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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2061-9588
Pubblicato per la prima volta
08 Oct 2013
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 26 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2061-9588
Pubblicato per la prima volta
08 Oct 2013
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

24 Articoli
Accesso libero

Review of the development of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Hungary between 1997 and 2018

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 2 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations recovered globally after a dramatic decline experienced between the 1950s and 1980s. The conservation challenge forced the raptor biologist community to co-operate internationally. As a part of the co-operation, four conferences were organised to identify the problem, coordinate conservation efforts including research and to monitor the recovery process of the species’ populations worldwide. The line of conferences started in Madison (WI, USA) in 1965 and was followed by two conferences in Sacramento (CA, USA) and Piotrowo/Poznań (Poland) in 1985 and in 2007, respectively. The latest conference was organised in 2017, in Budapest, where Peregrine experts discussed the latest research and monitoring results. The event provides a good occasion to review the development of the Peregrine population in Hungary. The species became extinct in Hungary as a breeding species in the mid-1960s due to the intensive use of pesticides (DDT) and it returned only in 1997, when the first successful breeding was recorded. In 2018, 72 active eyries were recorded. The Hungarian population is the edge of the Carpathian Peregrine population and the birds represent mostly the nominate subspecies (F. p. peregrinus), but individuals showing typical phenotype of the Mediterranean subspecies (F. p. brookei) were also observed. The northern race of F. p. calidus also occurs on migration and in winter. The Hungarian population is sedentary. Natal dispersal of females is biased to males, but in case of both sexes most ring recoveries of adult birds occurred within the Pannonian basin. The increasing Peregrine population expanding to the lowland may cause conservation conflict on medium term by competing with the endangered Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) for the nest sites. The conservation status of the Peregrine Falcon in Hungary is good in general, but threats may emerge on local scale in some regions. No specific conservation measures are taken, research and monitoring focus on population changes and threats posed on and caused by Peregrines.

Parole chiave

  • population recovery
  • subspecies
  • diet
  • movements
Accesso libero

Genetic variability in Peregrine Falcon populations of the Western Palaearctic region

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 12 - 26

Astratto

Abstract

We analysed variation in ten polymorphic microsatellite loci and a portion of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA in 65 samples from four populations of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus and F. p. brookei) breeding in Northern and Southern Italy, Northern Spain and the Czech Republic to assess genetic diversity in the poorly investigated Western Palearctic region. We added to our cytochrome b sequences a dataset of previously published mtDNA sequences of other populations and subspecies to outline genetic variation in the region on a worldwide basis. Regarding mtDNA we identified 12 haplotypes from our 65 Peregrine Falcon samples, nine of which were new and three already known. The 52% of our samples, including all Italian and Czech specimens, belonged to the previously identified HI haplotype, another 22% of the samples, most of which were from Sicily, showed the new H1 haplotype, while the remaining 26% of the sample partitioned among the other 10 haplotypes. Allelic patterns and genetic structuring of microsatellites were similar to those of other European populations. Genetic differentiation in both mtDNA and microsatellites loci is almost absent and it is not possible to distinguish geographical groups according to taxonomic designation at the subspecies level.

Parole chiave

  • Genetic structuring
  • microsatellites
  • mitochondrial DNA
  • Peregrine Falcon
Accesso libero

Phylogeny of Falconidae and phylogeography of Peregrine Falcons

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 27 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

We first examine how falcons can be integrated into avian tree of life. Then we go one step further and investigate the position of Peregrine Falcons in a comprehensive phylogeny of the falcons (genus Falco), which was reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequences. Whether the 19 subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon can be identified genetically is examined in the next step. Recently, the question of Peregrine Falcon’s genetics in Central Europe has become of wider interest. Which subspecies was present before the collapse of populations and which currently after various reintroduction projects? Evidence is provided, that Central Europe constitutes a (natural) hybrid zone between F. p. brookei from the Mediterranean and F. p. peregrinus of northern Europe.

Parole chiave

  • molecular phylogeny
  • Falconiformes
  • Peregrine subspecies
Accesso libero

Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 38 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

Parole chiave

  • Arctic
  • climate change
  • productivity
Accesso libero

Population trends of Peregrine Falcon in Northern Spain – Results of a long-term monitoring project

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 51 - 68

Astratto

Abstract

We monitored Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Bizkaia, Northern Spain, during two decades (1998–2017). Our population increased from 34 to 47 territorial pairs, as did other European populations until the first years of the 21st century, and then declined until 34 territorial pairs in 2017. The combination of catastrophic events (Prestige oil spill), increasing rain in winter and spring, and direct and indirect mortality factors significantly affected incubation onset, productivity and population stability, which in turn could impact on the floater population. Rain in February significantly affected incubation onset, which showed a slight positive trend during the last decade. Juvenile females laid 12 days later than adults, and each adult female started incubation in the same dates every year. However, the proportion of juvenile females did not significantly increase as might have been expected. Moreover, productivity was inversely related to incubation onset dates. Rain in April and May also affected productivity, and combined with short term extreme weather events determined a decreasing productivity during the last decade. Moreover, apart from human persecution (which caused 40.30% of the known deaths of Peregrines), we found 18 cases of breeders affected by infectious diseases, also related to weather. The combined effects of these factors, and the low availability of adequate nesting sites, negatively affected (i) territorial populations, (ii) productivity, and (iii) floater population, which in turn also determined territorial population and productivity.

Parole chiave

  • productivity
  • population decline
  • floater population
  • incubation onset
  • repeatability
  • weather
Accesso libero

The Peregrine population study in the French Jura mountains 1964–2016: use of occupancy modeling to estimate population size and analyze site persistence and colonization rates

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 69 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

We summarize key results of the first 53 years of one of the longest-running avian population studies in the world, on the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), in the French Jura mountains (12,714 km2), launched in 1964. A total of 449 cliff sites in 338 potential Peregrine territories were surveyed: 287 (85%) of these territories were occupied by an adult pair at least once, while in 51 (15%) we never detected an adult pair. Most sites were visited several times during a breeding season to survey occupancy and later fecundity, but the proportion of sites visited was highly variable over the years. We highlight the power of the Bayesian implementation of site-occupancy models (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2003) to analyze data from raptor population studies: to correct population size estimates for sites not visited in a given year and for the biasing effects of preferential sampling (when better sites are more likely to be checked). In addition, these models allow estimation and modeling of the site-level persistence and colonization rates, which can provide important clues about drivers of population dynamics, even without individually marking any birds. Changes in the dynamics rates may serve as early-warning signals for subsequent population declines.

Since 1964, the observed number of adult pairs varied between 17 in 1972 and 196 in 2008, but the proportion of sites visited increased from 43% in 1964 to 80–90% after 2002. Hence, this raw population total must be an underestimate. We found strong evidence for preferential sampling in our study. Correcting for this, we estimated 56 pairs in 1964, after which the population dropped to a minimum of 18 in 1972, but then recovered rapidly, leveling off somewhat around 1995 and reaching a maximum of 200–210 adult pairs during 2000–2012. This was then followed by a decline to 170–190 pairs. In any one year, the raw counts underestimated the true population size by 5–39% (mean 11%), due to sites not being visited (this correction ignores imperfect detection though). Site persistence rates declined from 78% to less than 60% during 1967–1972, and then increased rapidly to over 90% during 1980–1990, suggesting that once pesticide effects vanished, individual survival probability increased rapidly and as a consequence also site persistence. Since the 1990s, persistence has declined slowly, which may indicate decreasing adult survival. In contrast, colonization rates increased steadily from about 3% in the early years to maxima of 46–49% during 1994–2001, but declined thereafter and currently reach about 33%. Taller cliffs had greater persistence and colonization rates than medium or small cliffs.

Both the decline in colonization and in persistence rates during the last 15 years may reflect density-dependence, predation by the expanding European Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) population, human persecution or any as yet unknown factors. Importantly, we note that both persistence and colonization rates began to decline many years before the recent population decline became apparent. Thus, analysis of population studies using dynamic occupancy models can provide early-warning signals for future population declines. Our study demonstrates the benefits of modern analytical methods that can correct for several key deficiencies in probably all raptor population studies: incomplete coverage of sites and imperfect detection (though we only dealt with the former here). Occupancy models, possibly accounting for preferential sampling, appear to represent the logical analytical framework for abundance in raptor population studies.

Parole chiave

  • Bayesian
  • BUGS
  • Dynamic occupancy model
  • colonization
  • detection probability
  • extinction
  • JAGS
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • persistence
  • territory
Accesso libero

Population trends of the Peregrine Falcon in Switzerland with special reference to the period 2005–2016

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 91 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

We study population trends of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland with special reference to the development since 2005 and three study areas, South West Switzerland (4,993 km2, 1960–2015), the Northern Jura mountains (3,270 km2, 2005–2015) and the Canton of Zurich (1,748 km2, 2002–2015). We used dynamic occupancy models, which allow the territory-specific extinction and colonization parameters – the demographic rates (at the territory level) underlying a population trend – to be estimated. The Swiss peregrine population has developed in line with trends observed in many other countries and regions in North America and Europe: after the pesticide-induced collapse between the 1950s and 1970s, the population largely recovered up to the turn of the millennium. However, in recent years, we detected significant declines again: in SW Switzerland, the population decreased from 51 to 33 pairs during 2008–2015 (-35%), in the N Jura from 70 to 40 pairs during 2009–2015 (-43%) and in Zurich from 6–7 to 2–4 pairs during 2010–2015 (-50%). In the same time, the local extinction rate in the three study areas (more than) doubled from (0.05) 0.1 to 0.2, while the colonization rate dropped from 0.3 to 0.1 in one of the areas, while no change was detectable in the other two. We discuss two factors responsible for these strong, recent declines of Swiss peregrines: (1) predation by Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and (2) direct and illegal persecution by humans. In addition to these two factors, growing human disturbance (e.g. through climbers, bird photographers, paragliders, hikers, geocachers, etc.) and fatalities due to collisions with man-made structures (power lines, glass, wind turbines, etc.) are also suspected to contribute to the population decline.

Parole chiave

  • dynamic occupancy model
  • Jura mountains
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • persecution
  • predation
  • raptor
Accesso libero

Long-term monitoring of a successful recovery program of Peregrine Falcons in Virginia

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 104 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) was believed to be extirpated as a breeding species in Virginia by the early 1960s. An aggressive restoration program was initiated in 1978 that involved the release of captive-reared birds totaling 115 on the Coastal Plain (19781985) and 127 in the Mountain physiographic region (1985–1993). The first occupied territory was established and the first breeding attempt was documented in 1979 and 1982, respectively. We have monitored the size, distribution, reproductive rate, and substrate use of the resulting breeding population (19792016). The population proceeded through an establishment phase (1979–1993) driven by releases with an average doubling time of 3.8 yrs to a consolidation phase (1994–2016) with an average doubling time of 23.1 yrs. The state supported 31 breeding pairs by 2016. Per capita reproductive rates have increased significantly over the study period from 0.89 (19791993) to 1.86 (1994–2016). Average nesting success increased from 67.1% to 82.7% over the same period. Nesting attempts (n = 469) have been documented on dedicated peregrine towers (52.1%), bridges (26.1%), buildings (4.1%), and various man-made structures (13.0%) with only 4.7% documented on natural cliffs. The population appears to be self-sustaining with reproductive rates exceeding 1.5 young/pair every year since 1999. An ongoing management concern is that only 8.9% of known territories (n = 45) identified since introductions and 4.7% of documented breeding attempts (n = 469) have occurred within the historic mountain breeding range.

Parole chiave

  • restoration program
  • breeding population
  • reproductive rate
Accesso libero

Breeding population of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Lazio, Central Italy: 1983–2017

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 114 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

In 1983–1984 the nesting population of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Lazio was estimated to 25–30 pairs located mainly in the limestone massifs of the Southern Anti-Apennines and the Ponziane Islands. The monitoring carried out in the following years showed a steady increase in population size and range. In 2014–2017, the breeding population was 166–193 pairs distributed over most of the regional territory. In four regional macro-geographic areas characterized by different morphologies, lithological and landscape typologies, the density was calculated by NND method, which varied from a minimum of 0.90 to a maximum of 1.77 pairs/100 km2; average distance between sites from 3848.18 m to 6526.87 m. The urban population of Rome increased from the first nest found in 2001 to 15 currently breeding pairs; the first artificial nest was discovered in 2001 on the building, currently 14 are known. At present in Lazio 16 nests are located in quarries. In the years 2008, 2014, 2015 and 2016, the fledging rate registered was 2.26 (SD = 0.94; bp = 153).

Parole chiave

  • monitoring
  • estimate size
  • habitat selection
  • density
  • fledging rate
Accesso libero

Population trends and diversification of breeding habitats of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Czech Republic since 1990

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 121 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

The population of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Czech Republic recovered from a nearly total extinction during the 1960s and 1980s (0­3 breeding pairs) and the first successful breeding after this interval was confirmed in 1995. The increase of the population size accelerated after 2000 and it is still growing despite the limited amount of suitable natural breeding opportunities. There were 89 known pairs in 2016, 70 of them were proven to breed with altogether at least 121 reared young. Several breeding attempts on historical buildings in city­centres were recorded up to 2002 (in Prague and Pilsen), but this breeding habitat was abandoned later. More and more pairs are nowadays breeding on industrial buildings. The first breeding on a power plant chimney, 300m above the ground was discovered in 2010. Moreover, 16 breeding pairs were found on industrial buildings in 2016 (mainly tall chimneys or cooling towers and power­plant buildings), all of them breeding in nest boxes. The colonization of industrial buildings started in western part of the Czech Republic and continues eastwards every year. Currently, the easternmost colonized building is in Mladá Boleslav. We have no recent tree­breeding pairs and all eight published historical cases are at least doubtful. Most of the observed Peregrines ringed abroad came from Germany, indicating a strong influence of German population on restoration of the population in the Czech Republic. Within these recoveries, some of Peregrines were released in the tree­breeding population restoration project in Germany and Poland, but all these birds bred on rocks.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • Czech Republic
  • population
  • nest boxes
  • natural breeding sites
Accesso libero

Results of eighteen years (2000–2017) monitoring study of an extra-alpine Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus population in North-Western Italy

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 130 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

The Author reports the results of a survey about a breeding extra-alpine Peregrine Falcon population in Cuneo Province, NW Italy. The first reproduction was recorded in 2000, and from that year, the monitoring work localized 16 occupied territories in an area of 1,900 km2 covering the hills and nearby lowland areas. The average distance between breeding territories was of 7.6 km with a density 0.7 pairs/100 km2. During the eighteen years, 89 successful breeding attempts were recorded, 81 of them led to fledging of 206 young. Average breeding success was 2.5 juv/reproducing pairs. The nests are located on bridges (motorway viaducts and rail way bridges) and clay/sandstone cliffs. Preliminary prey analyses showed that pigeons and doves represent the 75% of their diet.

Parole chiave

  • Cuneo survey
  • density
  • reproduction
  • nest site
  • food
Accesso libero

Mackenzie River Peregrine Falcon Surveys 1966–2018

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 134 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

The author with assistants monitored the breeding distribution of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) along the length of the Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1966 to 2018. This river traverses a thousand miles (1600 km) of the western Canadian Arctic from Great Slave Lake to the Beaufort Sea and roughly parallels the eastern slope of the Mackenzie Mountain cordillera between latitudes 61 degrees N and 68 degrees N.

All potential nest sites have been checked on each survey and counts of nest sites occupied (at least one bird seen) decreased from the count of 12 sites in 1966 to the lowest count of 7 in 1972. In 1990 the count was 37 and up to 2018 the highest count was 75 in 2010.

A count of nest sites successfully producing young was variable with a low of 5 in 1972 to a high of 58 in 2011. Production of young averaged 2.43/successful site from 1990 until 2018 (excluding 2012). Production of young averaged 1.4/occupied site over this period. Recent increases in availability of passerine prey because of widespread fires in the last decades are felt to be the latest phenomena affecting these birds (pers.obs.) Prey utilized by Peregrines was studied over a period of four years and passerines composed 20% of their diet. Two species Lesser Scaup (Athya affinis) and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) formed 25% of their diet.

Parole chiave

  • Mackenzie River
  • Peregrine
  • 50 year surveys
  • population
  • pesticides
  • PIT monitoring
  • maggots
  • prey
Accesso libero

Monitoring of Peregrine Falcons in the Ariège Pyrenees and Toulouse, Midi-Pyrénées region, France

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 143 - 158

Astratto

Abstract

Since the 1980s, the volunteers of the ornithological group of the Nature Midi-Pyrénées association have been monitoring the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in the Ariège Pyrenees and in the Toulouse agglomeration. The data collected over the last 30 years show stability of the Ariège population: little variation has been observed in brood size, occupation rate of the sites or reproductive success. Only the increasing number of known nesting sites is significant, due to better knowledge of the territory by observers over time. In 2017, the breeding population was estimated to be 24 pairs. Urban monitoring proved the presence of individuals in passage, wintering or resident in Toulouse. Since 2002, downtown Toulouse has been visited by several individuals of both sexes and interactions between males and females have been observed since 2005. Despite the multiplicity of possible eyries or nesting sites in Toulouse, and the massive presence of Peregrine Falcons and dedicated bird watchers, no case of breeding has been reported. In addition to monitoring, measures to protect and support the presence of the species have been put in place. In the Pyrenees, in the light of the growth of human activities near nesting sites, some sites are now subject to official protective measures, coupled with constant vigilance and awareness. In Toulouse, to encourage the breeding of the individuals present, two nesting boxes were installed in 2016, on two buildings frequented by a female and a male. In 2017, a first attempt to reproduce in one of these installations confirmed the value of such developments in urban areas.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • monitoring
  • nesting
  • rupestrian
  • urban
  • nest box
  • Ariège
  • Pyrenees
  • Toulouse
Accesso libero

The Danish Peregrine Falcon population: Reestablishment and eggshell thinning

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 159 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

Denmark being a country with only a few suitable steep nesting cliffs has only harboured a small population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in historic time. In the previous century, the population gradually declined due to persecution, egg and young collection, and pollution. The last breeding attempt in the 20th century occurred in 1972 in southeastern Denmark. No new breeding attempts were recorded in Denmark until 2001 but since then the population has gradually increased – most rapidly since 2012 – to a peak of 24 territorial pairs in 2018; some of them breeding on man-made structures (nest boxes at bridges and power plants). Here we update the information on the reestablishment of the Peregrine Falcon in Den-mark, including origin and dispersal, reproduction, and eggshell thinning.

Parole chiave

  • Denmark
  • recovery
  • productivity
  • dispersal
  • monitoring
  • eggshell thinning
Accesso libero

A summary of intentional poisoning of Peregrine Falcons in Switzerland during the last decade

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 164 - 170

Astratto

Abstract

In May 2011, a webcam in Zurich, Switzerland, registered the sudden death of a Peregrine Falcon. Analyses revealed that poison had been applied to the nape feathers of the pigeon captured by the bird. This case really raised the awareness of Peregrine Falcon poisoning by pigeon fanciers in Switzerland. BirdLife Switzerland, with the help of numerous partners, started researches on the subject that pigeon fanciers began a “war” against Peregrine Falcons and other raptors. Between 2006 and 2017, BirdLife Switzerland listed 7 cases of proven intentional poisonings of birds of prey where analyses confirmed the use of poison; and 19 suspected cases with the presence of dead pigeons and birds of prey simultaneously or other suspicious deaths in Switzerland. Three decoy pigeons with poison on the neck could be secured before they were captured by the target species. Two pigeon fanciers who used poisoned pigeons were convicted in 2016 and 2017. Although the numbers of proven and suspected cases are still low, we believe that the phenomenon may be much more widespread. We think that the poisoning may have a negative effect on the population of the Peregrine Falcon in Switzerland.

Parole chiave

  • intentional killing
  • persecution
  • poaching
  • pigeon fanciers
Accesso libero

Raptors are still affected by environmental pollutants: Greenlandic Peregrines will not have normal eggshell thickness until 2034

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 171 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

The DDT-induced effects, eggshell thinning and breeding failure in Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations were reverted with restrictions on the use of the compound from the 1970s, and in most studied populations, the eggshell thickness is back to normal. In Greenland, a previous study of eggshell thinning in Peregrines found that shells had not yet reached pre-DDT levels. In this study, we extend the time series and reinterpret shell thinning data for 196 clutches covering a 45-year time span (1972–2017). There was a significant (P<0.001) increase in the eggshell thickness of 0.23% per year. This corresponds to a change in eggshell thinning from 14.5% to 5.4% in 2017 compared to the pre-DDT mean. With the current rate of change, pre-DDT shell thickness is predicted to be reached around the year 2034. However, a few clutches are still below the critical limit. The relatively slower recovery of the shell thickness in the Greenland population is likely indicative of the slower phasing out of DDT in the Greenlandic Peregrines’ wintering grounds in Latin America. The shell thinning in the Greenlandic population probably never crossed the 17% threshold associated with population declines, contrary to the populations in many other parts of the world.

Parole chiave

  • Arctic
  • Greenland
  • DDT
  • pollutants
  • egg
  • shell thinning
  • monitoring
Accesso libero

A 20-year study investigating the diet of Peregrines, Falco peregrinus, at an urban site in south-west England (1997–2017)

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 177 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Until relatively recently Peregrines have been regarded as a rural bird. As their populations have increased over the past 20 years, Peregrines have increasingly become urban birds. One of the earliest locations to be occupied by Peregrines in the UK was on a church in Exeter, in the county of Devon. Over the past 20 years we have studied their diet, collecting prey remains on a regular basis. The results reveal that Feral Pigeons Columba livia comprise one third of the diet by frequency and just over half of the diet when measured by mass. The remainder of the diet comprises a wealth of other species including wading birds, other doves and pigeons, ducks, gulls and terns, and rails. A selection of species eaten by the Peregrines reveal that they are hunting at night, taking certain wading birds, rails and grebes, that would be difficult to catch by day and are known to migrate at night. This study is the most comprehensive to date and reveals that while the Feral Pigeon is an important part of the diet, contrary to public opinion, it is by no means the only species that Peregrines eat. In fact, the remaining half of the diet, by mass, comprised 101 other species of bird and three species of mammal. Such dietary studies help dispel myths about peregrines feeding habits and ensure that their conservation and protection is based on evidence.

Parole chiave

  • prey
  • food
  • nocturnal
  • hunting
  • church
Accesso libero

Diet of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in relation to temporal and spatial variation in racing pigeon availability in Wales

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 188 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

The relative frequency of Common Pigeons Columba livia in the diet of Peregrine Falcons differed across three areas of south-central Wales in line with racing pigeon availability. Peregrines exhibited a functional response to spatial and temporal availability of racing pigeons. During the pigeon-racing season (April–September), pigeons comprised 63% of kills in South Wales where pigeons were most available, 43% in the Brecon Beacons with intermediate availability and 30% in Central Wales, where availability was lowest. The corresponding values outside the pigeon-racing season were 18%, 6% and 5% respectively. We estimate that 92% of pigeons killed by Peregrines were racing pigeons, 7% were feral pigeons and the remainder were other domestic pigeon varieties.

Parole chiave

  • predator-prey
  • functional response
  • human-wildlife conflict
Accesso libero

Onset of natal dispersal in Peregrine Falcon from Mediterranean islands (Italy)

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 201 - 221

Astratto

Abstract

Basic information on natal dispersal of Peregrine Falcons is virtually lacking in Europe, despite increased attention on this species, and the sensitivity of this stage in the Peregrines’ life history. In this study, we collected satellite telemetry data during the onset of natal dispersal of 19 Peregrine Falcons tagged in Sicily and the Aeolian archipelago (Italy). We divided the onset of dispersal into the following 3 periods: post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), wandering, and wintering. PFDP lasted on average 47±16 days, during which young peregrines moved very little (0.167 km), and explored small areas (0.226 km2) far from the nest cliff, and showed no sex differences. The wandering phase was highly individualistic, with median net displacements of 23.97 km. Both PFDP and wandering bearings were oriented towards NNE-ESE. Only five individuals went sporadically outside the island borders. During their first winter, Peregrines had a mean home range of 135.65±82.31 km2 spatially scattered across Sicily and mainly composed of open habitats, like cereal steppes, arboreal crops and agri-mosaics. Individuals had a dissimilar assortment in habitat composition, however the urban habitat was the most selected and the woodland the least. At night, during both wandering and wintering phases Peregrines used rocks, cliffs and electricity pylons in frequencies not statistically different between sex, phase and type of roost. Only two individuals had significant use of pylons and one of rocks. The multifaceted framework of Peregrine Falcon’s natal dispersal was described here for the first time in a Mediterranean population.

Parole chiave

  • natal dispersal
  • Mediterranean islands
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • satellite telemetry
  • Sicily
Accesso libero

Migratory movements of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus, breeding on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 222 - 231

Astratto

Abstract

We describe the migration pathways of 12 Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus calidus breeding on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. Overall, we tracked 30 complete (17 autumn and 13 spring) and 5 incomplete seasonal migration routes. Winter ranges extended from the Atlantic coast of southern Portugal in the west to Kish Island in the Arabian Gulf in the east, and from Krasnodar in southern Russia in the north to South Sudan. Eight birds were tracked to their wintering sites, with migration pathways ranging from 3,557 km to 8,114 km, taking 14 to 61 days to complete. Birds spent an average of 190 days in their winter ranges (range 136 to 212 days, N = 14), and departure on spring migration took place in April. The home ranges used by wintering Peregrines were varied including coastal habitats, agricultural landscapes, savannah, desert and an urban city. Departure from breeding areas took place in September with birds returning in May. Peregrines exhibited a high degree of fidelity to their winter ranges, with four birds tracked over three successive migrations until the 2012 breeding season.

Parole chiave

  • migration pathway
  • birds of prey
  • range fidelity
Accesso libero

Extreme territorial aggression by urban Peregrine Falcons toward Common Buzzards in South-West England

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 232 - 242

Astratto

Abstract

Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding on a city centre church in Exeter, in the south-west of England, have been studied in detail since first occupation in 1997. During this period, changes in both male and female falcons have been recorded. Following the arrival of a new female Peregrine in 2009, a dramatic change in behaviour towards Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) on passage over the city was noted. Buzzards flying over Exeter are attacked by the falcons, especially so when in proximity to the church. We have attempted to document these attacks through our own observations, with additional information from local residents and wildlife organisations. Further records have come from veterinary surgeries and wildlife rehabilitators regarding injured buzzards found in the city. This paper documents the extreme levels of territorial aggression as demonstrated by the pair of Peregrines during cooperative attacks on Buzzards. We reveal this unique interspecific behaviour by summarising the number, frequency, timing and outcome of attacks undertaken over an eight-year period. We describe and illustrate the strategy employed by the Peregrines during a typical attack, plus consider implications on breeding productivity and the future scenarios should one of the current pair be replaced.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • urban nesting
  • territorial behaviour
  • Common Buzzard
  • co-operative attack strategy
Accesso libero

Influence of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Germany

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 243 - 253

Astratto

Abstract

In Germany, the Eagle Owl is the only animal species that has a massive impact on the distribution and breeding success of the Peregrine Falcon. Both species compete for the same breeding sites on rocks. In addition, the Peregrine Falcon belongs to the prey spectrum of the Eagle Owl. The Eagle Owl always dominates at places where the two species meet. Since the 1980s, the Eagle Owl has taken over many of the rock face breeding sites of the Peregrine Falcon in Germany. This trend towards the taking-over of Peregrine Falcon nesting sites is ongoing in areas with rocks, as not all regions of Germany have yet been completely colonized by Eagle Owls. Since 1975, the Eagle Owl initially nested on buildings in rural areas, but it is now also colonizing urban areas. Eagle Owls are more and more frequently taking over Peregrine Falcon nest boxes on buildings. The currently growing Peregrine Falcon breeding population on buildings is expected to decline in coming years due to predation by the Eagle Owl, even though these owls do not breed very successfully on buildings and many old and young owls are killed. These statements apply to large parts of Germany. In other areas of Europe, the future usage of buildings as Eagle Owl breeding sites can be expected to have an impact on the Peregrine Falcon populations there. At least eight other Peregrine Falcon breeding sites on buildings and rocks have been taken over by Egyptian Geese (Alopochen aegyptiaca).

Parole chiave

  • breeding on buildings
  • Eagle Owl
  • Egyptian Goose
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • predation
Accesso libero

Restoration of the tree-nesting Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in the Volga-Ural Region

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 254 - 258

Astratto

Abstract

We have applied the method of a forming tree-nesting behavior pattern in the chicks of the cliff-nesting Peregrine Falcon. In June 2016 and 2017, in the Southern Ural Mountains and Bugulma-Belebey Upland, we discovered four nests of Peregrine Falcons, which were threatened by destruction due to various anthropogenic and biological factors. For preventing the death of the broods, the chicks were transferred from the occupied nesting niches in the rock cliffs to nesting platforms. On nesting platforms they spent from 3 to 12 days where they were fed by adults regularly. All four broods (9 young) flew out successfully and demonstrated typical behavior for the Peregrines of their age. Adults fed fledglings and taught them to hunt.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine recolonization
  • Volga-Ural Region
  • nesting types
  • imprinting on tree-nesting
Accesso libero

Nesting habitat selection of Peregrine Falcons (Falco p. peregrinus) in Eastern Germany – the state of knowledge

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 259 - 273

Astratto

Abstract

After the disappearance of the Peregrine Falcon during the DDT era, the re-colonization of Eastern Germany from 1981 was accompanied by colour-ringing of a high percentage of juveniles and systematic identification of these individuals on their later nest-sites. Before that period there were two geographically distinct subpopulations: tree-breeders in the north, and cliff-breeders in the south. We were able to restore the tree breeders’ tradition by imprinting nestlings at stick nests in forests. Today, besides cliff- and tree-breeders there are also nest-sites on buildings and lattice structures. The population is increasing including all nest-site types. Here, we analyse nesting habitat choice with respect to the natal habitat of birds. The exchange between the four nest-site types is limited. Habitat fidelity was high in birds fledged on cliffs (95%) and on buildings (81%). The sample size for lattice structures is still too low for deeper analyses. The fixation towards trees was stable only in 56% of birds, and higher for males than for females. The influx from other habitat types is very limited and hardly supports the tree breeders’ subpopulation. A growing number of tree-breeders go along with higher habitat fidelity which is stabilizing their sub-population.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • habitat selection
  • eastern Germany
  • tree-breeders’ project
24 Articoli
Accesso libero

Review of the development of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Hungary between 1997 and 2018

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 2 - 11

Astratto

Abstract

Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations recovered globally after a dramatic decline experienced between the 1950s and 1980s. The conservation challenge forced the raptor biologist community to co-operate internationally. As a part of the co-operation, four conferences were organised to identify the problem, coordinate conservation efforts including research and to monitor the recovery process of the species’ populations worldwide. The line of conferences started in Madison (WI, USA) in 1965 and was followed by two conferences in Sacramento (CA, USA) and Piotrowo/Poznań (Poland) in 1985 and in 2007, respectively. The latest conference was organised in 2017, in Budapest, where Peregrine experts discussed the latest research and monitoring results. The event provides a good occasion to review the development of the Peregrine population in Hungary. The species became extinct in Hungary as a breeding species in the mid-1960s due to the intensive use of pesticides (DDT) and it returned only in 1997, when the first successful breeding was recorded. In 2018, 72 active eyries were recorded. The Hungarian population is the edge of the Carpathian Peregrine population and the birds represent mostly the nominate subspecies (F. p. peregrinus), but individuals showing typical phenotype of the Mediterranean subspecies (F. p. brookei) were also observed. The northern race of F. p. calidus also occurs on migration and in winter. The Hungarian population is sedentary. Natal dispersal of females is biased to males, but in case of both sexes most ring recoveries of adult birds occurred within the Pannonian basin. The increasing Peregrine population expanding to the lowland may cause conservation conflict on medium term by competing with the endangered Saker Falcon (Falco cherrug) for the nest sites. The conservation status of the Peregrine Falcon in Hungary is good in general, but threats may emerge on local scale in some regions. No specific conservation measures are taken, research and monitoring focus on population changes and threats posed on and caused by Peregrines.

Parole chiave

  • population recovery
  • subspecies
  • diet
  • movements
Accesso libero

Genetic variability in Peregrine Falcon populations of the Western Palaearctic region

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 12 - 26

Astratto

Abstract

We analysed variation in ten polymorphic microsatellite loci and a portion of cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial DNA in 65 samples from four populations of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus peregrinus and F. p. brookei) breeding in Northern and Southern Italy, Northern Spain and the Czech Republic to assess genetic diversity in the poorly investigated Western Palearctic region. We added to our cytochrome b sequences a dataset of previously published mtDNA sequences of other populations and subspecies to outline genetic variation in the region on a worldwide basis. Regarding mtDNA we identified 12 haplotypes from our 65 Peregrine Falcon samples, nine of which were new and three already known. The 52% of our samples, including all Italian and Czech specimens, belonged to the previously identified HI haplotype, another 22% of the samples, most of which were from Sicily, showed the new H1 haplotype, while the remaining 26% of the sample partitioned among the other 10 haplotypes. Allelic patterns and genetic structuring of microsatellites were similar to those of other European populations. Genetic differentiation in both mtDNA and microsatellites loci is almost absent and it is not possible to distinguish geographical groups according to taxonomic designation at the subspecies level.

Parole chiave

  • Genetic structuring
  • microsatellites
  • mitochondrial DNA
  • Peregrine Falcon
Accesso libero

Phylogeny of Falconidae and phylogeography of Peregrine Falcons

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 27 - 37

Astratto

Abstract

We first examine how falcons can be integrated into avian tree of life. Then we go one step further and investigate the position of Peregrine Falcons in a comprehensive phylogeny of the falcons (genus Falco), which was reconstructed on the basis of DNA sequences. Whether the 19 subspecies of the Peregrine Falcon can be identified genetically is examined in the next step. Recently, the question of Peregrine Falcon’s genetics in Central Europe has become of wider interest. Which subspecies was present before the collapse of populations and which currently after various reintroduction projects? Evidence is provided, that Central Europe constitutes a (natural) hybrid zone between F. p. brookei from the Mediterranean and F. p. peregrinus of northern Europe.

Parole chiave

  • molecular phylogeny
  • Falconiformes
  • Peregrine subspecies
Accesso libero

Extreme weather affects Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus tundrius) breeding success in South Greenland

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 38 - 50

Astratto

Abstract

In order to better understand the potential effects of climate change on the Peregrine Falcon, we investigated the relationship between extreme weather events and Peregrines’ breeding success in South Greenland. We defined three variables – number of days with extremely low temperatures, extreme precipitation, consecutive rainy days – and an additive variable, total days with extreme weather, and tested their relationship with Peregrines’ breeding success (measured as young per site and nest success) over a 33 year study period. Breeding success was negatively influenced by the number of days with extreme weather and extremely low temperature. The strongest relationship found was total days with extreme weather in the entire breeding season, which explained 22% and 27% of the variation in nest success and young per site, respectively. The number of days with extreme weather in our study related to fluctuations in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Thus, with a strengthening of the NAO, linked to climate change, more extreme weather may occur in the Arctic and induce increased variation in Peregrines’ breeding success. Our data did not allow us to pinpoint when in the breeding cycle inclement weather was particularly harmful, and we recommend finer-scale research (e.g. automated nest cameras) to better monitor the species-specific effects of rapidly changing climate.

Parole chiave

  • Arctic
  • climate change
  • productivity
Accesso libero

Population trends of Peregrine Falcon in Northern Spain – Results of a long-term monitoring project

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 51 - 68

Astratto

Abstract

We monitored Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Bizkaia, Northern Spain, during two decades (1998–2017). Our population increased from 34 to 47 territorial pairs, as did other European populations until the first years of the 21st century, and then declined until 34 territorial pairs in 2017. The combination of catastrophic events (Prestige oil spill), increasing rain in winter and spring, and direct and indirect mortality factors significantly affected incubation onset, productivity and population stability, which in turn could impact on the floater population. Rain in February significantly affected incubation onset, which showed a slight positive trend during the last decade. Juvenile females laid 12 days later than adults, and each adult female started incubation in the same dates every year. However, the proportion of juvenile females did not significantly increase as might have been expected. Moreover, productivity was inversely related to incubation onset dates. Rain in April and May also affected productivity, and combined with short term extreme weather events determined a decreasing productivity during the last decade. Moreover, apart from human persecution (which caused 40.30% of the known deaths of Peregrines), we found 18 cases of breeders affected by infectious diseases, also related to weather. The combined effects of these factors, and the low availability of adequate nesting sites, negatively affected (i) territorial populations, (ii) productivity, and (iii) floater population, which in turn also determined territorial population and productivity.

Parole chiave

  • productivity
  • population decline
  • floater population
  • incubation onset
  • repeatability
  • weather
Accesso libero

The Peregrine population study in the French Jura mountains 1964–2016: use of occupancy modeling to estimate population size and analyze site persistence and colonization rates

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 69 - 90

Astratto

Abstract

We summarize key results of the first 53 years of one of the longest-running avian population studies in the world, on the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus), in the French Jura mountains (12,714 km2), launched in 1964. A total of 449 cliff sites in 338 potential Peregrine territories were surveyed: 287 (85%) of these territories were occupied by an adult pair at least once, while in 51 (15%) we never detected an adult pair. Most sites were visited several times during a breeding season to survey occupancy and later fecundity, but the proportion of sites visited was highly variable over the years. We highlight the power of the Bayesian implementation of site-occupancy models (MacKenzie et al. 2002, 2003) to analyze data from raptor population studies: to correct population size estimates for sites not visited in a given year and for the biasing effects of preferential sampling (when better sites are more likely to be checked). In addition, these models allow estimation and modeling of the site-level persistence and colonization rates, which can provide important clues about drivers of population dynamics, even without individually marking any birds. Changes in the dynamics rates may serve as early-warning signals for subsequent population declines.

Since 1964, the observed number of adult pairs varied between 17 in 1972 and 196 in 2008, but the proportion of sites visited increased from 43% in 1964 to 80–90% after 2002. Hence, this raw population total must be an underestimate. We found strong evidence for preferential sampling in our study. Correcting for this, we estimated 56 pairs in 1964, after which the population dropped to a minimum of 18 in 1972, but then recovered rapidly, leveling off somewhat around 1995 and reaching a maximum of 200–210 adult pairs during 2000–2012. This was then followed by a decline to 170–190 pairs. In any one year, the raw counts underestimated the true population size by 5–39% (mean 11%), due to sites not being visited (this correction ignores imperfect detection though). Site persistence rates declined from 78% to less than 60% during 1967–1972, and then increased rapidly to over 90% during 1980–1990, suggesting that once pesticide effects vanished, individual survival probability increased rapidly and as a consequence also site persistence. Since the 1990s, persistence has declined slowly, which may indicate decreasing adult survival. In contrast, colonization rates increased steadily from about 3% in the early years to maxima of 46–49% during 1994–2001, but declined thereafter and currently reach about 33%. Taller cliffs had greater persistence and colonization rates than medium or small cliffs.

Both the decline in colonization and in persistence rates during the last 15 years may reflect density-dependence, predation by the expanding European Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) population, human persecution or any as yet unknown factors. Importantly, we note that both persistence and colonization rates began to decline many years before the recent population decline became apparent. Thus, analysis of population studies using dynamic occupancy models can provide early-warning signals for future population declines. Our study demonstrates the benefits of modern analytical methods that can correct for several key deficiencies in probably all raptor population studies: incomplete coverage of sites and imperfect detection (though we only dealt with the former here). Occupancy models, possibly accounting for preferential sampling, appear to represent the logical analytical framework for abundance in raptor population studies.

Parole chiave

  • Bayesian
  • BUGS
  • Dynamic occupancy model
  • colonization
  • detection probability
  • extinction
  • JAGS
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • persistence
  • territory
Accesso libero

Population trends of the Peregrine Falcon in Switzerland with special reference to the period 2005–2016

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 91 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

We study population trends of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Switzerland with special reference to the development since 2005 and three study areas, South West Switzerland (4,993 km2, 1960–2015), the Northern Jura mountains (3,270 km2, 2005–2015) and the Canton of Zurich (1,748 km2, 2002–2015). We used dynamic occupancy models, which allow the territory-specific extinction and colonization parameters – the demographic rates (at the territory level) underlying a population trend – to be estimated. The Swiss peregrine population has developed in line with trends observed in many other countries and regions in North America and Europe: after the pesticide-induced collapse between the 1950s and 1970s, the population largely recovered up to the turn of the millennium. However, in recent years, we detected significant declines again: in SW Switzerland, the population decreased from 51 to 33 pairs during 2008–2015 (-35%), in the N Jura from 70 to 40 pairs during 2009–2015 (-43%) and in Zurich from 6–7 to 2–4 pairs during 2010–2015 (-50%). In the same time, the local extinction rate in the three study areas (more than) doubled from (0.05) 0.1 to 0.2, while the colonization rate dropped from 0.3 to 0.1 in one of the areas, while no change was detectable in the other two. We discuss two factors responsible for these strong, recent declines of Swiss peregrines: (1) predation by Eagle Owls (Bubo bubo) and (2) direct and illegal persecution by humans. In addition to these two factors, growing human disturbance (e.g. through climbers, bird photographers, paragliders, hikers, geocachers, etc.) and fatalities due to collisions with man-made structures (power lines, glass, wind turbines, etc.) are also suspected to contribute to the population decline.

Parole chiave

  • dynamic occupancy model
  • Jura mountains
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • persecution
  • predation
  • raptor
Accesso libero

Long-term monitoring of a successful recovery program of Peregrine Falcons in Virginia

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 104 - 113

Astratto

Abstract

The Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus anatum) was believed to be extirpated as a breeding species in Virginia by the early 1960s. An aggressive restoration program was initiated in 1978 that involved the release of captive-reared birds totaling 115 on the Coastal Plain (19781985) and 127 in the Mountain physiographic region (1985–1993). The first occupied territory was established and the first breeding attempt was documented in 1979 and 1982, respectively. We have monitored the size, distribution, reproductive rate, and substrate use of the resulting breeding population (19792016). The population proceeded through an establishment phase (1979–1993) driven by releases with an average doubling time of 3.8 yrs to a consolidation phase (1994–2016) with an average doubling time of 23.1 yrs. The state supported 31 breeding pairs by 2016. Per capita reproductive rates have increased significantly over the study period from 0.89 (19791993) to 1.86 (1994–2016). Average nesting success increased from 67.1% to 82.7% over the same period. Nesting attempts (n = 469) have been documented on dedicated peregrine towers (52.1%), bridges (26.1%), buildings (4.1%), and various man-made structures (13.0%) with only 4.7% documented on natural cliffs. The population appears to be self-sustaining with reproductive rates exceeding 1.5 young/pair every year since 1999. An ongoing management concern is that only 8.9% of known territories (n = 45) identified since introductions and 4.7% of documented breeding attempts (n = 469) have occurred within the historic mountain breeding range.

Parole chiave

  • restoration program
  • breeding population
  • reproductive rate
Accesso libero

Breeding population of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Lazio, Central Italy: 1983–2017

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 114 - 120

Astratto

Abstract

In 1983–1984 the nesting population of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in Lazio was estimated to 25–30 pairs located mainly in the limestone massifs of the Southern Anti-Apennines and the Ponziane Islands. The monitoring carried out in the following years showed a steady increase in population size and range. In 2014–2017, the breeding population was 166–193 pairs distributed over most of the regional territory. In four regional macro-geographic areas characterized by different morphologies, lithological and landscape typologies, the density was calculated by NND method, which varied from a minimum of 0.90 to a maximum of 1.77 pairs/100 km2; average distance between sites from 3848.18 m to 6526.87 m. The urban population of Rome increased from the first nest found in 2001 to 15 currently breeding pairs; the first artificial nest was discovered in 2001 on the building, currently 14 are known. At present in Lazio 16 nests are located in quarries. In the years 2008, 2014, 2015 and 2016, the fledging rate registered was 2.26 (SD = 0.94; bp = 153).

Parole chiave

  • monitoring
  • estimate size
  • habitat selection
  • density
  • fledging rate
Accesso libero

Population trends and diversification of breeding habitats of Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Czech Republic since 1990

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 121 - 129

Astratto

Abstract

The population of the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) in the Czech Republic recovered from a nearly total extinction during the 1960s and 1980s (0­3 breeding pairs) and the first successful breeding after this interval was confirmed in 1995. The increase of the population size accelerated after 2000 and it is still growing despite the limited amount of suitable natural breeding opportunities. There were 89 known pairs in 2016, 70 of them were proven to breed with altogether at least 121 reared young. Several breeding attempts on historical buildings in city­centres were recorded up to 2002 (in Prague and Pilsen), but this breeding habitat was abandoned later. More and more pairs are nowadays breeding on industrial buildings. The first breeding on a power plant chimney, 300m above the ground was discovered in 2010. Moreover, 16 breeding pairs were found on industrial buildings in 2016 (mainly tall chimneys or cooling towers and power­plant buildings), all of them breeding in nest boxes. The colonization of industrial buildings started in western part of the Czech Republic and continues eastwards every year. Currently, the easternmost colonized building is in Mladá Boleslav. We have no recent tree­breeding pairs and all eight published historical cases are at least doubtful. Most of the observed Peregrines ringed abroad came from Germany, indicating a strong influence of German population on restoration of the population in the Czech Republic. Within these recoveries, some of Peregrines were released in the tree­breeding population restoration project in Germany and Poland, but all these birds bred on rocks.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • Czech Republic
  • population
  • nest boxes
  • natural breeding sites
Accesso libero

Results of eighteen years (2000–2017) monitoring study of an extra-alpine Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus population in North-Western Italy

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 130 - 133

Astratto

Abstract

The Author reports the results of a survey about a breeding extra-alpine Peregrine Falcon population in Cuneo Province, NW Italy. The first reproduction was recorded in 2000, and from that year, the monitoring work localized 16 occupied territories in an area of 1,900 km2 covering the hills and nearby lowland areas. The average distance between breeding territories was of 7.6 km with a density 0.7 pairs/100 km2. During the eighteen years, 89 successful breeding attempts were recorded, 81 of them led to fledging of 206 young. Average breeding success was 2.5 juv/reproducing pairs. The nests are located on bridges (motorway viaducts and rail way bridges) and clay/sandstone cliffs. Preliminary prey analyses showed that pigeons and doves represent the 75% of their diet.

Parole chiave

  • Cuneo survey
  • density
  • reproduction
  • nest site
  • food
Accesso libero

Mackenzie River Peregrine Falcon Surveys 1966–2018

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 134 - 142

Astratto

Abstract

The author with assistants monitored the breeding distribution of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) along the length of the Mackenzie River, Northwest Territories, Canada from 1966 to 2018. This river traverses a thousand miles (1600 km) of the western Canadian Arctic from Great Slave Lake to the Beaufort Sea and roughly parallels the eastern slope of the Mackenzie Mountain cordillera between latitudes 61 degrees N and 68 degrees N.

All potential nest sites have been checked on each survey and counts of nest sites occupied (at least one bird seen) decreased from the count of 12 sites in 1966 to the lowest count of 7 in 1972. In 1990 the count was 37 and up to 2018 the highest count was 75 in 2010.

A count of nest sites successfully producing young was variable with a low of 5 in 1972 to a high of 58 in 2011. Production of young averaged 2.43/successful site from 1990 until 2018 (excluding 2012). Production of young averaged 1.4/occupied site over this period. Recent increases in availability of passerine prey because of widespread fires in the last decades are felt to be the latest phenomena affecting these birds (pers.obs.) Prey utilized by Peregrines was studied over a period of four years and passerines composed 20% of their diet. Two species Lesser Scaup (Athya affinis) and Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa flavipes) formed 25% of their diet.

Parole chiave

  • Mackenzie River
  • Peregrine
  • 50 year surveys
  • population
  • pesticides
  • PIT monitoring
  • maggots
  • prey
Accesso libero

Monitoring of Peregrine Falcons in the Ariège Pyrenees and Toulouse, Midi-Pyrénées region, France

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 143 - 158

Astratto

Abstract

Since the 1980s, the volunteers of the ornithological group of the Nature Midi-Pyrénées association have been monitoring the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in the Ariège Pyrenees and in the Toulouse agglomeration. The data collected over the last 30 years show stability of the Ariège population: little variation has been observed in brood size, occupation rate of the sites or reproductive success. Only the increasing number of known nesting sites is significant, due to better knowledge of the territory by observers over time. In 2017, the breeding population was estimated to be 24 pairs. Urban monitoring proved the presence of individuals in passage, wintering or resident in Toulouse. Since 2002, downtown Toulouse has been visited by several individuals of both sexes and interactions between males and females have been observed since 2005. Despite the multiplicity of possible eyries or nesting sites in Toulouse, and the massive presence of Peregrine Falcons and dedicated bird watchers, no case of breeding has been reported. In addition to monitoring, measures to protect and support the presence of the species have been put in place. In the Pyrenees, in the light of the growth of human activities near nesting sites, some sites are now subject to official protective measures, coupled with constant vigilance and awareness. In Toulouse, to encourage the breeding of the individuals present, two nesting boxes were installed in 2016, on two buildings frequented by a female and a male. In 2017, a first attempt to reproduce in one of these installations confirmed the value of such developments in urban areas.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • monitoring
  • nesting
  • rupestrian
  • urban
  • nest box
  • Ariège
  • Pyrenees
  • Toulouse
Accesso libero

The Danish Peregrine Falcon population: Reestablishment and eggshell thinning

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 159 - 163

Astratto

Abstract

Denmark being a country with only a few suitable steep nesting cliffs has only harboured a small population of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in historic time. In the previous century, the population gradually declined due to persecution, egg and young collection, and pollution. The last breeding attempt in the 20th century occurred in 1972 in southeastern Denmark. No new breeding attempts were recorded in Denmark until 2001 but since then the population has gradually increased – most rapidly since 2012 – to a peak of 24 territorial pairs in 2018; some of them breeding on man-made structures (nest boxes at bridges and power plants). Here we update the information on the reestablishment of the Peregrine Falcon in Den-mark, including origin and dispersal, reproduction, and eggshell thinning.

Parole chiave

  • Denmark
  • recovery
  • productivity
  • dispersal
  • monitoring
  • eggshell thinning
Accesso libero

A summary of intentional poisoning of Peregrine Falcons in Switzerland during the last decade

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 164 - 170

Astratto

Abstract

In May 2011, a webcam in Zurich, Switzerland, registered the sudden death of a Peregrine Falcon. Analyses revealed that poison had been applied to the nape feathers of the pigeon captured by the bird. This case really raised the awareness of Peregrine Falcon poisoning by pigeon fanciers in Switzerland. BirdLife Switzerland, with the help of numerous partners, started researches on the subject that pigeon fanciers began a “war” against Peregrine Falcons and other raptors. Between 2006 and 2017, BirdLife Switzerland listed 7 cases of proven intentional poisonings of birds of prey where analyses confirmed the use of poison; and 19 suspected cases with the presence of dead pigeons and birds of prey simultaneously or other suspicious deaths in Switzerland. Three decoy pigeons with poison on the neck could be secured before they were captured by the target species. Two pigeon fanciers who used poisoned pigeons were convicted in 2016 and 2017. Although the numbers of proven and suspected cases are still low, we believe that the phenomenon may be much more widespread. We think that the poisoning may have a negative effect on the population of the Peregrine Falcon in Switzerland.

Parole chiave

  • intentional killing
  • persecution
  • poaching
  • pigeon fanciers
Accesso libero

Raptors are still affected by environmental pollutants: Greenlandic Peregrines will not have normal eggshell thickness until 2034

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 171 - 176

Astratto

Abstract

The DDT-induced effects, eggshell thinning and breeding failure in Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) populations were reverted with restrictions on the use of the compound from the 1970s, and in most studied populations, the eggshell thickness is back to normal. In Greenland, a previous study of eggshell thinning in Peregrines found that shells had not yet reached pre-DDT levels. In this study, we extend the time series and reinterpret shell thinning data for 196 clutches covering a 45-year time span (1972–2017). There was a significant (P<0.001) increase in the eggshell thickness of 0.23% per year. This corresponds to a change in eggshell thinning from 14.5% to 5.4% in 2017 compared to the pre-DDT mean. With the current rate of change, pre-DDT shell thickness is predicted to be reached around the year 2034. However, a few clutches are still below the critical limit. The relatively slower recovery of the shell thickness in the Greenland population is likely indicative of the slower phasing out of DDT in the Greenlandic Peregrines’ wintering grounds in Latin America. The shell thinning in the Greenlandic population probably never crossed the 17% threshold associated with population declines, contrary to the populations in many other parts of the world.

Parole chiave

  • Arctic
  • Greenland
  • DDT
  • pollutants
  • egg
  • shell thinning
  • monitoring
Accesso libero

A 20-year study investigating the diet of Peregrines, Falco peregrinus, at an urban site in south-west England (1997–2017)

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 177 - 187

Astratto

Abstract

Until relatively recently Peregrines have been regarded as a rural bird. As their populations have increased over the past 20 years, Peregrines have increasingly become urban birds. One of the earliest locations to be occupied by Peregrines in the UK was on a church in Exeter, in the county of Devon. Over the past 20 years we have studied their diet, collecting prey remains on a regular basis. The results reveal that Feral Pigeons Columba livia comprise one third of the diet by frequency and just over half of the diet when measured by mass. The remainder of the diet comprises a wealth of other species including wading birds, other doves and pigeons, ducks, gulls and terns, and rails. A selection of species eaten by the Peregrines reveal that they are hunting at night, taking certain wading birds, rails and grebes, that would be difficult to catch by day and are known to migrate at night. This study is the most comprehensive to date and reveals that while the Feral Pigeon is an important part of the diet, contrary to public opinion, it is by no means the only species that Peregrines eat. In fact, the remaining half of the diet, by mass, comprised 101 other species of bird and three species of mammal. Such dietary studies help dispel myths about peregrines feeding habits and ensure that their conservation and protection is based on evidence.

Parole chiave

  • prey
  • food
  • nocturnal
  • hunting
  • church
Accesso libero

Diet of Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) in relation to temporal and spatial variation in racing pigeon availability in Wales

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 188 - 200

Astratto

Abstract

The relative frequency of Common Pigeons Columba livia in the diet of Peregrine Falcons differed across three areas of south-central Wales in line with racing pigeon availability. Peregrines exhibited a functional response to spatial and temporal availability of racing pigeons. During the pigeon-racing season (April–September), pigeons comprised 63% of kills in South Wales where pigeons were most available, 43% in the Brecon Beacons with intermediate availability and 30% in Central Wales, where availability was lowest. The corresponding values outside the pigeon-racing season were 18%, 6% and 5% respectively. We estimate that 92% of pigeons killed by Peregrines were racing pigeons, 7% were feral pigeons and the remainder were other domestic pigeon varieties.

Parole chiave

  • predator-prey
  • functional response
  • human-wildlife conflict
Accesso libero

Onset of natal dispersal in Peregrine Falcon from Mediterranean islands (Italy)

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 201 - 221

Astratto

Abstract

Basic information on natal dispersal of Peregrine Falcons is virtually lacking in Europe, despite increased attention on this species, and the sensitivity of this stage in the Peregrines’ life history. In this study, we collected satellite telemetry data during the onset of natal dispersal of 19 Peregrine Falcons tagged in Sicily and the Aeolian archipelago (Italy). We divided the onset of dispersal into the following 3 periods: post-fledging dependence period (PFDP), wandering, and wintering. PFDP lasted on average 47±16 days, during which young peregrines moved very little (0.167 km), and explored small areas (0.226 km2) far from the nest cliff, and showed no sex differences. The wandering phase was highly individualistic, with median net displacements of 23.97 km. Both PFDP and wandering bearings were oriented towards NNE-ESE. Only five individuals went sporadically outside the island borders. During their first winter, Peregrines had a mean home range of 135.65±82.31 km2 spatially scattered across Sicily and mainly composed of open habitats, like cereal steppes, arboreal crops and agri-mosaics. Individuals had a dissimilar assortment in habitat composition, however the urban habitat was the most selected and the woodland the least. At night, during both wandering and wintering phases Peregrines used rocks, cliffs and electricity pylons in frequencies not statistically different between sex, phase and type of roost. Only two individuals had significant use of pylons and one of rocks. The multifaceted framework of Peregrine Falcon’s natal dispersal was described here for the first time in a Mediterranean population.

Parole chiave

  • natal dispersal
  • Mediterranean islands
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • satellite telemetry
  • Sicily
Accesso libero

Migratory movements of Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus, breeding on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 222 - 231

Astratto

Abstract

We describe the migration pathways of 12 Peregrine Falcons Falco peregrinus calidus breeding on the Yamal Peninsula, Russia. Overall, we tracked 30 complete (17 autumn and 13 spring) and 5 incomplete seasonal migration routes. Winter ranges extended from the Atlantic coast of southern Portugal in the west to Kish Island in the Arabian Gulf in the east, and from Krasnodar in southern Russia in the north to South Sudan. Eight birds were tracked to their wintering sites, with migration pathways ranging from 3,557 km to 8,114 km, taking 14 to 61 days to complete. Birds spent an average of 190 days in their winter ranges (range 136 to 212 days, N = 14), and departure on spring migration took place in April. The home ranges used by wintering Peregrines were varied including coastal habitats, agricultural landscapes, savannah, desert and an urban city. Departure from breeding areas took place in September with birds returning in May. Peregrines exhibited a high degree of fidelity to their winter ranges, with four birds tracked over three successive migrations until the 2012 breeding season.

Parole chiave

  • migration pathway
  • birds of prey
  • range fidelity
Accesso libero

Extreme territorial aggression by urban Peregrine Falcons toward Common Buzzards in South-West England

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 232 - 242

Astratto

Abstract

Peregrine Falcons (Falco peregrinus) breeding on a city centre church in Exeter, in the south-west of England, have been studied in detail since first occupation in 1997. During this period, changes in both male and female falcons have been recorded. Following the arrival of a new female Peregrine in 2009, a dramatic change in behaviour towards Common Buzzards (Buteo buteo) on passage over the city was noted. Buzzards flying over Exeter are attacked by the falcons, especially so when in proximity to the church. We have attempted to document these attacks through our own observations, with additional information from local residents and wildlife organisations. Further records have come from veterinary surgeries and wildlife rehabilitators regarding injured buzzards found in the city. This paper documents the extreme levels of territorial aggression as demonstrated by the pair of Peregrines during cooperative attacks on Buzzards. We reveal this unique interspecific behaviour by summarising the number, frequency, timing and outcome of attacks undertaken over an eight-year period. We describe and illustrate the strategy employed by the Peregrines during a typical attack, plus consider implications on breeding productivity and the future scenarios should one of the current pair be replaced.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • urban nesting
  • territorial behaviour
  • Common Buzzard
  • co-operative attack strategy
Accesso libero

Influence of the Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo) on the Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in Germany

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 243 - 253

Astratto

Abstract

In Germany, the Eagle Owl is the only animal species that has a massive impact on the distribution and breeding success of the Peregrine Falcon. Both species compete for the same breeding sites on rocks. In addition, the Peregrine Falcon belongs to the prey spectrum of the Eagle Owl. The Eagle Owl always dominates at places where the two species meet. Since the 1980s, the Eagle Owl has taken over many of the rock face breeding sites of the Peregrine Falcon in Germany. This trend towards the taking-over of Peregrine Falcon nesting sites is ongoing in areas with rocks, as not all regions of Germany have yet been completely colonized by Eagle Owls. Since 1975, the Eagle Owl initially nested on buildings in rural areas, but it is now also colonizing urban areas. Eagle Owls are more and more frequently taking over Peregrine Falcon nest boxes on buildings. The currently growing Peregrine Falcon breeding population on buildings is expected to decline in coming years due to predation by the Eagle Owl, even though these owls do not breed very successfully on buildings and many old and young owls are killed. These statements apply to large parts of Germany. In other areas of Europe, the future usage of buildings as Eagle Owl breeding sites can be expected to have an impact on the Peregrine Falcon populations there. At least eight other Peregrine Falcon breeding sites on buildings and rocks have been taken over by Egyptian Geese (Alopochen aegyptiaca).

Parole chiave

  • breeding on buildings
  • Eagle Owl
  • Egyptian Goose
  • Peregrine Falcon
  • predation
Accesso libero

Restoration of the tree-nesting Peregrine Falcon (Falco peregrinus) population in the Volga-Ural Region

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 254 - 258

Astratto

Abstract

We have applied the method of a forming tree-nesting behavior pattern in the chicks of the cliff-nesting Peregrine Falcon. In June 2016 and 2017, in the Southern Ural Mountains and Bugulma-Belebey Upland, we discovered four nests of Peregrine Falcons, which were threatened by destruction due to various anthropogenic and biological factors. For preventing the death of the broods, the chicks were transferred from the occupied nesting niches in the rock cliffs to nesting platforms. On nesting platforms they spent from 3 to 12 days where they were fed by adults regularly. All four broods (9 young) flew out successfully and demonstrated typical behavior for the Peregrines of their age. Adults fed fledglings and taught them to hunt.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine recolonization
  • Volga-Ural Region
  • nesting types
  • imprinting on tree-nesting
Accesso libero

Nesting habitat selection of Peregrine Falcons (Falco p. peregrinus) in Eastern Germany – the state of knowledge

Pubblicato online: 14 Feb 2019
Pagine: 259 - 273

Astratto

Abstract

After the disappearance of the Peregrine Falcon during the DDT era, the re-colonization of Eastern Germany from 1981 was accompanied by colour-ringing of a high percentage of juveniles and systematic identification of these individuals on their later nest-sites. Before that period there were two geographically distinct subpopulations: tree-breeders in the north, and cliff-breeders in the south. We were able to restore the tree breeders’ tradition by imprinting nestlings at stick nests in forests. Today, besides cliff- and tree-breeders there are also nest-sites on buildings and lattice structures. The population is increasing including all nest-site types. Here, we analyse nesting habitat choice with respect to the natal habitat of birds. The exchange between the four nest-site types is limited. Habitat fidelity was high in birds fledged on cliffs (95%) and on buildings (81%). The sample size for lattice structures is still too low for deeper analyses. The fixation towards trees was stable only in 56% of birds, and higher for males than for females. The influx from other habitat types is very limited and hardly supports the tree breeders’ subpopulation. A growing number of tree-breeders go along with higher habitat fidelity which is stabilizing their sub-population.

Parole chiave

  • Peregrine Falcon
  • habitat selection
  • eastern Germany
  • tree-breeders’ project

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