Rivista e Edizione

Volume 11 (2022): Edizione 1 (January 2022)

Volume 10 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Volume 9 (2020): Edizione 1 (March 2020)

Volume 8 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2193-8997
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 10 (2021): Edizione 1 (January 2021)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2193-8997
Pubblicato per la prima volta
30 Apr 2019
Periodo di pubblicazione
1 volta all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

5 Articoli
Accesso libero

The bilingual gap in children's language, emotional, and pro-social development

Pubblicato online: 29 Jan 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper we examine whether – conditional on other child endowments and family inputs – bilingual children achieve different language, emotional, and pro-social developmental outcomes. Our data, which allow us to analyze children's development in a dynamic framework, are extracted from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). We model the development production functions for bilingual children using cumulative value-added specifications, which account for parental investments and children's own ability. Analysis based on child age confirms that bilingual children initially have worse language skills than their monolingual peers. The commencement of schooling appears to attenuate these differences, and by age seven, bilingual children have a developmental advantage. We find evidence of a positive relationship between bilingualism and some aspects of emotional development, and it is mainly boys who appear to benefit from their bilingual background.

Parole chiave

  • cognitive and non-cognitive skills
  • production function
  • value-added model
  • cohort studies

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • J24
  • D10
Accesso libero

Technical Education, Non-cognitive Skills and Labor Market Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Brazil

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

This paper describes the results from an evaluation of a public policy that offers scholarships to current and former public high school students, so that they can attend technical and vocational education courses free of charge. We use a waiting list randomized controlled trial in four municipalities in a southern Brazilian State (Santa Catarina) to quantify the effects of the program on school progression, labor market outcomes and non-cognitive skills. Our intention-to-treat estimates reveal substantial gender heterogeneity two years after program completion. Women experienced large gains in labor market outcomes and non-cognitive skills. Employment rose by 21 percentage points (or approximately 33%) and the gains in earnings are of more than 50%. Also, women who received the offer scored 0.5σ higher on the synthetic index of non-cognitive skills and 0.69σ higher on an extraversion indicator. We find no effects on the male sub-sample. These findings corroborate the evidence on gender heterogeneity in the labor market effects of technical and vocational education programs. We also perform a series of exercises to explore potential channels through which these effects arise.

Parole chiave

  • Vocational Education
  • Human Capital
  • Non-cognitive Skills
  • Labor Market Outcomes

JEL Classification

  • C21
  • I38
  • J24
Accesso libero

The unequal impact of raising the retirement age: Employment response and program substitution

Pubblicato online: 21 Sep 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Using high-frequency Italian administrative data, the author studies the heterogeneous effects of a reform raising the normal retirement age (NRA) from 60 years to 65 years for private-sector male employees. The analysis, based on a difference-in-differences (DD) method, shows that the NRA raise reduces pension benefit claims but does not lead to a one-to-one increase in the employment rate since workers also apply for more disability and unemployment benefits. Moreover, most of them simply retire without any benefit. The extent of the effects varies substantially across socio-economic groups, as individuals with poorer health, with lower occupational grades and lower pay levels are the most constrained by the reform, experiencing the highest delay in pension claims, increase in employment, and inactivity. All in all, this paper shows that raising the NRA could have unintended effects as it affects more negatively the most vulnerable in the labor market.

Parole chiave

  • Retirement age
  • Labor supply
  • Disability benefit
  • Pension reform
  • Unemployment
  • Older workers
  • Socio-economic inequalities

JEL Classification

  • J14
  • J26
  • I38
  • J18
  • J22
Accesso libero

Business Income Dynamics and Labor Market Fluidity

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

The share of the U.S. population that receives business income has increased substantially in recent decades. At the same time, worker hire and separation rates declined, with worrying implications for productivity and wage growth. In this paper, we explore the relationship between business income (BI) receipt and labor reallocation. We show that BI recipients are largely excluded from existing measures of labor reallocation. Including BI recipients reduces the measured decline from 1994 to 2014 in the hire and separation rates by 8.3–8.7%, respectively, primarily among jobs that were secondary sources of income or short in duration. We present evidence that worker transitions between wage and salary jobs and BI represent labor reallocation, as opposed to reclassification of employees as independent contractors.

Parole chiave

  • labor reallocation
  • employment dynamics
  • self-employment
  • business ownership

JEL Classification

  • J63
  • L26
Accesso libero

The effects of recreational cannabis access on labor markets: evidence from Colorado

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Recreational cannabis markets possibly increase labor demand through investments in facilities for growing, processing, and retail sales of cannabis, as well as through other industries such as manufacturing, leisure, and hospitality. However, this increase in labor demand may vary substantially across counties within a state as most states with legal recreational cannabis allow individual counties to ban commercial cannabis sales. Meanwhile, labor supply may change through positive and negative effects from cannabis use. Using county-level Colorado data from 2011 to 2018 and exploiting variation across counties in the existence and timing of the start of dispensary sales, we test for changes in the unemployment rate, employment, and wages, overall and by industry subsector. Consistent with an increase in labor demand, we estimate that the sale of recreational cannabis through dispensaries is associated with a 0.7 percentage point decrease in the unemployment rate with no effect on the size of the labor force. We also find a 4.5% increase in the number of employees, with the strongest effects found in manufacturing. We find no effect on wages. Given the lack of a reduction in labor force participation or wages, negative effects on labor supply are likely limited, in line with the existing literature. The decrease in unemployment, coupled with an increase in the number of employees, indicates that labor demand effects likely dominate effects on labor supply. Our results suggest that policymakers considering recreational access to cannabis should anticipate a possible increase in employment.

Parole chiave

  • cannabis
  • marijuana
  • labor demand
  • manufacturing

JEL Classification

  • J21
  • R11
  • J3
  • K00
5 Articoli
Accesso libero

The bilingual gap in children's language, emotional, and pro-social development

Pubblicato online: 29 Jan 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

In this paper we examine whether – conditional on other child endowments and family inputs – bilingual children achieve different language, emotional, and pro-social developmental outcomes. Our data, which allow us to analyze children's development in a dynamic framework, are extracted from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). We model the development production functions for bilingual children using cumulative value-added specifications, which account for parental investments and children's own ability. Analysis based on child age confirms that bilingual children initially have worse language skills than their monolingual peers. The commencement of schooling appears to attenuate these differences, and by age seven, bilingual children have a developmental advantage. We find evidence of a positive relationship between bilingualism and some aspects of emotional development, and it is mainly boys who appear to benefit from their bilingual background.

Parole chiave

  • cognitive and non-cognitive skills
  • production function
  • value-added model
  • cohort studies

JEL Classification

  • I20
  • J24
  • D10
Accesso libero

Technical Education, Non-cognitive Skills and Labor Market Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Brazil

Pubblicato online: 03 Mar 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

This paper describes the results from an evaluation of a public policy that offers scholarships to current and former public high school students, so that they can attend technical and vocational education courses free of charge. We use a waiting list randomized controlled trial in four municipalities in a southern Brazilian State (Santa Catarina) to quantify the effects of the program on school progression, labor market outcomes and non-cognitive skills. Our intention-to-treat estimates reveal substantial gender heterogeneity two years after program completion. Women experienced large gains in labor market outcomes and non-cognitive skills. Employment rose by 21 percentage points (or approximately 33%) and the gains in earnings are of more than 50%. Also, women who received the offer scored 0.5σ higher on the synthetic index of non-cognitive skills and 0.69σ higher on an extraversion indicator. We find no effects on the male sub-sample. These findings corroborate the evidence on gender heterogeneity in the labor market effects of technical and vocational education programs. We also perform a series of exercises to explore potential channels through which these effects arise.

Parole chiave

  • Vocational Education
  • Human Capital
  • Non-cognitive Skills
  • Labor Market Outcomes

JEL Classification

  • C21
  • I38
  • J24
Accesso libero

The unequal impact of raising the retirement age: Employment response and program substitution

Pubblicato online: 21 Sep 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Using high-frequency Italian administrative data, the author studies the heterogeneous effects of a reform raising the normal retirement age (NRA) from 60 years to 65 years for private-sector male employees. The analysis, based on a difference-in-differences (DD) method, shows that the NRA raise reduces pension benefit claims but does not lead to a one-to-one increase in the employment rate since workers also apply for more disability and unemployment benefits. Moreover, most of them simply retire without any benefit. The extent of the effects varies substantially across socio-economic groups, as individuals with poorer health, with lower occupational grades and lower pay levels are the most constrained by the reform, experiencing the highest delay in pension claims, increase in employment, and inactivity. All in all, this paper shows that raising the NRA could have unintended effects as it affects more negatively the most vulnerable in the labor market.

Parole chiave

  • Retirement age
  • Labor supply
  • Disability benefit
  • Pension reform
  • Unemployment
  • Older workers
  • Socio-economic inequalities

JEL Classification

  • J14
  • J26
  • I38
  • J18
  • J22
Accesso libero

Business Income Dynamics and Labor Market Fluidity

Pubblicato online: 18 Oct 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

The share of the U.S. population that receives business income has increased substantially in recent decades. At the same time, worker hire and separation rates declined, with worrying implications for productivity and wage growth. In this paper, we explore the relationship between business income (BI) receipt and labor reallocation. We show that BI recipients are largely excluded from existing measures of labor reallocation. Including BI recipients reduces the measured decline from 1994 to 2014 in the hire and separation rates by 8.3–8.7%, respectively, primarily among jobs that were secondary sources of income or short in duration. We present evidence that worker transitions between wage and salary jobs and BI represent labor reallocation, as opposed to reclassification of employees as independent contractors.

Parole chiave

  • labor reallocation
  • employment dynamics
  • self-employment
  • business ownership

JEL Classification

  • J63
  • L26
Accesso libero

The effects of recreational cannabis access on labor markets: evidence from Colorado

Pubblicato online: 25 Nov 2021
Pagine: -

Astratto

Abstract

Recreational cannabis markets possibly increase labor demand through investments in facilities for growing, processing, and retail sales of cannabis, as well as through other industries such as manufacturing, leisure, and hospitality. However, this increase in labor demand may vary substantially across counties within a state as most states with legal recreational cannabis allow individual counties to ban commercial cannabis sales. Meanwhile, labor supply may change through positive and negative effects from cannabis use. Using county-level Colorado data from 2011 to 2018 and exploiting variation across counties in the existence and timing of the start of dispensary sales, we test for changes in the unemployment rate, employment, and wages, overall and by industry subsector. Consistent with an increase in labor demand, we estimate that the sale of recreational cannabis through dispensaries is associated with a 0.7 percentage point decrease in the unemployment rate with no effect on the size of the labor force. We also find a 4.5% increase in the number of employees, with the strongest effects found in manufacturing. We find no effect on wages. Given the lack of a reduction in labor force participation or wages, negative effects on labor supply are likely limited, in line with the existing literature. The decrease in unemployment, coupled with an increase in the number of employees, indicates that labor demand effects likely dominate effects on labor supply. Our results suggest that policymakers considering recreational access to cannabis should anticipate a possible increase in employment.

Parole chiave

  • cannabis
  • marijuana
  • labor demand
  • manufacturing

JEL Classification

  • J21
  • R11
  • J3
  • K00

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