Open Access

Singularity-Robust Inverse Kinematics for Serial Manipulators

   | Mar 04, 2024


This paper is a practical guideline on how to analyze and evaluate the literature algorithms of singularity-robust inverse kinematics or to construct new ones. Additive, multiplicative, and based on the Singularity Value Decomposition (SVD) methods are examined to retrieve well-conditioning of a matrix to be inverted in the Newton algorithm of inverse kinematics. It is shown that singularity avoidance can be performed in two different, but equivalent, ways: either via properly modified manipulability matrix or not allowing the decrease of the minimal singular value below a given threshold. It is discussed which method can always be used and which can only be used when some pre-conditions are met. Selected methods are compared to with respect to the efficiency of coping with singularities based on a theoretical analysis as well as simulation results. Also, some questions important for mathematically and/or practically oriented roboticians are stated and answered.