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Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1508-5791
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Mar 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 60 (2015): Edizione 1 (March 2015)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1508-5791
Pubblicato per la prima volta
25 Mar 2014
Periodo di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

33 Articoli
Open Access

Mössbauer study of treated Nd2Fe14B

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 7 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The Nd2Fe14B cylindrical magnets were treated with water solutions of alkali, acid, and salt. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of the surface material of the treated magnets. It is shown that the main phase of the permanent Nd2Fe14B magnet partly decomposes. The released α-Nd at the grain boundaries interacts with water and forms neodymium hydroxide matrix, and the released Fe diffuses into it. The presence of Fe-Nd(OH)3 is reflected in the paramagnet doublet in the Mössbauer spectra of treated neodymium magnets.

Parole chiave

  • intermetallics
  • intergranular corrosion
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

The study of crystal and magnetic properties of MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 11 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Magnetic and Mössbauer measurements were performed for MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge. The Mössbauer data indicate that Fe atoms in MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge are randomly distributed over two types of metal sites in hexagonal structure. At 77 K, the hyperfine magnetic fields at Fe located in different crystal sites have similar values of about 12.7 and 12.3 T. The random site distribution of the iron atoms in the non-magnetic hexagonal phase at high temperatures is confirmed by the theoretical calculations in fully relativistic Korringa –Kohn –Rostoker (KKR) method.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer effect
  • magnetic interaction
  • hexagonal structure
Open Access

The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained at various cooling rates

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 15 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of microstructure and magnetic properties studies of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained by melt-spinning technique. The samples were produced using the rapid cooling of liquid alloy on the copper wheel, by applying three different linear velocities 20, 30, and 35 m/s. The microstructure of obtained ribbons was examined using X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements were performed using LakeShore vibrating sample magnetometer. The microstructure measurements were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of phase composition. Basing on results of structure studies combined with magnetic measurements, the influence of phase composition on hysteresis loop behavior was described.

Parole chiave

  • microstructure analysis
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • permanent magnets
  • reversal magnetization
Open Access

Mobility of interacting inorganic nanoparticles

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 19 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

The mobility of the 110 nm-Fe2O3 particles in a viscous sucrose solution depends on the concentration of the nanoparticles. When the average particle–particle nearest neighbor distance <r> is less than 250 nm, the particle interaction slows down their mobility. When <r> is more than 170 nm, the small mobility of nanoparticles does not depend on their concentration. The critical distance is approximately equal to 2Rh = 260 nm, where Rh is the hydrodynamic radius, determined by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method.

Parole chiave

  • dynamic light scattering
  • hematite nanoparticles
  • mobility
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • viscosity
Open Access

Effect of heat treatment on the shape of the hyperfine field induction distributions and magnetic properties of amorphous soft magnetic Fe62Co10Y8B20 alloy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 23 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Thermal treatment, undertaken at just below the crystallization temperature, has led to nanocrystallization and has had a significant impact on the shape of the hyperfine field induction distributions of Fe62Co10Y8B20 alloy and on its soft magnetic properties. In the amorphous ferromagnetic alloys, it is possible to indirectly determine the effect of the structure stresses, resulting from the presence of structural defects, on the soft magnetic properties of these materials. It has been found that a change in the parameters associated with the presence of structural defects affects the shape of the hyperfine field distributions of 57Fe.

Parole chiave

  • bulk amorphous
  • Kronmüller theory
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)
Open Access

Microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B-(Re, Ti) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 29 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

The microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocomposite hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B-(Re, Ti) materials with different Nd and Fe contents are studied. The role of Re and Ti addition in phase composition and volume fraction of the Nd-Fe-B phase is determined. All samples are annealed at the same temperature of 993 K for 10 min. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the addition of 4 at.% of Re to the Nd8Fe78B14 alloy leads to creation of an ineligible amount of the magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B phase. Moreover, the microstructure and magnetic characteristics recorded in a wide range of temperatures for the Nd8Fe79−xB13Mx (x = 4; M = Re or Ti) alloys are also analyzed.

Parole chiave

  • microstructure
  • magnetic properties
  • Nd-Fe-B alloys
Open Access

Temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter for Fe0.90Cr0.10 and Fe0.88Cr0.12 alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 35 - 38

Astratto

Abstract

The 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for the iron-based solid solutions Fe0.90Cr0.10 and Fe0.88Cr0.12 were measured at different temperatures ranging from 300 K to 900 K. Analysis of the obtained spectra shows that the distribution of impurity atoms in the two first coordination shells of 57Fe nuclei is not random and it cannot be described by the binomial distribution. Quantitatively, the effects were described in terms of the atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters and the pair-wise interaction energy with the help of a quasi-chemical type formulation introduced by Cohen and Fine. The obtained results reveal strong clustering-type correlations in the studied samples (a predominance of Fe-Fe and Cr-Cr bonds). Moreover, the changes in SRO values observed during thermal processing suggest that the distribution of Cr atoms in an α-iron matrix is strongly temperature dependent.

Parole chiave

  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nuclear materials
  • short-range order
Open Access

Mean hyperfine fields at 57Fe in dilute iron-based alloys studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 39 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The room temperature Mössbauer spectra of 57Fe were measured for numerous dilute iron-based alloys Fe1−xDx (D = Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zn), annealed at 1270 K for 2 h before the measurements. The spectra were analyzed using the Hesse–Rübartsch method in order to determine the mean hyperfine magnetic field <B> at the 57Fe nuclei as a function of concentration x of the minority component of the alloy. As the binary alloys are one-faze solid solutions of an element D in iron, a linear relationship between <B> and x is observed. The result supports the suggestion that Mössbauer spectroscopy is a useful tool for the study of dissolution of different elements in iron.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of a mechanosynthesized Fe75B25 alloy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 43 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

In this work, the process of formation of metastable phases was investigated for the Fe75B25 composition. Mechanical synthesis was performed in a MAPF-2M high-energy planetary ball mill under an argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) were applied to recognize the phases. After 6 h of milling, the material consisted of two phases, that is, metastable tetragonal t-Fe2B and amorphous phases. During further thermal processing, the metastable phase was transformed into the stable Fe2B phase.

Parole chiave

  • mechanosynthesis
  • metastable phase
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Crystal structure and Mössbauer study of FeAl2O4

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 47 - 49

Astratto

Abstract

In this work the synthesis of hercynite from Fe2O3 and Al2O3 powders was carried out by arc-melting method under the protective argon atmosphere. The obtained material was characterized with the use of powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). A Mössbauer effect in hercynite obtained by the arc-melting method indicated the cations distribution in the spinel structure among the tetrahedral and octahedral interstices. The presence of Fe2+ ions was detected in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites while Fe3+ ions occupied only the octahedral interstices. The approximate formula of the obtained iron-aluminate spinel was as follows (Fe2+0.77Al3+0.23) (Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.05Al0.88)2O4.

Parole chiave

  • FeAlO
  • hercynite
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • spinel
Open Access

Mössbauer spectroscopy of reduced forms of a Fe-tetraphenylporphyrine complex

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 51 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Molecular and electronic structure changes during successive reduction of a Fe-tetraphenylporphyrin chloride [Fe(III)(TPP):Cl] complex are reported on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy and DFT calculations. It is established that the attachment of additional electrons to a neutral Fe(III)(TPP):Cl molecule leads to significant shortening of Fe-N distances at the first stage of the reduction Fe(III)(TPP):Cl → Fe(II)(TPP) and lengthening of these bonds at the second stage Fe(II)(TPP) → Fe(I)(TPP). Changes of other bond lengths of the porphyrin ring also appear but in less degree. Interaction of Fe(II) and Fe(I)(TPP) with tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent is considered. Electron configuration of Fe(II)(TPP) corresponds to intermediate-spin (S = 1) state and in the case of Fe(I)(TPP) low-spin state (S = ½) is observed. Electron density distribution in Fe(II)- and Fe(I)(TPP) complexes, in association with Mössbauer data, is analyzed. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

Parole chiave

  • DFT calculations
  • electronic structure
  • iron-(tetraphenyl)porphyrin
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • reduction process
Open Access

Mössbauer study of a tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin iron (III) chloride in comparison with the fluorine unsubstituted analogue

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 57 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

Mössbauer investigations, in association with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been conducted for the molecular and electronic structures of iron (III) [tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)] porphyrin chloride [(F20TPP)Fe:Cl], as a Fe(III)-tetraphenylporphyrin complex containing chloride axial ligand and substituted hydrogen atoms by fluorine ones in the four phenyl rings, in comparison with its fluorine unsubstituted analogue [(TPP)Fe:Cl]. It was found that the parameters of Mössbauer spectra of both complexes are close to one another, and correspond to the high-spin state of Fe(III) ions, but they show the different temperature dependence and the quadrupole doublets in Mössbauer spectra show different asymmetry at low temperatures. Results of DFT calculations are analyzed in the light of catalytic activity of the halogenated complex.

Parole chiave

  • catalytic activity
  • DFT calculations
  • electronic structure
  • iron(III)-[tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)]
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • porphyrin chloride
Open Access

Magnetic nanowires (Fe, Fe-Co, Fe-Ni) – magnetic moment reorientation in respect of wires composition

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 63 - 67

Astratto

Abstract

Magnetic nanowires of Fe, Fe-Co, and Fe-Ni alloy and layered structure were prepared by electrochemical alternating current (AC) deposition method. The morphology of the nanowires in and without the matrix was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The wires either show strong dependence on the combination of elements deposition (alloy or layered) or chemical composition (Co or Ni). The magnetic properties of the nanostructures were determined on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS).

Parole chiave

  • electrochemistry
  • electrodeposition
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nanowires
Open Access

Atomic short-range order in mechanically synthesized iron based Fe-Zn alloys studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 69 - 73

Astratto

Abstract

Mechanical alloying method was applied to prepare nanocrystalline iron-based Fe1−xZnx solid solutions with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05. The structural properties of the materials were investigated with the Mössbauer spectroscopy by measuring the room temperature spectra of 57Fe for as-obtained and annealed samples. The spectra were analyzed in terms of parameters of their components related to unlike surroundings of the iron probes, determined by different numbers of zinc atoms existing in the neighborhood of iron atoms. The obtained results gave clear evidence that after annealing process, the distribution of impurity atoms in the first coordination spheres of 57Fe nuclei is not random and it cannot be described by binomial distribution. The estimated, positive values of the short-range order parameters suggest clustering tendencies of Zn atoms in the Fe-Zn alloys with low zinc concentration. The results were compared with corresponding data derived from Calphad calculation and resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • mechanical alloying
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nanocrystalline materials
  • short-range order
Open Access

Interactions between osmium atoms dissolved in iron observed by the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 75 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

The room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for binary iron-based solid solutions Fe1−xOsx, with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, were analyzed in terms of binding energy Eb between two Os atoms in the Fe-Os system. The extrapolated values of Eb for x = 0 were used for computation of enthalpy of solution of osmium in iron. The result was compared with that resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema. The comparison shows that our findings are in qualitative agreement with the Miedema's model predictions.

Parole chiave

  • binding energy
  • enthalpy of solution
  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

Structure and some magnetic properties of (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1−x solid solutions prepared by solid-state sintering

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 81 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the study on structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite-type (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1−x solid solutions. The samples differing in the chemical composition (x = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7) were produced according to the conventional solid-state sintering method from the mixture of powders. Moreover, three different variants of the fabrication process differing in the temperatures and soaking time were applied. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were collected and compared for the set of the investigated materials. The structural transformation from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry was observed for the samples with x = 0.7. With increasing of BaTiO3 concentration Mössbauer spectra become broadened reflecting various configurations of atoms around 57Fe probes. Moreover, gradual decreasing of the average hyperfine magnetic field and macroscopic magnetization were observed with x decreasing.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • magnetization
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • multiferroics
Open Access

The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 87 - 91

Astratto

Abstract

Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta). At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

Parole chiave

  • amorphous iron and iron oxides
  • iron nanowires
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • thermal annealing
Open Access

Search for canted spin arrangement in Er2−xTbxFe14B with Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 93 - 96

Astratto

Abstract

The materials studied were polycrystalline compounds Er2−xTbxFe14B (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) which crystallize in a tetragonal lattice and display a variety of spin arrangements. The compounds have been measured with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy over the temperature range 80–320 K in order to investigate the spin reorientation processes. Each compound was studied in a wide temperature range, with precise Mössbauer scanning in the vicinity of the transition. The set of spectra obtained for a given compound was analyzed using simultaneous fitting procedure to investigate the influence of the transition on the shape of the spectra. The fitting program was specified to analyze the transition according to the ‘two state model’: spins flip abruptly from initial angle to final arrangement (90° angle). Obtained results suggest that spin reorientation process cannot be described using only the mentioned above model. Additional computer simulations based on the Yamada–Kato model were conducted to determine temperature range and the type of spin alignments in the vicinity of the transition. These theoretical results supported by spectra analysis suggest the existence of intermediate (canted) spin arrangements in the studied compounds. The spin arrangement diagram was constructed.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer effect
  • permanent magnet materials
  • spin diagrams
  • spin reorientation
Open Access

Analysis of heat capacity and Mössbauer data for LuZnSn2 compound

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 97 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

New analysis of heat capacity data is presented for LuZnSn2 compound that takes into account anharmonic effects together with the existence of Einstein modes. 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the hyperfine parameters at the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the studied compound. The problem of non-unique mathematical resonance spectrum description and the problem how to choose physically meaningful set of hyperfine parameters will be thoroughly discussed. Measured quadrupole interaction constants by 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy give estimations for Vzz component of electric field gradient tensor at both Sn sites in LuZnSn2.

Parole chiave

  • heat capacity
  • Mössbauer studies
  • rare earth ternary compounds
Open Access

Effects of Co, Ni, and Cr addition on microstructure and magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe86−xMxZr7Nb2Cu1B4 (M = Co, Ni, CoCr, and Cr, x = 0 or 6) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 103 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Mössbauer spectra and thermomagnetic curves for the Fe86−xMxZr7Nb2Cu1B4 (M = Co, Ni, CoCr, and Cr, x = 0 or 6) alloys in the as-quenched state and after the accumulative annealing in the temperature range 600–800 K for 10 min are investigated. The parent Fe86Zr7Nb2Cu1B4 amorphous alloy is paramagnetic at room temperature, and substitution of 6 at.% of Fe by Co, Ni, and CoCr changes the magnetic structure – the alloys become ferromagnetic, whereas replacing 6 at.% of Fe with Cr preserves the paramagnetic state. After the heat treatment at 600 K, the decrease of the average hyperfine field induction, as compared to the as-quenched state, is observed due to the invar effect. After this annealing, the Curie temperature for all investigated alloys decreases. The accumulative annealing up to 800 K leads to the partial crystallization; α-Fe or α-FeCo grains with diameters in the range of 12–30 nm in the residual amorphous matrix appear.

Parole chiave

  • amorphous materials
  • nanocrystalline materials
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • invar effect
  • Curie temperature
Open Access

Structure and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of mechanically activated (BiFeO3)1−x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 109 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

(BiFeO3)1-x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions with x = 0.1–0.4 and 0.7 were investigated. The ceramics were prepared by mechanical activation technology and subsequent heat treatment. As was proved by X-ray diffraction, increase of BaTiO3 concentration causes a change in the crystalline structure from the rhombohedral structure characteristic of BiFeO3 to a cubic one. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed observation of a gradual transformation from an ordered spin structure of Fe3+ ions to the paramagnetic state with an increase of x.

Parole chiave

  • ceramic solid solutions
  • hyperfine interactions
  • mechanical activation
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

Subsurface structure and magnetic parameters of Fe-Mo-Cu-B metallic glass

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 115 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Subsurface properties of 57Fe81Mo9Cu1B9 metallic glass were studied by conversion electron and conversion X-ray Mössbauer spectrometry. They were applied to both surfaces of the ribbons. Deviations in structural surface features are exhibited via different contents of crystalline phases, which were identified as bcc-Fe and magnetite. The presence of small ferromagnetic particles was also suggested from magnetic measurements. An influence of irradiation with 130-keV N+ ions on surface properties of the as-quenched alloy is also discussed.

Parole chiave

  • ion bombardment
  • metallic glasses
  • Mössbauer spectrometry
  • soft magnetic properties
  • surface structure
Open Access

Hyperfine interaction and some thermomagnetic properties of amorphous and partially crystallized Fe70−xMxMo5Cr4Nb6B15 (M = Co or Ni, x = 0 or 10) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 121 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

As revealed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, replacement of 10 at.% of iron in the amorphous Fe70Mo5Cr4Nb6B15 alloy by cobalt or nickel has no effect on the magnetic structure in the vicinity of room temperature, although the Curie point moves from 190 K towards ambient one. In the early stages of crystallization, the paramagnetic crystalline Cr12Fe36Mo10 phase appears before α-Fe or α-FeCo are formed, as is confirmed by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Creation of the crystalline Cr12Fe36Mo10 phase is accompanied by the amorphous ferromagnetic phase formation at the expense of amorphous paramagnetic one.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • amorphous alloys
  • magnetic properties
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Curie temperature
Open Access

Determination of hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in NiMnFeGe exhibiting martensitic transformation

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 127 - 131

Astratto

Abstract

The hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in Ni1−xFexMnGe (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) alloys were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements show that the samples with x = 0.2, 0.3 crystallized in the hexagonal Ni2In-type of structure, whereas in the sample with x = 0.1, the coexistence of two phases, Ni2In- and orthorhombic TiNiSi-type of structures, were found. The Mössbauer spectra measured with x = 0.2, 0.3 show three doublets with different values of isomer shift (IS) and quadrupole splitting (QS) related to three different local surroundings of Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure. It was shown that Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure of as-cast Ni1−xFexMnGe alloys are preferentially located in Ni sites and small amount of Fe is located in Mn and probably in Ge sites. The spectrum for x = 0.1 shows the doublets in the central part of spectrum and a broad sextet. The doublets originate from the Fe atoms in the paramagnetic state of hexagonal Ni2In-type structure, whereas the sextet results from the Fe atoms in orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure.

Parole chiave

  • X-ray diffraction
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • martensitic transition
  • atomic ordering
Open Access

Mössbauer spectroscopy study of 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass crystallization

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 133 - 136

Astratto

Abstract

60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass was synthesized and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was presented. The main goal of the research was to investigate structural changes of local environment of iron ions during gradual crystallization of the glass. It was observed that some changes were evidenced at temperature of heat treatment higher than 400°C, above which content of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ was increased in cost of octahedral sites. This led to formation of areas of nucleation of α-FePO4. Crystallization of α-Fe3(P2O7)2 and Fe2P2O7 was also observed.

Parole chiave

  • crystallization
  • iron phosphate glass
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nuclear waste
  • waste glass
Open Access

Influence of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 137 - 141

Astratto

Abstract

Nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were obtained by the impregnation of highly ordered mesoporous MCM-41 silica support. The investigated sample contained 20% wt. Fe. The obtained nanocrystallites were strongly dispersed in silica matrix and their size was about 2 nm. The sample annealing at 500°C led to increase of particle size to about 5 nm. The Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations performed at room temperature show on occurrence of MnFe2O4 nanoparticle in superparamagnetic state for the sample annealed in all temperatures. The coexistence of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic phase was observed at liquid nitrogen temperature. The sample annealed at 400°C and 500°C has bigger manganese ferrite particle and better crystallized structure. One can assign them the discrete hyperfine magnetic field components.

Parole chiave

  • manganese ferrite
  • MCM-41 porous silica
  • Mössbauer effect
  • superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Open Access

Position of Fe ions in MgO crystalline structure

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 143 - 145

Astratto

Abstract

Magnesium oxide (MgO) is one of the most important raw materials in many branches of industry. Magnesium oxide is a popular refractory raw material because of its high refractoriness and high resistance to basic slags and environment. In many cases, use of MgO is limited by its properties, especially the presence of secondary phases like iron oxides. The amount and distribution of iron oxides can strongly influence the technological properties of MgO and depend on the manufacturing method, particularly the heat-treatment process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the heat-treatment process on amount and distribution of iron ions in a magnesium oxide lattice. The 57Fe Mössbauer effect measurements of fused and sintered magnesium oxide samples doped by the iron oxide were conducted. Investigation reveals in both cases the presence of Fe2+ as well as Fe3+ ions. Fe2+ ions occupy Mg2+ octahedral sites in the MgO lattice, whereas the Fe3+ ions are located in highly distorted octahedral coordination. The amount of Fe2+ varies from around 66% for fused samples to 30% for sintered samples.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • MgO
  • Fe ions
  • crystal structure
Open Access

The role and position of iron in 0.8CaZrO3-0.2CaFe2O4

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 147 - 150

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize the 0.8CaZrO3-0.2CaFe2O4 composite structure with particular emphasis on the role and position of iron in the function of sintering temperature. The paper presents the results of 57Fe Mössbauer effect at room temperature. It was found that the increase of sintering temperature causes an increase in the amount of incorporated iron ions in the CaZrO3-crystal structure. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis, it was found that three different environments of Fe3+ ions were observed in the obtained materials. Two of them corresponded to CaFe2O4 phase and one was associated with the substitution of Zr4+ by Fe3+ in the CaZrO3 structure.

Parole chiave

  • calcium ferrite
  • calcium zirconate
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • perovskite
  • spinel
Open Access

Iron-containing phases in fly ashes from different combustion systems

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 151 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

The investigations of iron-containing phases existing in fly ashes were performed using transmission Mössbauer spectrometry. The examined samples of fly ashes were collected from different coal combustion systems, that is, stoker-fired boiler in municipal heating plant and pulverized coal boiler in power plant. Several phases are identified in the samples: iron oxides, paramagnetic aluminosilicate glass with Fe3+ ions and Al2O4-type spinel with Fe2+ ions. It was pointed out that proportions of contents of phases strongly depend not only on the combustion temperature but also on the way of ash collection.

Parole chiave

  • fly ashes
  • coal combustion
  • Mössbauer spectrometry
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Magnetic and structural properties of Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 Laves phases studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 155 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the presented paper is to study an influence of replacement of Fe atoms by Si atoms in quasibinary Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 Laves phases on their structural and magnetic properties. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) measurements carried out at different temperatures from 4.3 K up to about 700 K revealed that samples were single phase with cubic C15 structure for Si concentration x from 0.05 to 0.20 and hexagonal C14 structure for higher concentration. The results of 57Fe Mössbauer measurements showed that the Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 compounds with x ≤ 0.30 are ferrimagnetic at 4.3 K. At temperature 80 K in the samples with x = 0.20 and 0.30, a magnetic cluster spin-glass state has been observed, as ferrimagnetic long-range order disappears. Such picture was supported by the results of ND measurements carried out at 8 K, which confirmed the lack of long-range order for x above 0.10 and an occurrence of hyperfine field distributions in the corresponding Mössbauer spectra. At room temperature, samples with x ≥ 0.20 became paramagnetic. A substitution of Si atoms for Fe ones leads to a decreasing of mean values of hyperfine magnetic fields in samples under investigation. From the neutron diffraction pattern analysis of Sc(Fe0.90Si0.10)2Fe magnetic moment was determined as to be equal to 1.5 μB at 8 K. Combining this result with a value of hyperfine magnetic field on 57Fe probes, the hyperfine coupling constant A in Sc(Fe0.90Cu0.10)2 phases is estimated at about 11.6 T/μB at 8 K.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine fields
  • Mössbauer effect
  • neutron diffraction
  • quasibinary Laves phase
Open Access

Modelling of a passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner – a parametric study

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

Operation of a passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner (PAR) has been investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). The recombiner is a self-active and self-adaptive device used to remove hydrogen from safety containments of light water nuclear reactors (LWR) by means of a highly exothermic reaction with oxygen at the surface of a platinum or palladium catalyst. Different turbulence models (k-ω, k-ɛ, intermittency, RSM) were applied in numerical simulations of: gas flow, heat and mass transport and chemical surface reactions occurring in PAR. Turbulence was found to improve mixing and mass transfer and increase hydrogen recombination rate for high gas flow rates. At low gas flow rates, simulation results converged to those obtained for the limiting case of laminar flow. The large eddy simulation technique (LES) was used to select the best RANS (Reynolds average stress) model. Comparison of simulation results obtained for two- and three-dimensional computational grids showed that heat and mass transfer occurring in PAR were virtually two-dimensional processes. The effect of hydrogen thermal diffusion was also discussed in the context of possible hydrogen ignition inside the recombiner.

Parole chiave

  • CFD
  • hydrogen
  • large eddy simulation
  • catalytic recombiner
  • turbulence
Open Access

Minor actinides impact on basic safety parameters of medium-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 171 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

An analysis of the influence of addition of minor actinides (MA) to the fast reactor fuel on the most important safety characteristics was performed. A special emphasis was given to the total control rods worth in order to describe qualitatively and quantitatively its change with MA content. All computations were performed with a homogeneous assembly model of modified BN-600 sodium-cooled fast reactor core with 0, 3 and 6% of MA. A model was prepared for the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP5 for fresh fuel in the beginning-of-life (BOL) state. Additionally, some other parameters, such as Doppler constant, sodium void reactivity, delayed neutron fraction, neutron fluxes and neutron spectra distribution, were computed and their change with MA content was investigated. Study indicates that the total control rods worth (CRW) decreases with increasing MA inventory in the fuel and confirms that the addition of MA has a negative effect on the delayed neutron fraction.

Parole chiave

  • fast reactor safety
  • MCNP5
  • sodium-cooled fast reactor
  • nuclear waste transmutation
Open Access

Validation of the method for determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples and its application in a nuclear facility at Otwock

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 181 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

The studies aimed at determining low activities of alpha radioactive elements are widely recognized as essential for the human health, because of their high radiotoxicity in case of internal contamination. Some groups of workers of nuclear facility at Otwock are potentially exposed to contamination with plutonium isotopes. For this reason, the method for determination of plutonium isotopes has been introduced and validated in Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory (LPD) of the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ). In this method the plutonium is isolated from a sample by coprecipitation with phosphates and separated on a AG 1-X2 Resin. After electrodeposition, the sample is measured by alpha spectrometry. Validation was performed in order to assess parameters such as: selectivity, accuracy (trueness and precision) and linearity of the method. The results of plutonium determination in urine samples of persons potentially exposed to internal contamination are presented in this work.

Parole chiave

  • alpha radioactive elements
  • internal contamination
  • plutonium
  • urine
33 Articoli
Open Access

Mössbauer study of treated Nd2Fe14B

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 7 - 10

Astratto

Abstract

The Nd2Fe14B cylindrical magnets were treated with water solutions of alkali, acid, and salt. Mössbauer spectroscopy was applied to study the composition and properties of the surface material of the treated magnets. It is shown that the main phase of the permanent Nd2Fe14B magnet partly decomposes. The released α-Nd at the grain boundaries interacts with water and forms neodymium hydroxide matrix, and the released Fe diffuses into it. The presence of Fe-Nd(OH)3 is reflected in the paramagnet doublet in the Mössbauer spectra of treated neodymium magnets.

Parole chiave

  • intermetallics
  • intergranular corrosion
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

The study of crystal and magnetic properties of MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 11 - 14

Astratto

Abstract

Magnetic and Mössbauer measurements were performed for MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge. The Mössbauer data indicate that Fe atoms in MnNi0.85Fe0.15Ge are randomly distributed over two types of metal sites in hexagonal structure. At 77 K, the hyperfine magnetic fields at Fe located in different crystal sites have similar values of about 12.7 and 12.3 T. The random site distribution of the iron atoms in the non-magnetic hexagonal phase at high temperatures is confirmed by the theoretical calculations in fully relativistic Korringa –Kohn –Rostoker (KKR) method.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer effect
  • magnetic interaction
  • hexagonal structure
Open Access

The microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained at various cooling rates

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 15 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

The paper presents results of microstructure and magnetic properties studies of Nd8.5Tb1.5Fe83Zr1B6 ribbons obtained by melt-spinning technique. The samples were produced using the rapid cooling of liquid alloy on the copper wheel, by applying three different linear velocities 20, 30, and 35 m/s. The microstructure of obtained ribbons was examined using X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic measurements were performed using LakeShore vibrating sample magnetometer. The microstructure measurements were used for quantitative and qualitative analysis of phase composition. Basing on results of structure studies combined with magnetic measurements, the influence of phase composition on hysteresis loop behavior was described.

Parole chiave

  • microstructure analysis
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • permanent magnets
  • reversal magnetization
Open Access

Mobility of interacting inorganic nanoparticles

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 19 - 22

Astratto

Abstract

The mobility of the 110 nm-Fe2O3 particles in a viscous sucrose solution depends on the concentration of the nanoparticles. When the average particle–particle nearest neighbor distance <r> is less than 250 nm, the particle interaction slows down their mobility. When <r> is more than 170 nm, the small mobility of nanoparticles does not depend on their concentration. The critical distance is approximately equal to 2Rh = 260 nm, where Rh is the hydrodynamic radius, determined by the dynamic light scattering (DLS) method.

Parole chiave

  • dynamic light scattering
  • hematite nanoparticles
  • mobility
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • viscosity
Open Access

Effect of heat treatment on the shape of the hyperfine field induction distributions and magnetic properties of amorphous soft magnetic Fe62Co10Y8B20 alloy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 23 - 27

Astratto

Abstract

Thermal treatment, undertaken at just below the crystallization temperature, has led to nanocrystallization and has had a significant impact on the shape of the hyperfine field induction distributions of Fe62Co10Y8B20 alloy and on its soft magnetic properties. In the amorphous ferromagnetic alloys, it is possible to indirectly determine the effect of the structure stresses, resulting from the presence of structural defects, on the soft magnetic properties of these materials. It has been found that a change in the parameters associated with the presence of structural defects affects the shape of the hyperfine field distributions of 57Fe.

Parole chiave

  • bulk amorphous
  • Kronmüller theory
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM)
Open Access

Microstructure and magnetic properties of Nd-Fe-B-(Re, Ti) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 29 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

The microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocomposite hard magnetic Nd-Fe-B-(Re, Ti) materials with different Nd and Fe contents are studied. The role of Re and Ti addition in phase composition and volume fraction of the Nd-Fe-B phase is determined. All samples are annealed at the same temperature of 993 K for 10 min. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows that the addition of 4 at.% of Re to the Nd8Fe78B14 alloy leads to creation of an ineligible amount of the magnetically hard Nd2Fe14B phase. Moreover, the microstructure and magnetic characteristics recorded in a wide range of temperatures for the Nd8Fe79−xB13Mx (x = 4; M = Re or Ti) alloys are also analyzed.

Parole chiave

  • microstructure
  • magnetic properties
  • Nd-Fe-B alloys
Open Access

Temperature dependence of the short-range order parameter for Fe0.90Cr0.10 and Fe0.88Cr0.12 alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 35 - 38

Astratto

Abstract

The 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for the iron-based solid solutions Fe0.90Cr0.10 and Fe0.88Cr0.12 were measured at different temperatures ranging from 300 K to 900 K. Analysis of the obtained spectra shows that the distribution of impurity atoms in the two first coordination shells of 57Fe nuclei is not random and it cannot be described by the binomial distribution. Quantitatively, the effects were described in terms of the atomic short-range order (SRO) parameters and the pair-wise interaction energy with the help of a quasi-chemical type formulation introduced by Cohen and Fine. The obtained results reveal strong clustering-type correlations in the studied samples (a predominance of Fe-Fe and Cr-Cr bonds). Moreover, the changes in SRO values observed during thermal processing suggest that the distribution of Cr atoms in an α-iron matrix is strongly temperature dependent.

Parole chiave

  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nuclear materials
  • short-range order
Open Access

Mean hyperfine fields at 57Fe in dilute iron-based alloys studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 39 - 42

Astratto

Abstract

The room temperature Mössbauer spectra of 57Fe were measured for numerous dilute iron-based alloys Fe1−xDx (D = Al, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Os, Pt, Re, Ru, Ta, Ti, V, W, Zn), annealed at 1270 K for 2 h before the measurements. The spectra were analyzed using the Hesse–Rübartsch method in order to determine the mean hyperfine magnetic field <B> at the 57Fe nuclei as a function of concentration x of the minority component of the alloy. As the binary alloys are one-faze solid solutions of an element D in iron, a linear relationship between <B> and x is observed. The result supports the suggestion that Mössbauer spectroscopy is a useful tool for the study of dissolution of different elements in iron.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of a mechanosynthesized Fe75B25 alloy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 43 - 46

Astratto

Abstract

In this work, the process of formation of metastable phases was investigated for the Fe75B25 composition. Mechanical synthesis was performed in a MAPF-2M high-energy planetary ball mill under an argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS) were applied to recognize the phases. After 6 h of milling, the material consisted of two phases, that is, metastable tetragonal t-Fe2B and amorphous phases. During further thermal processing, the metastable phase was transformed into the stable Fe2B phase.

Parole chiave

  • mechanosynthesis
  • metastable phase
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • X-ray diffraction
Open Access

Crystal structure and Mössbauer study of FeAl2O4

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 47 - 49

Astratto

Abstract

In this work the synthesis of hercynite from Fe2O3 and Al2O3 powders was carried out by arc-melting method under the protective argon atmosphere. The obtained material was characterized with the use of powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS). A Mössbauer effect in hercynite obtained by the arc-melting method indicated the cations distribution in the spinel structure among the tetrahedral and octahedral interstices. The presence of Fe2+ ions was detected in both tetrahedral and octahedral sites while Fe3+ ions occupied only the octahedral interstices. The approximate formula of the obtained iron-aluminate spinel was as follows (Fe2+0.77Al3+0.23) (Fe3+0.07Fe2+0.05Al0.88)2O4.

Parole chiave

  • FeAlO
  • hercynite
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • spinel
Open Access

Mössbauer spectroscopy of reduced forms of a Fe-tetraphenylporphyrine complex

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 51 - 55

Astratto

Abstract

Molecular and electronic structure changes during successive reduction of a Fe-tetraphenylporphyrin chloride [Fe(III)(TPP):Cl] complex are reported on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy and DFT calculations. It is established that the attachment of additional electrons to a neutral Fe(III)(TPP):Cl molecule leads to significant shortening of Fe-N distances at the first stage of the reduction Fe(III)(TPP):Cl → Fe(II)(TPP) and lengthening of these bonds at the second stage Fe(II)(TPP) → Fe(I)(TPP). Changes of other bond lengths of the porphyrin ring also appear but in less degree. Interaction of Fe(II) and Fe(I)(TPP) with tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent is considered. Electron configuration of Fe(II)(TPP) corresponds to intermediate-spin (S = 1) state and in the case of Fe(I)(TPP) low-spin state (S = ½) is observed. Electron density distribution in Fe(II)- and Fe(I)(TPP) complexes, in association with Mössbauer data, is analyzed. Good correlation between experimental and theoretical results was obtained.

Parole chiave

  • DFT calculations
  • electronic structure
  • iron-(tetraphenyl)porphyrin
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • reduction process
Open Access

Mössbauer study of a tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl) porphyrin iron (III) chloride in comparison with the fluorine unsubstituted analogue

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 57 - 61

Astratto

Abstract

Mössbauer investigations, in association with density functional theory (DFT) calculations, have been conducted for the molecular and electronic structures of iron (III) [tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)] porphyrin chloride [(F20TPP)Fe:Cl], as a Fe(III)-tetraphenylporphyrin complex containing chloride axial ligand and substituted hydrogen atoms by fluorine ones in the four phenyl rings, in comparison with its fluorine unsubstituted analogue [(TPP)Fe:Cl]. It was found that the parameters of Mössbauer spectra of both complexes are close to one another, and correspond to the high-spin state of Fe(III) ions, but they show the different temperature dependence and the quadrupole doublets in Mössbauer spectra show different asymmetry at low temperatures. Results of DFT calculations are analyzed in the light of catalytic activity of the halogenated complex.

Parole chiave

  • catalytic activity
  • DFT calculations
  • electronic structure
  • iron(III)-[tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl)]
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • porphyrin chloride
Open Access

Magnetic nanowires (Fe, Fe-Co, Fe-Ni) – magnetic moment reorientation in respect of wires composition

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 63 - 67

Astratto

Abstract

Magnetic nanowires of Fe, Fe-Co, and Fe-Ni alloy and layered structure were prepared by electrochemical alternating current (AC) deposition method. The morphology of the nanowires in and without the matrix was studied by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The wires either show strong dependence on the combination of elements deposition (alloy or layered) or chemical composition (Co or Ni). The magnetic properties of the nanostructures were determined on the basis of Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS).

Parole chiave

  • electrochemistry
  • electrodeposition
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nanowires
Open Access

Atomic short-range order in mechanically synthesized iron based Fe-Zn alloys studied by 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 69 - 73

Astratto

Abstract

Mechanical alloying method was applied to prepare nanocrystalline iron-based Fe1−xZnx solid solutions with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05. The structural properties of the materials were investigated with the Mössbauer spectroscopy by measuring the room temperature spectra of 57Fe for as-obtained and annealed samples. The spectra were analyzed in terms of parameters of their components related to unlike surroundings of the iron probes, determined by different numbers of zinc atoms existing in the neighborhood of iron atoms. The obtained results gave clear evidence that after annealing process, the distribution of impurity atoms in the first coordination spheres of 57Fe nuclei is not random and it cannot be described by binomial distribution. The estimated, positive values of the short-range order parameters suggest clustering tendencies of Zn atoms in the Fe-Zn alloys with low zinc concentration. The results were compared with corresponding data derived from Calphad calculation and resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • mechanical alloying
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nanocrystalline materials
  • short-range order
Open Access

Interactions between osmium atoms dissolved in iron observed by the 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 75 - 79

Astratto

Abstract

The room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectra for binary iron-based solid solutions Fe1−xOsx, with x in the range 0.01 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, were analyzed in terms of binding energy Eb between two Os atoms in the Fe-Os system. The extrapolated values of Eb for x = 0 were used for computation of enthalpy of solution of osmium in iron. The result was compared with that resulting from the cellular atomic model of alloys by Miedema. The comparison shows that our findings are in qualitative agreement with the Miedema's model predictions.

Parole chiave

  • binding energy
  • enthalpy of solution
  • iron alloys
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

Structure and some magnetic properties of (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1−x solid solutions prepared by solid-state sintering

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 81 - 85

Astratto

Abstract

This paper presents the results of the study on structure and magnetic properties of the perovskite-type (BiFeO3)x-(BaTiO3)1−x solid solutions. The samples differing in the chemical composition (x = 0.9, 0.8, and 0.7) were produced according to the conventional solid-state sintering method from the mixture of powders. Moreover, three different variants of the fabrication process differing in the temperatures and soaking time were applied. The results of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) were collected and compared for the set of the investigated materials. The structural transformation from rhombohedral to cubic symmetry was observed for the samples with x = 0.7. With increasing of BaTiO3 concentration Mössbauer spectra become broadened reflecting various configurations of atoms around 57Fe probes. Moreover, gradual decreasing of the average hyperfine magnetic field and macroscopic magnetization were observed with x decreasing.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine interactions
  • magnetization
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • multiferroics
Open Access

The influence of thermal annealing on structure and oxidation of iron nanowires

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 87 - 91

Astratto

Abstract

Raman spectroscopy as well as Mössbauer spectroscopy were applied in order to study the phase composition of iron nanowires and its changes, caused by annealing in a neutral atmosphere at several temperatures ranging from 200°C to 800°C. As-prepared nanowires were manufactured via a simple chemical reduction in an external magnetic field. Both experimental techniques proved formation of the surface layer covered by crystalline iron oxides, with phase composition dependent on the annealing temperature (Ta). At higher Ta, hematite was the dominant phase in the nanowires.

Parole chiave

  • amorphous iron and iron oxides
  • iron nanowires
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • thermal annealing
Open Access

Search for canted spin arrangement in Er2−xTbxFe14B with Mössbauer spectroscopy

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 93 - 96

Astratto

Abstract

The materials studied were polycrystalline compounds Er2−xTbxFe14B (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) which crystallize in a tetragonal lattice and display a variety of spin arrangements. The compounds have been measured with 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy over the temperature range 80–320 K in order to investigate the spin reorientation processes. Each compound was studied in a wide temperature range, with precise Mössbauer scanning in the vicinity of the transition. The set of spectra obtained for a given compound was analyzed using simultaneous fitting procedure to investigate the influence of the transition on the shape of the spectra. The fitting program was specified to analyze the transition according to the ‘two state model’: spins flip abruptly from initial angle to final arrangement (90° angle). Obtained results suggest that spin reorientation process cannot be described using only the mentioned above model. Additional computer simulations based on the Yamada–Kato model were conducted to determine temperature range and the type of spin alignments in the vicinity of the transition. These theoretical results supported by spectra analysis suggest the existence of intermediate (canted) spin arrangements in the studied compounds. The spin arrangement diagram was constructed.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer effect
  • permanent magnet materials
  • spin diagrams
  • spin reorientation
Open Access

Analysis of heat capacity and Mössbauer data for LuZnSn2 compound

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 97 - 101

Astratto

Abstract

New analysis of heat capacity data is presented for LuZnSn2 compound that takes into account anharmonic effects together with the existence of Einstein modes. 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to monitor the hyperfine parameters at the two crystallographically inequivalent Sn sites in the studied compound. The problem of non-unique mathematical resonance spectrum description and the problem how to choose physically meaningful set of hyperfine parameters will be thoroughly discussed. Measured quadrupole interaction constants by 119mSn Mössbauer spectroscopy give estimations for Vzz component of electric field gradient tensor at both Sn sites in LuZnSn2.

Parole chiave

  • heat capacity
  • Mössbauer studies
  • rare earth ternary compounds
Open Access

Effects of Co, Ni, and Cr addition on microstructure and magnetic properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline Fe86−xMxZr7Nb2Cu1B4 (M = Co, Ni, CoCr, and Cr, x = 0 or 6) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 103 - 108

Astratto

Abstract

Mössbauer spectra and thermomagnetic curves for the Fe86−xMxZr7Nb2Cu1B4 (M = Co, Ni, CoCr, and Cr, x = 0 or 6) alloys in the as-quenched state and after the accumulative annealing in the temperature range 600–800 K for 10 min are investigated. The parent Fe86Zr7Nb2Cu1B4 amorphous alloy is paramagnetic at room temperature, and substitution of 6 at.% of Fe by Co, Ni, and CoCr changes the magnetic structure – the alloys become ferromagnetic, whereas replacing 6 at.% of Fe with Cr preserves the paramagnetic state. After the heat treatment at 600 K, the decrease of the average hyperfine field induction, as compared to the as-quenched state, is observed due to the invar effect. After this annealing, the Curie temperature for all investigated alloys decreases. The accumulative annealing up to 800 K leads to the partial crystallization; α-Fe or α-FeCo grains with diameters in the range of 12–30 nm in the residual amorphous matrix appear.

Parole chiave

  • amorphous materials
  • nanocrystalline materials
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • invar effect
  • Curie temperature
Open Access

Structure and Mössbauer spectroscopy studies of mechanically activated (BiFeO3)1−x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 109 - 114

Astratto

Abstract

(BiFeO3)1-x-(BaTiO3)x solid solutions with x = 0.1–0.4 and 0.7 were investigated. The ceramics were prepared by mechanical activation technology and subsequent heat treatment. As was proved by X-ray diffraction, increase of BaTiO3 concentration causes a change in the crystalline structure from the rhombohedral structure characteristic of BiFeO3 to a cubic one. 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed observation of a gradual transformation from an ordered spin structure of Fe3+ ions to the paramagnetic state with an increase of x.

Parole chiave

  • ceramic solid solutions
  • hyperfine interactions
  • mechanical activation
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
Open Access

Subsurface structure and magnetic parameters of Fe-Mo-Cu-B metallic glass

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 115 - 119

Astratto

Abstract

Subsurface properties of 57Fe81Mo9Cu1B9 metallic glass were studied by conversion electron and conversion X-ray Mössbauer spectrometry. They were applied to both surfaces of the ribbons. Deviations in structural surface features are exhibited via different contents of crystalline phases, which were identified as bcc-Fe and magnetite. The presence of small ferromagnetic particles was also suggested from magnetic measurements. An influence of irradiation with 130-keV N+ ions on surface properties of the as-quenched alloy is also discussed.

Parole chiave

  • ion bombardment
  • metallic glasses
  • Mössbauer spectrometry
  • soft magnetic properties
  • surface structure
Open Access

Hyperfine interaction and some thermomagnetic properties of amorphous and partially crystallized Fe70−xMxMo5Cr4Nb6B15 (M = Co or Ni, x = 0 or 10) alloys

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 121 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

As revealed by Mössbauer spectroscopy, replacement of 10 at.% of iron in the amorphous Fe70Mo5Cr4Nb6B15 alloy by cobalt or nickel has no effect on the magnetic structure in the vicinity of room temperature, although the Curie point moves from 190 K towards ambient one. In the early stages of crystallization, the paramagnetic crystalline Cr12Fe36Mo10 phase appears before α-Fe or α-FeCo are formed, as is confirmed by X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. Creation of the crystalline Cr12Fe36Mo10 phase is accompanied by the amorphous ferromagnetic phase formation at the expense of amorphous paramagnetic one.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • amorphous alloys
  • magnetic properties
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Curie temperature
Open Access

Determination of hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in NiMnFeGe exhibiting martensitic transformation

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 127 - 131

Astratto

Abstract

The hyperfine fields and atomic ordering in Ni1−xFexMnGe (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3) alloys were investigated using X-ray diffraction and Mössbauer spectroscopy at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements show that the samples with x = 0.2, 0.3 crystallized in the hexagonal Ni2In-type of structure, whereas in the sample with x = 0.1, the coexistence of two phases, Ni2In- and orthorhombic TiNiSi-type of structures, were found. The Mössbauer spectra measured with x = 0.2, 0.3 show three doublets with different values of isomer shift (IS) and quadrupole splitting (QS) related to three different local surroundings of Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure. It was shown that Fe atoms in the hexagonal Ni2In-type structure of as-cast Ni1−xFexMnGe alloys are preferentially located in Ni sites and small amount of Fe is located in Mn and probably in Ge sites. The spectrum for x = 0.1 shows the doublets in the central part of spectrum and a broad sextet. The doublets originate from the Fe atoms in the paramagnetic state of hexagonal Ni2In-type structure, whereas the sextet results from the Fe atoms in orthorhombic TiNiSi-type structure.

Parole chiave

  • X-ray diffraction
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • martensitic transition
  • atomic ordering
Open Access

Mössbauer spectroscopy study of 60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass crystallization

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 133 - 136

Astratto

Abstract

60P2O5-40Fe2O3 glass was synthesized and 57Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy study was presented. The main goal of the research was to investigate structural changes of local environment of iron ions during gradual crystallization of the glass. It was observed that some changes were evidenced at temperature of heat treatment higher than 400°C, above which content of tetrahedrally coordinated Fe3+ was increased in cost of octahedral sites. This led to formation of areas of nucleation of α-FePO4. Crystallization of α-Fe3(P2O7)2 and Fe2P2O7 was also observed.

Parole chiave

  • crystallization
  • iron phosphate glass
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • nuclear waste
  • waste glass
Open Access

Influence of annealing temperature on structural and magnetic properties of MnFe2O4 nanoparticles

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 137 - 141

Astratto

Abstract

Nanoparticles of manganese ferrite were obtained by the impregnation of highly ordered mesoporous MCM-41 silica support. The investigated sample contained 20% wt. Fe. The obtained nanocrystallites were strongly dispersed in silica matrix and their size was about 2 nm. The sample annealing at 500°C led to increase of particle size to about 5 nm. The Mössbauer spectroscopy investigations performed at room temperature show on occurrence of MnFe2O4 nanoparticle in superparamagnetic state for the sample annealed in all temperatures. The coexistence of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic phase was observed at liquid nitrogen temperature. The sample annealed at 400°C and 500°C has bigger manganese ferrite particle and better crystallized structure. One can assign them the discrete hyperfine magnetic field components.

Parole chiave

  • manganese ferrite
  • MCM-41 porous silica
  • Mössbauer effect
  • superparamagnetic nanoparticles
Open Access

Position of Fe ions in MgO crystalline structure

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 143 - 145

Astratto

Abstract

Magnesium oxide (MgO) is one of the most important raw materials in many branches of industry. Magnesium oxide is a popular refractory raw material because of its high refractoriness and high resistance to basic slags and environment. In many cases, use of MgO is limited by its properties, especially the presence of secondary phases like iron oxides. The amount and distribution of iron oxides can strongly influence the technological properties of MgO and depend on the manufacturing method, particularly the heat-treatment process. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of the heat-treatment process on amount and distribution of iron ions in a magnesium oxide lattice. The 57Fe Mössbauer effect measurements of fused and sintered magnesium oxide samples doped by the iron oxide were conducted. Investigation reveals in both cases the presence of Fe2+ as well as Fe3+ ions. Fe2+ ions occupy Mg2+ octahedral sites in the MgO lattice, whereas the Fe3+ ions are located in highly distorted octahedral coordination. The amount of Fe2+ varies from around 66% for fused samples to 30% for sintered samples.

Parole chiave

  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • MgO
  • Fe ions
  • crystal structure
Open Access

The role and position of iron in 0.8CaZrO3-0.2CaFe2O4

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 147 - 150

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the study was to characterize the 0.8CaZrO3-0.2CaFe2O4 composite structure with particular emphasis on the role and position of iron in the function of sintering temperature. The paper presents the results of 57Fe Mössbauer effect at room temperature. It was found that the increase of sintering temperature causes an increase in the amount of incorporated iron ions in the CaZrO3-crystal structure. Based on Mössbauer spectroscopy analysis, it was found that three different environments of Fe3+ ions were observed in the obtained materials. Two of them corresponded to CaFe2O4 phase and one was associated with the substitution of Zr4+ by Fe3+ in the CaZrO3 structure.

Parole chiave

  • calcium ferrite
  • calcium zirconate
  • Mössbauer spectroscopy
  • perovskite
  • spinel
Open Access

Iron-containing phases in fly ashes from different combustion systems

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 151 - 154

Astratto

Abstract

The investigations of iron-containing phases existing in fly ashes were performed using transmission Mössbauer spectrometry. The examined samples of fly ashes were collected from different coal combustion systems, that is, stoker-fired boiler in municipal heating plant and pulverized coal boiler in power plant. Several phases are identified in the samples: iron oxides, paramagnetic aluminosilicate glass with Fe3+ ions and Al2O4-type spinel with Fe2+ ions. It was pointed out that proportions of contents of phases strongly depend not only on the combustion temperature but also on the way of ash collection.

Parole chiave

  • fly ashes
  • coal combustion
  • Mössbauer spectrometry
  • environmental protection
Open Access

Magnetic and structural properties of Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 Laves phases studied by Mössbauer spectroscopy and neutron diffraction

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 155 - 160

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of the presented paper is to study an influence of replacement of Fe atoms by Si atoms in quasibinary Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 Laves phases on their structural and magnetic properties. Powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and neutron diffraction (ND) measurements carried out at different temperatures from 4.3 K up to about 700 K revealed that samples were single phase with cubic C15 structure for Si concentration x from 0.05 to 0.20 and hexagonal C14 structure for higher concentration. The results of 57Fe Mössbauer measurements showed that the Sc(Fe1−xSix)2 compounds with x ≤ 0.30 are ferrimagnetic at 4.3 K. At temperature 80 K in the samples with x = 0.20 and 0.30, a magnetic cluster spin-glass state has been observed, as ferrimagnetic long-range order disappears. Such picture was supported by the results of ND measurements carried out at 8 K, which confirmed the lack of long-range order for x above 0.10 and an occurrence of hyperfine field distributions in the corresponding Mössbauer spectra. At room temperature, samples with x ≥ 0.20 became paramagnetic. A substitution of Si atoms for Fe ones leads to a decreasing of mean values of hyperfine magnetic fields in samples under investigation. From the neutron diffraction pattern analysis of Sc(Fe0.90Si0.10)2Fe magnetic moment was determined as to be equal to 1.5 μB at 8 K. Combining this result with a value of hyperfine magnetic field on 57Fe probes, the hyperfine coupling constant A in Sc(Fe0.90Cu0.10)2 phases is estimated at about 11.6 T/μB at 8 K.

Parole chiave

  • hyperfine fields
  • Mössbauer effect
  • neutron diffraction
  • quasibinary Laves phase
Open Access

Modelling of a passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner – a parametric study

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 161 - 169

Astratto

Abstract

Operation of a passive autocatalytic hydrogen recombiner (PAR) has been investigated by means of computational fluid dynamics methods (CFD). The recombiner is a self-active and self-adaptive device used to remove hydrogen from safety containments of light water nuclear reactors (LWR) by means of a highly exothermic reaction with oxygen at the surface of a platinum or palladium catalyst. Different turbulence models (k-ω, k-ɛ, intermittency, RSM) were applied in numerical simulations of: gas flow, heat and mass transport and chemical surface reactions occurring in PAR. Turbulence was found to improve mixing and mass transfer and increase hydrogen recombination rate for high gas flow rates. At low gas flow rates, simulation results converged to those obtained for the limiting case of laminar flow. The large eddy simulation technique (LES) was used to select the best RANS (Reynolds average stress) model. Comparison of simulation results obtained for two- and three-dimensional computational grids showed that heat and mass transfer occurring in PAR were virtually two-dimensional processes. The effect of hydrogen thermal diffusion was also discussed in the context of possible hydrogen ignition inside the recombiner.

Parole chiave

  • CFD
  • hydrogen
  • large eddy simulation
  • catalytic recombiner
  • turbulence
Open Access

Minor actinides impact on basic safety parameters of medium-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 171 - 179

Astratto

Abstract

An analysis of the influence of addition of minor actinides (MA) to the fast reactor fuel on the most important safety characteristics was performed. A special emphasis was given to the total control rods worth in order to describe qualitatively and quantitatively its change with MA content. All computations were performed with a homogeneous assembly model of modified BN-600 sodium-cooled fast reactor core with 0, 3 and 6% of MA. A model was prepared for the Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP5 for fresh fuel in the beginning-of-life (BOL) state. Additionally, some other parameters, such as Doppler constant, sodium void reactivity, delayed neutron fraction, neutron fluxes and neutron spectra distribution, were computed and their change with MA content was investigated. Study indicates that the total control rods worth (CRW) decreases with increasing MA inventory in the fuel and confirms that the addition of MA has a negative effect on the delayed neutron fraction.

Parole chiave

  • fast reactor safety
  • MCNP5
  • sodium-cooled fast reactor
  • nuclear waste transmutation
Open Access

Validation of the method for determination of plutonium isotopes in urine samples and its application in a nuclear facility at Otwock

Pubblicato online: 12 Mar 2015
Pagine: 181 - 186

Astratto

Abstract

The studies aimed at determining low activities of alpha radioactive elements are widely recognized as essential for the human health, because of their high radiotoxicity in case of internal contamination. Some groups of workers of nuclear facility at Otwock are potentially exposed to contamination with plutonium isotopes. For this reason, the method for determination of plutonium isotopes has been introduced and validated in Radiation Protection Measurements Laboratory (LPD) of the National Centre for Nuclear Research (NCBJ). In this method the plutonium is isolated from a sample by coprecipitation with phosphates and separated on a AG 1-X2 Resin. After electrodeposition, the sample is measured by alpha spectrometry. Validation was performed in order to assess parameters such as: selectivity, accuracy (trueness and precision) and linearity of the method. The results of plutonium determination in urine samples of persons potentially exposed to internal contamination are presented in this work.

Parole chiave

  • alpha radioactive elements
  • internal contamination
  • plutonium
  • urine

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