1. bookVolume 21 (2020): Edizione 2 (April 2020)
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
20 Mar 2000
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
access type Accesso libero

Airport Related Emissions and their Impact on Air Quality at a Major Japanese Airport: The Case of Kansai International Airport

Pubblicato online: 30 Apr 2020
Volume & Edizione: Volume 21 (2020) - Edizione 2 (April 2020)
Pagine: 95 - 109
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
20 Mar 2000
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno

The objective of this study was to investigate the carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions of an airport, to determine if strategies are helping to achieve sustainability targets. Kansai International Airport was selected as the case study, and it is Japan’s third largest airport and there was readily available comprehensive data to enable a study to be undertaken. The airport has a dedicated environmental division and has implemented various initiatives over the past decade or so to reduce the airport’s impact on the surrounding environment, especially since it is in Osaka Bay. The research used an exploratory design, with an initial qualitative case study, followed by a quantitative longitudinal study, utilizing correlation to assess trends over time. Results showed statistically significant reductions in carbon dioxide (CO2) emission from the three facets of airport operations, both in terms of the number of passengers and number of aircraft serviced by the airport. As a result, the initiatives undertaken at Kansai International Airport could be adapted and used by other airports to help reduce their carbon dioxide emissions.


1. Airport Technology. (2014) Too high a price? The risks and rewards of airport privatisation, Airport Technology, July 31, http://www.airport-technology.com/features/featuretoo-high-a-price-the-risks-and-rewards-of-airport-privatisation-4327078/. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

2. Airport World. (2014) New Kansai International Airport Company shortlists 20 concession bidders, Airport World, December 30, http://www.airport-world.com/news/general-news/4762-new-kansai-international-airport-company-shortlists-20-concession-bidders.html. Accessed on 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

3. Altheide D.L. and Schneider, C.J. (2013) Qualitative media analysis. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.10.4135/9781452270043Search in Google Scholar

4. Anderson, V. (2013) Research methods in human resource management: Investigating a business issue. 3rd ed. London, UK: Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.Search in Google Scholar

5. Ashford, N. J., Martin Stanton, H.P., Moore, C.A., Coutu, P. and Beasley, J.R. (2013) Airport operations. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

6. Ashok, A., Balakrishnan, H. and Barrett, S.R.H. (2017) Reducing the air quality and CO2 climate impacts of taxi and takeoff operations at airports. Transportation. Research Part D: Transport and Environment, 54, 287-303. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trd.2017.05.01310.1016/j.trd.2017.05.013Search in Google Scholar

7. Balachandar, G., Roy, S. and Das, D. (2016) Production process via fermentation. In: Stolten, D. and Emonts, B. (Eds.). Hydrogen science and engineering: materials, processes, systems and technology. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag, Germany, 412-438.10.1002/9783527674268.ch18Search in Google Scholar

8. Baxter, G. and Srisaeng, P. (2018a) Cooperating to compete in the global air cargo industry: The case of the DHL Express and Lufthansa Cargo A.G. joint venture airline ‘AeroLogic’. Infrastructures, 3(1), 7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures301000710.3390/infrastructures3010007Search in Google Scholar

9. Baxter, G. and Srisaeng, P. (2018b) The strategic deployment of the Airbus A350-900XWB aircraft in a full-service network carrier route network: The case of Singapore Airlines. Infrastructures, 3(3), 25. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures303002510.3390/infrastructures3030025Search in Google Scholar

10. Baxter, G., Srisaeng, P. and Wild, G. (2018a) An assessment of sustainable airport water management: The case of Osaka’s Kansai International Airport. Infrastructures, 3(3), 54. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/infrastructures304005410.3390/infrastructures3040054Search in Google Scholar

11. Baxter, G., Srisaeng, P., and Wild, G. (2018b) Sustainable airport energy management: The case of Kansai International Airport. International Journal for Traffic and Transportation Engineering, 8(3), 334-358.10.7708/ijtte.2018.8(3).07Search in Google Scholar

12. Bo, X., Xue, X., Xu, J., Du, X., Zhou, B and Tang, L. (2019) Aviation’s emissions and contribution to the air quality in China. Atmospheric Environment, 201, 121-131. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.00510.1016/j.atmosenv.2019.01.005Search in Google Scholar

13. Budd, T. (2017) Environmental impacts and mitigation. In Budd, L., Ison, S. (Eds.). Air transport management: An international perspective, Abingdon, UK: Routledge, pp. 283-306.Search in Google Scholar

14. Chester, L. (2016) A rėgulationist analysis of an industry sector using mixed research methods. In: Lee, F.S., Cronin, B. (Eds.). Handbook of research methods and applications in heterodox economics. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 569-590.10.4337/9781782548461.00037Search in Google Scholar

15. Cresswell, J.W. (2014) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

16. Cresswell, J.W. (2015) A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

17. Creswell, J.W. and Cresswell, J.D. (2017) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. 5th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

18. Cresswell, J.W. and Plano Clark, V.L. (2011) Designing and conducting mixed methods research. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

19. Culberson, S.D. (2011) Environmental impacts of airports. In: Ashford, N.J., Mumayiz, S.A., and Wright, P.H. (Eds.). Airport engineering: Planning, design, and development of 21st century airports. 4th ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 704-738.Search in Google Scholar

20. Dempsey, P.S. (2000) Airport planning and development handbook: A global survey. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

21. Derrington, M.L. (2019) Qualitative longitudinal methods: Researching implementation and change. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.10.4135/9781071814277Search in Google Scholar

22. Dincer, I. and Joshi, A.S. (2013) Solar based hydrogen production systems. New York, NY: Springer, USA.10.1007/978-1-4614-7431-9Search in Google Scholar

23. FedEx. (2014) FedEx opens North Pacific regional hub at Kansai International Airport, Press Release April 8, https://about.van.fedex.com/newsroom/fedex-opens-north-pacific-regional-hub-at-kansai-international-airport/. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

24. Fulcher, J. and Scott, J. (2011) Sociology. 4th ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

25. Furudoi, T. (2010) The second phase construction of Kansai International Airport considering the large and long-term settlements of the clay deposits. Soils and Foundations, 50(6), 805-816. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3208/sandf.50.80510.3208/sandf.50.805Search in Google Scholar

26. Gellings, C.W. (2011) Saving energy and reducing CO2 emissions with electricity. Lilburn, GA: The Fairmont Press.Search in Google Scholar

27. Graham, A. (2018) Managing airports: An international perspective. 5th ed. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.10.4324/9781315269047Search in Google Scholar

28. Grote, M., Williams, I. and Preston, J. (2014) Direct carbon dioxide emissions from civil aircraft. Atmospheric. Environment, 95, 214-224. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.06.04210.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.06.042710838832288557Search in Google Scholar

29. He, M.F., Schultz, B.D. and Schube, W.H. (2015) The SAGE guide to curriculum in education. Thousand Oak, CA: SAGE Publications.10.4135/9781483346687Search in Google Scholar

30. Heavey, E. (2011) Statistics for nursing: A practical approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.Search in Google Scholar

31. Heiman, G.W. (2011) Basic statistics for the behavioral sciences. 6th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.Search in Google Scholar

32. Horonjeff, R., McKelvey, F.X., Sproule, W.J. and Young, S.B. (2010) Planning & design of airports. 5th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.Search in Google Scholar

33. International Air Transport Association. (2011) IATA Vision 2050, https://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/Documents/vision-2050.pdf. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

34. International Air Transport Association. (2018) Fact sheet: Climate change and CORSIA, https://www.iata.org/pressroom/facts_figures/fact_sheets/Documents/fact-sheet-climate-change.pdf. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

35. International Air Transport Association. (2019) Local air quality, https://www.iata.org/policy/environment/Pages/laq.aspx. Accessed 13/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

36. International Airport Review. (2010) UK Airport Operators launch new guidelines to reduce aircraft ground emissions. http://www.internationalairportreview.com/2717/airport-news/uk-airport-operators-launch-new-guidelines-to-reduce-aircraft-ground-emissions/. Accessed 26/12/2019Search in Google Scholar

37. International Civil Aviation Organization. (2008) Annex 16 to the Convention on International Civil Aviation Organization: Environmental Protection, Volume II, Aircraft Engine Emissions. 3rd ed. Montreal: International Civil Aviation Organization.Search in Google Scholar

38. International Civil Aviation Organization. (2016) Airport air quality manual. Document 9889. Montreal: International Civil Aviation Organization.Search in Google Scholar

39. International Civil Aviation Organization. (2019a) Guidance on airport air quality. https://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/LAQ_GuidanceMaterial.aspx. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

40. International Civil Aviation Organisation. (2019b) Local air quality, https://www.icao.int/environmental-protection/Pages/local-air-quality.aspx. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

41. Janić, M. (2011) Greening airports: Advanced technology and operations. London, UK: Springer Verlag.10.1007/978-0-85729-658-0Search in Google Scholar

42. Kalaian, S.A. and Kasim, R.M. (2008) Longitudinal studies. In. Lavrakas, P.J. (Ed.). Encyclopaedia of survey research methods. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc, pp. 439-440.Search in Google Scholar

43. Kansai Airports. (2016) Smart Island Report 2016, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/kix/smart-island/file/smart_rprt16.pdf. Accessed 26/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

44. Kansai Airports. (2018) Environmental Report 2018, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/efforts/reports.html. Accessed 25/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

45. Kansai Airports. (2019) Kansai International Airport statistics, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/company-profile/about-airports/kix.htmlAccessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

46. Kansai International Airport. (2017) Kansai International Airport Environmental Report 2017. Kansai International Airport environmental report 2017. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

47. Kansai International Airport Company Ltd. (2007) Kansai International Airport Eco-Island Environmental Report 2007, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/kix/smart-island/file/kixeco_rprt07.pdf. Accessed 26/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

48. Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd. (2012) Kansai International Airport environmental management project, http://www.kiac.co.jp/pdf/report_EMP_en.pdf. Accessed 15/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

49. Kansai International Airport. (2013) KIX Environmental Report 2013, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/efforts/reports.html. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

50. Kansai International Airport. (2017) Environmental Report 2017, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/efforts/reports.html. Accessed 26/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

51. Kazda, A. and Caves, R.E. (2015) Airport design and operation. 3rd ed. Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

52. Landers, P. (2000) At Japan’s Kansai International Airport, red ink is rising as fast as the water, Wall Street Journal, October 30. https://www.wsj.com/articles/SB972854443383676153. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

53. Larminie, J. and Lowry, J. (2012) Electric vehicle technology explained. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, USA. 314 p.10.1002/9781118361146Search in Google Scholar

54. Leavy, P. (2017) Research design: Quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, arts-based, and community-based participatory approaches. New York, NY: The Guildford Press.Search in Google Scholar

55. Marais, K., Wolfe, P.J. and Waitz, I.A. (2016) Air transport and the environment. In: Belobaba, P., Odoni, A.., Barnhart, C. (Eds). The global airline industry. 2nd ed. Chichester, UK; John Wiley & Sons, pp. 423-457.Search in Google Scholar

56. Masiol, M. and Harrison, R.M. (2014) Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review. Atmospheric Environment, 95, 409-455. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.07010.1016/j.atmosenv.2014.05.070710828932288558Search in Google Scholar

57. Morikawa, Y., Tabata, T. and Emura, T. (2007) Ground improvement for the second phase construction of Kansai International Airport. In: Kikuchi. Y., Kimura. M., Otani, J., Morikawa, Y. (Eds.). Advances in deep foundations: International workshop on recent advances of deep foundations. Leiden, Netherlands: Taylor & Francis Balkema, pp. 389-394.Search in Google Scholar

58. Mosvold Larsen, O. (2015) Climate change is here to stay: Reviewing the impact of climate change on airport infrastructure. Journal of Airport Management, 9(3), 264-269.Search in Google Scholar

59. Neale, B. (2018) What is qualitative longitudinal research? London, UK: Bloomsbury Academic Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

60. New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd. (2014a) Environmental Report 2014, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/file/envreport2014.pdf. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

61. New Kansai International Airport Company. (2014b) Smart island report 2014, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/efforts/file/kix_smartreport_2014.pdf. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

62. New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd. (2015a) Environmental Report 2015, http://www.kansai-airports.co.jp/en/efforts/environment/file/envreport2015.pdf. Accessed 25/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

63. New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd. (2015b) Creating the future with hydrogen: Smart Airport KIX. Osaka, Japan: New Kansai Airport Company Ltd.Search in Google Scholar

64. Nikkei Asian Review. (2015) Japanese-French consortium to manage Osaka Airports, Nikkei Asian Review, December 16, http://asia.nikkei.com/Business/Deals/Japanese-French-consortium-to-manage-Osaka-airports. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

65. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. (2013) Glossary of statistical terms: Carbon dioxide equivalent. https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=285. Accessed 14/12/2019.Search in Google Scholar

66. Payne, G. and Payne, J. (2004) Key concepts in social research. London, UK: SAGE Publications.10.4135/9781849209397Search in Google Scholar

67. Rahim, A.R. and Baksh, M.S. (2003) Case study method for product development in engineer-to-order organisations. Work Study, 52(1), 25-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1108/0043802031045870510.1108/00438020310458705Search in Google Scholar

68. Ryley, T., Elmirghani, J., Budd, T., Miyoshi, C., Mason, K., Moxon, R., Ahmed, I., Qazi, B. and Zanni, A. (2013) Sustainable development and airport surface access: The role of technological innovation and behavioral change. Sustainability, 5(4), 1617-1631. DOI: https://doi.org/10.3390/su504161710.3390/su5041617Search in Google Scholar

69. Scott, J. (1990) A matter of record: Documentary sources in social research. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Search in Google Scholar

70. Scott, J. and Marshall, G. (2009) A dictionary of sociology. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

71. Sgouridis, S., Bonnefoy, P.A. and John Hansman, R. (2011) Air transportation in a carbon constrained world: Long-term dynamics of policies and strategies for mitigating the carbon footprint of commercial aviation. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 45(10), 1077-1091. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tra.2010.03.01910.1016/j.tra.2010.03.019Search in Google Scholar

72. Smith, M.J.T. (2004) Aircraft noise. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press,Search in Google Scholar

73. Teoh, L.E. and Khoo, H.L. (2016) Green air transport system: An overview of issues. KSCE Journal of Civil Engineering, 20(3), 1040-1052. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12205-016-1670-310.1007/s12205-016-1670-3Search in Google Scholar

74. Testa, E., Giammusso C., Bruno, M. and Maggiore, P. (2014) Analysis of environmental benefits resulting from the use of hydrogen technology in handling operations at airports. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy, 16(5): 875-890. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10098-013-0678-310.1007/s10098-013-0678-3Search in Google Scholar

75. Thomas, C. and Hooper, P. (2013) Sustainable development and environmental capacity of airports. In: Ashford, N.J., Martin Stanton, H.P., Moore, C.A., Coutu, P. and Beasley, J.R. (Eds.). Airport operations. 3rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, pp. 553-578.Search in Google Scholar

76. Unal, A., Hu, Y., Chang, M.E., Talat Odman, M. and Russell, A.G. (2005) Airport related emissions and impacts on air quality: Application to the Atlanta International Airport. Atmospheric. Environment, 39(32), 5787-5798. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.05.05110.1016/j.atmosenv.2005.05.051Search in Google Scholar

77. van Schoor, B. (2017) Fighting corruption collectively: How successful are sector-specific coordinated governance initiatives in curbing corruption. Wiesbaden, Germany: Springer VS.10.1007/978-3-658-17838-3Search in Google Scholar

78. Whealan George, K., Clark, P. and McAndrew, I. (2017) Economic implications for emissions’ reductions with European low-cost carriers using various fuelling strategies and operations. International Journal of Sustainable Aviation, 3(4), 312-324. https://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJSA.2017.09029810.1504/IJSA.2017.090298Search in Google Scholar

79. Yeang, K. and Woo, L. (2010) Dictionary of ecodesign: An illustrated reference. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.10.4324/9780203864401Search in Google Scholar

80. Yin, K.S., Dargusch, P. and Halog, A. (2015) An analysis of the greenhouse gas emissions profile of airlines flying the Australian international market. Journal of Air Transport Management, 47, 218-229. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jairtraman.2015.06.00510.1016/j.jairtraman.2015.06.005Search in Google Scholar

81. Yin, R. K. (2009) Case study research: Design and methods. 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

82. Yin, R.K. (2018) Case study research and applications: Design and methods. 6th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.Search in Google Scholar

83. Zhang, Q. (2015) Mitigating the environmental impact of aircraft emissions through an economic theory — The endowment effect. In: Lye, L.H., Savage, V.R., Kua, H.W., Chou, L.M., Tan, P.Y. (Eds.). Sustainability matters. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing, pp. 529-555.10.1142/9789814719155_0019Search in Google Scholar

84. Gellings, C.W. (2011). Saving energy and reducing CO2 emissions with electricity. Lilburn, GA: The Freemont Press.Search in Google Scholar

85. CKTS Company Ltd. About: GSE. https://www.ckts.co.jp/en/about/features/gse/. Accessed 02/01/2020.Search in Google Scholar

86. Baxter, G.; Sabatini, R. and Wild, G. (2015). The carbon cost of aircraft ground handling: Using electric tugs to improve environmental sustainability of ground operations. In the Proceedings of the International Symposium on Sustainable Aviation, May 31- June 3, 2015 Istanbul, Turkey.Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo