Rivista e Edizione

Volume 9 (2022): Edizione 1 (June 2022)

Volume 8 (2021): Edizione 2 (December 2021)

Volume 8 (2021): Edizione 1 (June 2021)

Volume 7 (2020): Edizione 2 (December 2020)

Volume 7 (2020): Edizione 1 (January 2020)

Volume 6 (2019): Edizione 2 (December 2019)

Volume 6 (2019): Edizione 1 (June 2019)

Volume 5 (2018): Edizione 2 (December 2018)

Volume 5 (2018): Edizione 1 (September 2018)

Volume 4 (2017): Edizione 2 (December 2017)

Volume 4 (2017): Edizione 1 (June 2017)

Volume 3 (2016): Edizione 2 (December 2016)

Volume 3 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Volume 2 (2015): Edizione 2 (November 2015)

Volume 2 (2015): Edizione 1 (June 2015)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2354-0036
Pubblicato per la prima volta
16 Apr 2015
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

Volume 3 (2016): Edizione 1 (June 2016)

Dettagli della rivista
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2354-0036
Pubblicato per la prima volta
16 Apr 2015
Periodo di pubblicazione
2 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese

Cerca

11 Articoli
Accesso libero

Which Test of Divergent Thinking Is Best?

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 4 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

Divergent thinking (DT) tests are probably the most commonly used measures of creative potential. Several extensive batteries are available but most research relies on one or two specific tests rather than a complete battery. This may limit generalizations because tests of DT are not equivalent. They are not always highly inter-correlated. Additionally, some DT tests appear to be better than others at eliciting originality. This is critical because originality is vital for creativity. The primary purpose of the present study was to determine which test of DT elicits the most originality. Seven measures of DTwere administered on a sample of 611 participants in eight Arabic countries. The tests were Figural, Titles, Realistic Presented Problems, Realistic Problem Generation, Instances, Uses, and Similarities. The Quick Test of Convergent Thinking, Runco’s Ideational Behavior Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were also administered. A linear mixed model analysis confirmed that the originality scores in the DT tests differed by test. Post-hoc tests indicated that the Titles and Realistic Problem Generation tests produced the highest mean originality scores, whereas the Realistic Presented Problems test produced the lowest mean originality scores. These differences confirm that research using only one DT test will not provide generalizable results.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Divergent Thinking
  • Originality
  • Creativity Testing
  • Uses test
  • Problem Finding
  • Creative Potential
  • Runco Ideational Behavior Scale
  • Quick Estimate of Convergent Thinking
  • Standard Definition of Creativity
Accesso libero

An Exploration of Some Antecedents and Consequences of Creative Self-Efficacy: The Role of Achievement Goals, Enjoyment and Divergent Thinking

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 19 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

We examined the role of task-, self- and other-approach achievement goals and enjoyment as antecedents of creative self-efficacy and the influence of creative self-efficacy on divergent thinking scores among children from Mexico. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring achievement goals, creative self-efficacy, enjoyment and divergent thinking skills. We used Structural Equation Modelling to test our hypotheses, treating the variables as latent. Results showed a positive influence of other-approach achievement goals and enjoyment on creative self-efficacy. The influence of creative self-efficacy on divergent thinking scores was not significant. The implications of our results are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Creative self-efficacy
  • Achievement goals
  • Achievement emotions
  • Divergent thinking
  • Self-beliefs
Accesso libero

Developing Visual Perception as a Stimulator of Artistic Activities of Children

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 34 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

I would like to present research in the field of art – specifically, in the artistic education of younger school children. The natural pedagogical experiment consisted of carrying out an art education programme aimed at developing the visual perception of children with regard to visual qualities, i.e. colour, line and solid representations. In the first part of experiment the children learned about these basic visual qualities and produced free interpretations of them. In the second part of the experiment the artistic problem of contrast in the learned visual qualities appeared. During the third part of the experiment children perceived the familiar qualities in relative relations. As visual perception determines the character and quality of artistic activities in children in such a significant way, it seems worth trying to revise the system of developing their artistic activities that has been used so far in art education.

Parole chiave

  • Visual perception
  • Children
  • Stimulator
  • Artistic activities
  • Process
  • Creativity
Accesso libero

Children’s Drawing in the Context of the Visual Language of New Media. Research Report

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 44 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

The present time is a period of dynamic development of new media, which should be accompanied by a more profound reflection over their impact on human development. The research on the impact of new media on children seems to be important as children become increasingly exposed to the virtual world, at the same time exploring reality. The time and commitment with which they “absorb” media images is bound to take its toll on a child’s psyche, which manifests itself in the imaging. The article presents the research on drawing activity of children from 3 to 12 years old in the context of changes occurring in these activities brought about by the visual language of new media. The fact that this extensive research has been carried out over an interval of 10 years (in 2004 I carried out an analysis of 4180 drawings of children and youth aged 3 to 18 years, while in the study repeated in 2014 I examined 2134 drawings of children aged 3 to 12 years), makes it possible to compare the results of the two studies, and also to confront them with descriptions of children’s drawings found in the specialized literature. In this way, the obtained characteristics may be referred to the visual language used to construct the new media image. Qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as a comparison of the results, have allowed not only changes in the children’s drawing activities to be determined, but also indicate the direction of these changes. For the research, it was also important to find arguments in favour of media education with reference to visual education and defined as training, that pertains to the entire contemporary iconosphere.

Parole chiave

  • Children’s drawing
  • New media
  • Visual language
  • Mediasphere
  • Drawing abilities
Accesso libero

Cognitive Poetry: Theoretical Framework for the Application of Cognitive Psychology Techniques to Poetic Text

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 59 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents a theoretical framework for the author’s experimental work in contemporary poetry, which has received the term cognitive poetry. In contrast to cognitive poetics, which applies the principles of cognitive psychology to interpret poetic texts, cognitive poetry applies these principles to produce poetic texts. The theoretical considerations of cognitive poetry are based on the assumption that one of the major purposes of creative work is to elicit an aesthetical reaction in the beholder. The aesthetical reaction to poetic texts could be achieved via their satiation with multiple meanings presented through multiple sensory modalities. Cognitive poetry employs techniques developed in cognitive psychology to explicitly address cognitive processes underlying the construction of multiple conceptual planes. The following techniques are discussed: priming, the Stroop effect, multimodal and multilingual presentations. The applications of these techniques are illustrated with examples of poetic texts produced by the author.

Parole chiave

  • Poetry
  • Cognitive
  • Psychology
  • Metaphor
  • Vygotsky
Accesso libero

Space and Creativity: Students’ Opinions on School Space as a Component of the Creative Environment

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 84 - 93

Astratto

Abstract

Space understood as physical environment is the object of research in many fields, including social sciences. Previous studies point to the importance it may have for creative activity. School is one of the spaces where creative activity takes place. School is also supposed to support the development of students’ creativity. The article presents research on school as a physical environment facilitating creativity. The main aim of the presented study was to identify the characteristics of schools that students evaluated as favourable and unfavourable to their creative activity. The following research questions were addressed: What features of school space are evaluated by students as favourable to their creative activity? What features of school space are evaluated by students as unfavourable to their creative activity? The research made it possible to identify the elements of school that students see as support for, or hindrance to, their creative activity.

Parole chiave

  • Creative space
  • Creative physical environment
  • Creative school spaces
  • Creative school
Accesso libero

An Artist Without Wings? Regulation of Emotions Through Aesthetic Experiences

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 94 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

Art can help handle difficult experiences. Art therapy sessions (healing through art) have been recognised for years as a well-known and efficient method of treatment. At the same time, one can observe people’s tendencies – apparently inefficient in terms of their well-being (emotions, mood) – to create or experience art (e.g. watching horror movies, listening to sad songs, expressive writing about one’s ordeals). Many authors have described the way negative emotions are regulated. Their research has not, however, exhausted the subject in relation to art. In this paper I discuss the regulation of emotions through art. I am interested in the process of regulating affective experiences, particularly through expressive writing, and in the impact this way of regulation has on task-oriented functioning, especially cognitive functioning.

Parole chiave

  • Art
  • Creativity
  • Emotions
  • Affective regulation
  • Expressive writing
Accesso libero

Determinants of the Content and Creation of Modern Television Series. Selected Issues

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 104 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the most important factors affecting the creation and content of two different genres of television series–Polish television sagas and American post-soap operas. The analysis which I have carried out in the field allows the formulation of several conclusions. The creation of the two genres is similar. In both cases the most important people are the producers and scriptwriters and the most important criteria used for the assessment of a production are audience ratings and economic factors. Polish television sagas and American post-soaps are often very different with regard to their content and the ways they present social issues. The reasons for the differences include: genre convention, expectations of viewers, social and cultural context, and the emergence of commercial subscription television in the United States. At the turn of the 21st century HBO, an American pay television provider, followed by other stations began to produce shows which, even though they have originated from older television forms, break the ties with their antecedents. Makers of post-soaps address sensitive social issues and create their characters in an original and often controversial way.

Parole chiave

  • Content
  • Creativity
  • Genre
  • Polish television saga
  • Post-soap opera
  • Economics
  • Audience
Accesso libero

Popular Author of Popular Art

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 118 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

The article provides a report on research conducted on the creative activity of Jerzy Wróblewski, a Polish author of comics published in the book „Urodzony, żeby rysować”. Twórczość komiksowa Jerzego Wróblewskiego, “Born to Draw.” Jerzy Wróblewski’s Comic Art (Jaworski, 2015). It is the first study of this kind in Poland. From this point of view, it contains not only a body of knowledge in the form of a monograph of the comic writer’s artistic creativity, but it also includes a developed research model. The structure of this model, combining traditional monographic narrative with broad historical, political and social context, can be used in the analyses of artistic accomplishments of other authors of Polish comics. The presented study addresses the need for scientific explorations in this field, but also for raising the value of those parts of Polish modern culture which were marginalised as ‘worse’ for many years, first for political reasons, then for cultural ones. It appears that the time has come to examine critically the artistic creativity of important figures of Polish popular culture (in this case of comics) objectively and without ideological prejudice, and recognise them as full authors of Polish culture. Jerzy Wróblewski is among them and that is why the book is about him.

Parole chiave

  • Wróblewski
  • Comic book
  • Popular culture
  • Popular art
Accesso libero

Creativity and Leadership in Organizations: A Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 127 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

Despite the importance to researchers and organizations of how creativity contributes to effective leadership and how leadership contributes to group and organizational creativity, our knowledge regarding this interrelationship remains largely limited. A review of the literature based on both theoretical grounds and empirical evidence reveals that studies examining the intersection between creativity and leadership in organizations are divergent in terms of how they conceptualize this relationship. A multi-level framework is used to synthesize the knowledge in both creativity and leadership disciplines, with multiple themes having been found at each level of the framework.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Leadership
  • Organizations
Accesso libero

Slumps and Jumps: Another Look at Developmental Changes in Creative Abilities

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 152 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study is the analysis of creativity changes across life, particularly the widely discussed crisis periods in the development of creative abilities. A large and diversified sample of Poles (N = 4898 aged from 4 to 21 years), at each educational stage of the Polish education system, from pre-schoolers, through primary school students, middle-school students, secondary-school students and finally university students completed the Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production. The observed changes showed a nonlinear pattern in the development of creativity with diverse declines and increases in creative abilities. These trends are different for each of the assessment criteria of the TCT-DP and at least three different trajectories were identified. The adolescent slump was confirmed for three of the 14 assessment criteria as well as the total TCT-DP score. What was not noted however was: a slump caused by entry into formal schooling, (age 6 vs 7), 4th grade slump, (age 9 vs 10) and 6th grade slump (age 11 vs 12). We discuss possible reasons for and consequences of the findings.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Developmental changes
  • Life span on creativity
  • Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP)
  • Slump in creativity
11 Articoli
Accesso libero

Which Test of Divergent Thinking Is Best?

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 4 - 18

Astratto

Abstract

Divergent thinking (DT) tests are probably the most commonly used measures of creative potential. Several extensive batteries are available but most research relies on one or two specific tests rather than a complete battery. This may limit generalizations because tests of DT are not equivalent. They are not always highly inter-correlated. Additionally, some DT tests appear to be better than others at eliciting originality. This is critical because originality is vital for creativity. The primary purpose of the present study was to determine which test of DT elicits the most originality. Seven measures of DTwere administered on a sample of 611 participants in eight Arabic countries. The tests were Figural, Titles, Realistic Presented Problems, Realistic Problem Generation, Instances, Uses, and Similarities. The Quick Test of Convergent Thinking, Runco’s Ideational Behavior Scale, and a demographic questionnaire were also administered. A linear mixed model analysis confirmed that the originality scores in the DT tests differed by test. Post-hoc tests indicated that the Titles and Realistic Problem Generation tests produced the highest mean originality scores, whereas the Realistic Presented Problems test produced the lowest mean originality scores. These differences confirm that research using only one DT test will not provide generalizable results.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Divergent Thinking
  • Originality
  • Creativity Testing
  • Uses test
  • Problem Finding
  • Creative Potential
  • Runco Ideational Behavior Scale
  • Quick Estimate of Convergent Thinking
  • Standard Definition of Creativity
Accesso libero

An Exploration of Some Antecedents and Consequences of Creative Self-Efficacy: The Role of Achievement Goals, Enjoyment and Divergent Thinking

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 19 - 33

Astratto

Abstract

We examined the role of task-, self- and other-approach achievement goals and enjoyment as antecedents of creative self-efficacy and the influence of creative self-efficacy on divergent thinking scores among children from Mexico. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring achievement goals, creative self-efficacy, enjoyment and divergent thinking skills. We used Structural Equation Modelling to test our hypotheses, treating the variables as latent. Results showed a positive influence of other-approach achievement goals and enjoyment on creative self-efficacy. The influence of creative self-efficacy on divergent thinking scores was not significant. The implications of our results are discussed.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Creative self-efficacy
  • Achievement goals
  • Achievement emotions
  • Divergent thinking
  • Self-beliefs
Accesso libero

Developing Visual Perception as a Stimulator of Artistic Activities of Children

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 34 - 43

Astratto

Abstract

I would like to present research in the field of art – specifically, in the artistic education of younger school children. The natural pedagogical experiment consisted of carrying out an art education programme aimed at developing the visual perception of children with regard to visual qualities, i.e. colour, line and solid representations. In the first part of experiment the children learned about these basic visual qualities and produced free interpretations of them. In the second part of the experiment the artistic problem of contrast in the learned visual qualities appeared. During the third part of the experiment children perceived the familiar qualities in relative relations. As visual perception determines the character and quality of artistic activities in children in such a significant way, it seems worth trying to revise the system of developing their artistic activities that has been used so far in art education.

Parole chiave

  • Visual perception
  • Children
  • Stimulator
  • Artistic activities
  • Process
  • Creativity
Accesso libero

Children’s Drawing in the Context of the Visual Language of New Media. Research Report

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 44 - 58

Astratto

Abstract

The present time is a period of dynamic development of new media, which should be accompanied by a more profound reflection over their impact on human development. The research on the impact of new media on children seems to be important as children become increasingly exposed to the virtual world, at the same time exploring reality. The time and commitment with which they “absorb” media images is bound to take its toll on a child’s psyche, which manifests itself in the imaging. The article presents the research on drawing activity of children from 3 to 12 years old in the context of changes occurring in these activities brought about by the visual language of new media. The fact that this extensive research has been carried out over an interval of 10 years (in 2004 I carried out an analysis of 4180 drawings of children and youth aged 3 to 18 years, while in the study repeated in 2014 I examined 2134 drawings of children aged 3 to 12 years), makes it possible to compare the results of the two studies, and also to confront them with descriptions of children’s drawings found in the specialized literature. In this way, the obtained characteristics may be referred to the visual language used to construct the new media image. Qualitative and quantitative analyses, as well as a comparison of the results, have allowed not only changes in the children’s drawing activities to be determined, but also indicate the direction of these changes. For the research, it was also important to find arguments in favour of media education with reference to visual education and defined as training, that pertains to the entire contemporary iconosphere.

Parole chiave

  • Children’s drawing
  • New media
  • Visual language
  • Mediasphere
  • Drawing abilities
Accesso libero

Cognitive Poetry: Theoretical Framework for the Application of Cognitive Psychology Techniques to Poetic Text

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 59 - 83

Astratto

Abstract

This article presents a theoretical framework for the author’s experimental work in contemporary poetry, which has received the term cognitive poetry. In contrast to cognitive poetics, which applies the principles of cognitive psychology to interpret poetic texts, cognitive poetry applies these principles to produce poetic texts. The theoretical considerations of cognitive poetry are based on the assumption that one of the major purposes of creative work is to elicit an aesthetical reaction in the beholder. The aesthetical reaction to poetic texts could be achieved via their satiation with multiple meanings presented through multiple sensory modalities. Cognitive poetry employs techniques developed in cognitive psychology to explicitly address cognitive processes underlying the construction of multiple conceptual planes. The following techniques are discussed: priming, the Stroop effect, multimodal and multilingual presentations. The applications of these techniques are illustrated with examples of poetic texts produced by the author.

Parole chiave

  • Poetry
  • Cognitive
  • Psychology
  • Metaphor
  • Vygotsky
Accesso libero

Space and Creativity: Students’ Opinions on School Space as a Component of the Creative Environment

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 84 - 93

Astratto

Abstract

Space understood as physical environment is the object of research in many fields, including social sciences. Previous studies point to the importance it may have for creative activity. School is one of the spaces where creative activity takes place. School is also supposed to support the development of students’ creativity. The article presents research on school as a physical environment facilitating creativity. The main aim of the presented study was to identify the characteristics of schools that students evaluated as favourable and unfavourable to their creative activity. The following research questions were addressed: What features of school space are evaluated by students as favourable to their creative activity? What features of school space are evaluated by students as unfavourable to their creative activity? The research made it possible to identify the elements of school that students see as support for, or hindrance to, their creative activity.

Parole chiave

  • Creative space
  • Creative physical environment
  • Creative school spaces
  • Creative school
Accesso libero

An Artist Without Wings? Regulation of Emotions Through Aesthetic Experiences

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 94 - 103

Astratto

Abstract

Art can help handle difficult experiences. Art therapy sessions (healing through art) have been recognised for years as a well-known and efficient method of treatment. At the same time, one can observe people’s tendencies – apparently inefficient in terms of their well-being (emotions, mood) – to create or experience art (e.g. watching horror movies, listening to sad songs, expressive writing about one’s ordeals). Many authors have described the way negative emotions are regulated. Their research has not, however, exhausted the subject in relation to art. In this paper I discuss the regulation of emotions through art. I am interested in the process of regulating affective experiences, particularly through expressive writing, and in the impact this way of regulation has on task-oriented functioning, especially cognitive functioning.

Parole chiave

  • Art
  • Creativity
  • Emotions
  • Affective regulation
  • Expressive writing
Accesso libero

Determinants of the Content and Creation of Modern Television Series. Selected Issues

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 104 - 117

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the most important factors affecting the creation and content of two different genres of television series–Polish television sagas and American post-soap operas. The analysis which I have carried out in the field allows the formulation of several conclusions. The creation of the two genres is similar. In both cases the most important people are the producers and scriptwriters and the most important criteria used for the assessment of a production are audience ratings and economic factors. Polish television sagas and American post-soaps are often very different with regard to their content and the ways they present social issues. The reasons for the differences include: genre convention, expectations of viewers, social and cultural context, and the emergence of commercial subscription television in the United States. At the turn of the 21st century HBO, an American pay television provider, followed by other stations began to produce shows which, even though they have originated from older television forms, break the ties with their antecedents. Makers of post-soaps address sensitive social issues and create their characters in an original and often controversial way.

Parole chiave

  • Content
  • Creativity
  • Genre
  • Polish television saga
  • Post-soap opera
  • Economics
  • Audience
Accesso libero

Popular Author of Popular Art

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 118 - 126

Astratto

Abstract

The article provides a report on research conducted on the creative activity of Jerzy Wróblewski, a Polish author of comics published in the book „Urodzony, żeby rysować”. Twórczość komiksowa Jerzego Wróblewskiego, “Born to Draw.” Jerzy Wróblewski’s Comic Art (Jaworski, 2015). It is the first study of this kind in Poland. From this point of view, it contains not only a body of knowledge in the form of a monograph of the comic writer’s artistic creativity, but it also includes a developed research model. The structure of this model, combining traditional monographic narrative with broad historical, political and social context, can be used in the analyses of artistic accomplishments of other authors of Polish comics. The presented study addresses the need for scientific explorations in this field, but also for raising the value of those parts of Polish modern culture which were marginalised as ‘worse’ for many years, first for political reasons, then for cultural ones. It appears that the time has come to examine critically the artistic creativity of important figures of Polish popular culture (in this case of comics) objectively and without ideological prejudice, and recognise them as full authors of Polish culture. Jerzy Wróblewski is among them and that is why the book is about him.

Parole chiave

  • Wróblewski
  • Comic book
  • Popular culture
  • Popular art
Accesso libero

Creativity and Leadership in Organizations: A Literature Review

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 127 - 151

Astratto

Abstract

Despite the importance to researchers and organizations of how creativity contributes to effective leadership and how leadership contributes to group and organizational creativity, our knowledge regarding this interrelationship remains largely limited. A review of the literature based on both theoretical grounds and empirical evidence reveals that studies examining the intersection between creativity and leadership in organizations are divergent in terms of how they conceptualize this relationship. A multi-level framework is used to synthesize the knowledge in both creativity and leadership disciplines, with multiple themes having been found at each level of the framework.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Leadership
  • Organizations
Accesso libero

Slumps and Jumps: Another Look at Developmental Changes in Creative Abilities

Pubblicato online: 08 Jun 2016
Pagine: 152 - 177

Astratto

Abstract

The aim of this study is the analysis of creativity changes across life, particularly the widely discussed crisis periods in the development of creative abilities. A large and diversified sample of Poles (N = 4898 aged from 4 to 21 years), at each educational stage of the Polish education system, from pre-schoolers, through primary school students, middle-school students, secondary-school students and finally university students completed the Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production. The observed changes showed a nonlinear pattern in the development of creativity with diverse declines and increases in creative abilities. These trends are different for each of the assessment criteria of the TCT-DP and at least three different trajectories were identified. The adolescent slump was confirmed for three of the 14 assessment criteria as well as the total TCT-DP score. What was not noted however was: a slump caused by entry into formal schooling, (age 6 vs 7), 4th grade slump, (age 9 vs 10) and 6th grade slump (age 11 vs 12). We discuss possible reasons for and consequences of the findings.

Parole chiave

  • Creativity
  • Developmental changes
  • Life span on creativity
  • Test for Creative Thinking – Drawing Production (TCT-DP)
  • Slump in creativity

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