar

5. Arnemo, J. M., Brunberg S., Ahlqvist P., Franze´n R., Friebe A., P. Segerstro¨M., Söderberg A., Swenson J. E. Reversible immobilization and anesthesia of free-ranging brown bears (Ursus arctos) with medetomidine-tiletamine-zolazepam and atipamezole: a review of 575 captures. Proc. Am. Assoc. Zoo Vet., Am. Assoc. Wildl. Vet., Am. Assoc. Reptile Amphibian Vet., Natl. Assoc. Zoo Wildl. Vet. Joint Conf. Pp. 2001; 234-236.Search in Google Scholar

6. Caulkett N.A., Cattet M.R.L., Caulkett J.M., Polischuk SC., Comparative Physiologic Effects of Telazol, Medetomidine-Ketamine, and Medetomidine-Telazol in Captive Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus). J. Zoo and Wildl. Med. 1999; 30: 504-509.Search in Google Scholar

7. Caulkett, N. A., Cattet M. R. Physiological effects of medetomidine -zolazepam-tiletamine immobilization in black bears. J. Wildl. Dis. 1997; 33: 618-622.Search in Google Scholar

8. Chittick, E., Horne W., Wolfe B., Sladky K., Loomis M., Cardiopulmonary assessment of medetomidine, ketamine, and butorphanol anesthesia in captive Thomson’s gazelles (Gazella thomsani). J. Zoo and Wildl. Med. 2001; 32: 168-175.Search in Google Scholar

9. Larsen, R. S., Loomis M. R., Kelly B. T., Sladky M. K., Stoskopf H., Horne W. A. Cardiorespiratory effects of medetomidine- butorphanol, medetomidine-butorphanoldiazepam, and medetomidine-butorphanol-ketamine in captive red wolves (Canis rufus). J. Zoo and Wildl. Med. 2002; 33: 101-107.Search in Google Scholar

10. Hahn, N., Eisen R. J., Eisen L., Lane R. Ketamine-medetomidine anesthesia with atipamezole reversal: Practical anesthesia for rodents under field conditions. Lab Animal 2005; 34: 48-51.10.1038/laban0205-4815685192Search in Google Scholar

11. Wolfe LL,. Goshorn C.T., Baruch-Mordo S. Immobilization of Black Bears (Ursus americanus) with a Combination of Butorphanol, Azaperone, and Medetomidine J. Wildl. Dis. 2008; 44(3): 748-752.Search in Google Scholar

12. White, T. H., Jr., Oli M. K., Leopold B. D., Jacobson H.A., Kasbohm J. W. Field evaluation of TelazolH and ketamine-xylazine for immobilizing black bears. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 1996; 24: 521-527.Search in Google Scholar

13. Jalanka, H. H., Roeken B. O. The use of medetomidine, medetomidine-ketamine combinations, and atipamezole in nondomestic mammals: A review. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 1990; 21: 259-282.Search in Google Scholar

14. Harper M.H., Hiskey R.F., Cromwel T.H., Linwood H. The magnitude of respiratory depression produced by fentanyl plus droperidol in man. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 1976; 199: 464- 468.Search in Google Scholar

15. Muir W.W., Gadawski J.E. Respiratory depression and apnea induced by propofol in dogs. AJVR 1998, 59(2):157-161.Search in Google Scholar

16. Dıaz M, Becker D. Thermoregulation: Physiological and Clinical Considerations during Sedation and General Anesthesia. Anesth. Prog. 2010; 57:2533.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo