Rivista e Edizione

AHEAD OF PRINT

Volume 11 (2021): Edizione 1 (December 2021)

Volume 10 (2020): Edizione 1 (December 2020)

Volume 9 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 9 (2019): Edizione 1 (December 2019)

Volume 8 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Volume 8 (2018): Edizione 1 (June 2018)

Volume 7 (2017): Edizione 2 (December 2017)

Volume 7 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 6 (2016): Edizione 2 (December 2016)

Volume 6 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 5 (2015): Edizione 2 (December 2015)

Volume 5 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 4 (2014): Edizione 2 (December 2014)

Volume 4 (2014): Edizione 1 (June 2014)

Volume 3 (2013): Edizione 2 (December 2013)

Volume 3 (2013): Edizione 1 (June 2013)

Volume 2 (2012): Edizione 2 (December 2012)

Volume 2 (2012): Edizione 1 (June 2012)

Volume 1 (2011): Edizione 2 (December 2011)

Volume 1 (2011): Edizione 1 (June 2011)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-1264
Pubblicato per la prima volta
09 Apr 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 11 (2021): Edizione 1 (December 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2084-1264
Pubblicato per la prima volta
09 Apr 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Internal Rate of Return on Investment in Higher Education in Europe

Pubblicato online: 09 Sep 2021
Pagine: 1 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

The study aims to update the well-settled issue in literature of rate of return on investment in higher education in Europe. The proposed approach slightly modifies the existing methodology based on the Mincer equation, using an updated set of data for the period 2014–2016 from the European Central Bank's ‘Household Finance and Consumption Survey’. The results obtained, ranging between 13% and 21%, are higher compared to historical records for the years 1996–2013. As for the microeconometric estimates of the Mincer-type equation, they are sound and comparable, although showing higher margins in relation to the recent figures. Thus, they may suggest an increasing trend in valuation and importance of human capital based on high school degree, especially for the Central–Eastern European Union countries, resulting probably from rapid economic and cultural convergence.

Parole chiave

  • higher education
  • internal rate of return
  • European Union
  • Mincer wage equation

JEL Classification

  • C83
  • I26
  • J24
  • O12
Accesso libero

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on financing the purchase of residential real estate through a mortgage in Poland

Pubblicato online: 26 Oct 2021
Pagine: 20 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

The study analyses the changes in financing the purchase of residential real estate based on a mortgage in Poland, caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in its initial stage, that is, the period from March to September 2020. The research problem is the impact of the pandemic on the process of granting and repaying loans for housing purposes. Banking institutions tightened the terms of granting financing. People who received financing earlier may, however, benefit from assistance in paying off the debt. The research hypothesis assumes the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the consumers of the housing loan market in the analysed period. The research methods used are the analysis of statistical data and facts. The author looks at the situation on the real estate market and the situation on the housing loan market in 2020. The study then highlights the actions of lending banks and the actions of buyers in the first pandemic months.

Parole chiave

  • financing
  • real estate
  • residential real estate
  • Poland
  • mortgage
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • creditworthiness

JEL Classification

  • G21
  • H12
  • I18
  • R31
Accesso libero

The Importance of Trust at the Level of Public International Law: A Contribution to Theoretical Considerations

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2021
Pagine: 47 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to point to trust as a value serving the coexistence of international community cooperation, as well as the elimination of global threats in public international law. The article presents selected approaches and typology of trust adopted in social sciences (with particular emphasis on the sociology of law as an auxiliary science of jurisprudence), their reference to the understanding and meaning of trust in public international law, as well as consequences in the form of shaping the quality and content of legislative solutions and practice of acting in the international arena.

As a result of the conducted analyses, trust in international law can be considered in three ways: first, as trust in the binding rule established by the subjects of international law; second, as a value expressed by the axiology of international law and principles of institutional significance; third, as a requirement of effective practice that exemplifies the theoretical and axiological assumptions of law.

Parole chiave

  • trust
  • public international law
  • sources and principles of public international law
  • axiology
Accesso libero

The concept of institutionalised disintegration: towards a recognition of the EU institutions anew

Pubblicato online: 18 Jun 2021
Pagine: 63 - 88

Astratto

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to recognise an ongoing phenomenon of disintegration in legal terms. A specific role of the EU institutions is inevitable because of supranational relations’ nature and to-date momentum of public international law. Briefly, disintegration supported by the EU institutions may be the expected solution. Therefore, the concept of institutionalised disintegration is the author’s proposal for using the EU acquis to create a new (autonomous) treaty regime of public international law and to define the EU institutions anew. The basis for reconciliation of institutions and disintegration is to constitute the scientific method on so-called legal phenomena that combine dogmas and functions of law in general. Legal phenomena are correlated with de lege ferenda proposals that – mainly critically – react to current challenges. Challenges – in turn – are derived from a de lege lata analysis of the politico-legal system (especially understanding of the institution, mapping of disintegration and examination of legislative methods).

Parole chiave

  • institutionalised disintegration
  • European Union law
  • EU institutions
  • legal system
  • legal phenomena
Accesso libero

Impact of PSD2 on The Payment Services Market – General Objectives and Evidence from Polish and UK Legal Systems

Pubblicato online: 26 Oct 2021
Pagine: 89 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

Payment Service Directive 2 came into force on 13th January 2018. It has replaced the prior directive and introduces new tools allowing to provide more advanced payment services. New legislation aims to increase competition and allow new entrants into the market. The thesis leads through the different aspects of the Directive, emphasizing an influence the legislation has on the companies providing modern solutions in the payment services market. The legal changes are analysed and assessed following the differences resulting from Payment Service Directive 2. For better understanding the impact of Directive, recent technological accomplishments are briefly described and explained. The overall results of the analysis are concluded on the basis of British and Polish payment services markets. The outcome reveals a contrast between these two countries in a number of new payment services providers as well as they origins. Research shows that the Polish payment services market is less accessible for non-bank financial companies.

Parole chiave

  • PSD2
  • Payment Service Directive 2
  • payment services
  • account information service
  • payment initiation service
  • third-party provider
5 Articoli
Accesso libero

Internal Rate of Return on Investment in Higher Education in Europe

Pubblicato online: 09 Sep 2021
Pagine: 1 - 19

Astratto

Abstract

The study aims to update the well-settled issue in literature of rate of return on investment in higher education in Europe. The proposed approach slightly modifies the existing methodology based on the Mincer equation, using an updated set of data for the period 2014–2016 from the European Central Bank's ‘Household Finance and Consumption Survey’. The results obtained, ranging between 13% and 21%, are higher compared to historical records for the years 1996–2013. As for the microeconometric estimates of the Mincer-type equation, they are sound and comparable, although showing higher margins in relation to the recent figures. Thus, they may suggest an increasing trend in valuation and importance of human capital based on high school degree, especially for the Central–Eastern European Union countries, resulting probably from rapid economic and cultural convergence.

Parole chiave

  • higher education
  • internal rate of return
  • European Union
  • Mincer wage equation

JEL Classification

  • C83
  • I26
  • J24
  • O12
Accesso libero

The impact of COVID-19 pandemic on financing the purchase of residential real estate through a mortgage in Poland

Pubblicato online: 26 Oct 2021
Pagine: 20 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

The study analyses the changes in financing the purchase of residential real estate based on a mortgage in Poland, caused by the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic in its initial stage, that is, the period from March to September 2020. The research problem is the impact of the pandemic on the process of granting and repaying loans for housing purposes. Banking institutions tightened the terms of granting financing. People who received financing earlier may, however, benefit from assistance in paying off the debt. The research hypothesis assumes the negative consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for the consumers of the housing loan market in the analysed period. The research methods used are the analysis of statistical data and facts. The author looks at the situation on the real estate market and the situation on the housing loan market in 2020. The study then highlights the actions of lending banks and the actions of buyers in the first pandemic months.

Parole chiave

  • financing
  • real estate
  • residential real estate
  • Poland
  • mortgage
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • creditworthiness

JEL Classification

  • G21
  • H12
  • I18
  • R31
Accesso libero

The Importance of Trust at the Level of Public International Law: A Contribution to Theoretical Considerations

Pubblicato online: 20 Nov 2021
Pagine: 47 - 62

Astratto

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to point to trust as a value serving the coexistence of international community cooperation, as well as the elimination of global threats in public international law. The article presents selected approaches and typology of trust adopted in social sciences (with particular emphasis on the sociology of law as an auxiliary science of jurisprudence), their reference to the understanding and meaning of trust in public international law, as well as consequences in the form of shaping the quality and content of legislative solutions and practice of acting in the international arena.

As a result of the conducted analyses, trust in international law can be considered in three ways: first, as trust in the binding rule established by the subjects of international law; second, as a value expressed by the axiology of international law and principles of institutional significance; third, as a requirement of effective practice that exemplifies the theoretical and axiological assumptions of law.

Parole chiave

  • trust
  • public international law
  • sources and principles of public international law
  • axiology
Accesso libero

The concept of institutionalised disintegration: towards a recognition of the EU institutions anew

Pubblicato online: 18 Jun 2021
Pagine: 63 - 88

Astratto

Abstract

The main purpose of this article is to recognise an ongoing phenomenon of disintegration in legal terms. A specific role of the EU institutions is inevitable because of supranational relations’ nature and to-date momentum of public international law. Briefly, disintegration supported by the EU institutions may be the expected solution. Therefore, the concept of institutionalised disintegration is the author’s proposal for using the EU acquis to create a new (autonomous) treaty regime of public international law and to define the EU institutions anew. The basis for reconciliation of institutions and disintegration is to constitute the scientific method on so-called legal phenomena that combine dogmas and functions of law in general. Legal phenomena are correlated with de lege ferenda proposals that – mainly critically – react to current challenges. Challenges – in turn – are derived from a de lege lata analysis of the politico-legal system (especially understanding of the institution, mapping of disintegration and examination of legislative methods).

Parole chiave

  • institutionalised disintegration
  • European Union law
  • EU institutions
  • legal system
  • legal phenomena
Accesso libero

Impact of PSD2 on The Payment Services Market – General Objectives and Evidence from Polish and UK Legal Systems

Pubblicato online: 26 Oct 2021
Pagine: 89 - 102

Astratto

Abstract

Payment Service Directive 2 came into force on 13th January 2018. It has replaced the prior directive and introduces new tools allowing to provide more advanced payment services. New legislation aims to increase competition and allow new entrants into the market. The thesis leads through the different aspects of the Directive, emphasizing an influence the legislation has on the companies providing modern solutions in the payment services market. The legal changes are analysed and assessed following the differences resulting from Payment Service Directive 2. For better understanding the impact of Directive, recent technological accomplishments are briefly described and explained. The overall results of the analysis are concluded on the basis of British and Polish payment services markets. The outcome reveals a contrast between these two countries in a number of new payment services providers as well as they origins. Research shows that the Polish payment services market is less accessible for non-bank financial companies.

Parole chiave

  • PSD2
  • Payment Service Directive 2
  • payment services
  • account information service
  • payment initiation service
  • third-party provider

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