1. bookVolume 27 (2021): Edizione 2 (August 2021)
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2080-6574
Prima pubblicazione
24 Dec 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
3 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Accesso libero

Caves as geoheritage resource in remote desert areas: a preliminary evaluation of Djara Cave in the Western Desert of Egypt

Pubblicato online: 17 Sep 2021
Volume & Edizione: Volume 27 (2021) - Edizione 2 (August 2021)
Pagine: 105 - 113
Ricevuto: 17 May 2021
Accettato: 25 Jul 2021
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
2080-6574
Prima pubblicazione
24 Dec 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
3 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Abstract

Caves are rare in northeast Africa and, thus, deserve attention as potential geoheritage objects (geosites). Assessment of Djara Cave and its vicinity (Western Desert, Egypt) has permitted to document unique features, such as the cave itself as a peculiar subsurface landform, speleothems providing data for palaeoenvironmental reconstructions, rock art demonstrating elements of past landscapes, siliceous nodules weathered from Eocene limestones and a network of dry drainage channels indicative of wetter palaeoenvironments. These features are assigned to geomorphological, sedimentological and palaeogeographical types of geoheritage. Djara Cave and its vicinity are proposed as a geosite of national rank; it is vulnerable to anthropogenic stress and needs geoconservation measures and instalment of interpretative signs. This geosite is already popular among tourists, and can be used for further tourism development. More generally, the presence of caves in Egyptian desert areas makes possible the recognition of national speleological heritage that requires special country-level strategies of management.

Keywords

AbdelMaksoud, K.M., Elfeky, H., Ruban, D.A. & Ermolaev, V.A., 2020. A Unique Coincidence of Geomorphological, Geological, and Geoarchaeological Features in the Valley of Camels (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt). Geoheritage 12, 81.10.1007/s12371-020-00507-x Search in Google Scholar

Antic, A., Tomic, N., Ðordevic, T., Radulovic, M. & Ðevic, I., 2020. Speleological objects becoming show caves: evidence from the Valjevo karst area in Western Serbia. Geoheritage 12, 95.10.1007/s12371-020-00517-9 Search in Google Scholar

Ballesteros, D., Fernández-Martínez, E., Carcavilla, L. & Jiménez-Sánchez, M., 2019. Karst Cave Geoheritage in Protected Areas: Characterisation and Proposals of Management of Deep Caves in the Picos de Europa National Park (Spain). Geoheritage 11, 1919–1939.10.1007/s12371-019-00416-8 Search in Google Scholar

Bétard, F., Hobléa, F. & Portal, C., 2017. Geoheritage as new territorial resource for local development. Annales de Geographie 717, 523–543.10.3917/ag.717.0523 Search in Google Scholar

Brandi, I.V., Barbosa, M.R., Guimarães de Paula, R., Araújo, R.N., Vieira de Moura, R.S. & Mota de Lima, H., 2019. Instrumented geotechnical monitoring of a natural cave in a near mine operation – Towards a sustainable approach to mining and preservation of speleological heritage. Journal of Cleaner Production 239, 118040.10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.118040 Search in Google Scholar

Brétnont, A., 2018. Elephants, hippos and mouflons. Three hypotheses of animal markers of regional identities during the periods of Nagada I–II. Archeo-Nil 28, 69–98. Search in Google Scholar

Brilha, J., 2016. Inventory and quantitative assessment of geosites and geodiversity sites: a review. Geoheritage 8, 119–134.10.1007/s12371-014-0139-3 Search in Google Scholar

Brilha, J., Gray, M., Pereira, D.I. & Pereira, P., 2018. Geo-diversity: An integrative review as a contribution to the sustainable development of the whole of nature. Environmental Science and Policy 86, 19–28.10.1016/j.envsci.2018.05.001 Search in Google Scholar

Brook, G.A., Embabi, N.S., Ashour, M.M., Edwards, R.L., Cheng, H., Cowart, J.B. & Dabous, A.A., 2002. Djara Cave in the Western Desert of Egypt: Morphology and evidence of Quaternary climatic change. Cave and Karst Science 29, 57–66. Search in Google Scholar

Brook, G.A., Embabi, N.S., Ashour, M.M., Lawrence Edwards, R., Cheng, H., Cowart, J.B. & Dabous, A.A., 2003. Quaternary environmental change in the Western Desert of Egypt: Evidence from cave speleothems, spring tufas, and playa sediments. Zeitschrift für Geomorphologie, Supplementband 131, 59–87. Search in Google Scholar

Brookes, I.A., 2001. Aeolian erosional lineations in the Libyen Desert, Dakhla Region, Egypt. Geomorphology 39, 189–209.10.1016/S0169-555X(01)00026-5 Search in Google Scholar

Brookes, I.A., 2003. Geomorphic indicators of Holocene winds in Egypt’s Western Desert. Geomorphology 56, 155–166.10.1016/S0169-555X(03)00076-X Search in Google Scholar

Bruno, D.E., Crowley, B.E., Gutak, J.M., Moroni, A., Nazarenko, O.V., Oheim, K.B., Ruban, D.A., Tiess, G. & Zorina, S.O., 2014. Paleogeography as geological heritage: Developing geosite classification. Earth-Science Reviews 138, 300–312.10.1016/j.earscirev.2014.06.005 Search in Google Scholar

Classen, E., Kindermann, K. & Pastoors, K., 2009. Djara – Cave Art in Egypt’s Western Desert. Archeo-Nil 19, 47–66.10.3406/arnil.2009.979 Search in Google Scholar

Čech, V., Chrastina, P., Gregorová, B., Hronček, P., Klamár, R. & Košová, V., 2021. Analysis of attendance and speleotourism potential of accessible caves in karst landscape of Slovakia. Sustainability 13, 5881.10.3390/su13115881 Search in Google Scholar

Ehsan, S., Shafeealeman, M. & Arabegum, R., 2013. Geotourism: A tool for sustainable development of geo-heritage resources. Advanced Materials Research 622, 1711–1715.10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.622-623.1711 Search in Google Scholar

Embabi, N.S., 2018. Geo-Parks and Features of Geomorphic and Geologic Significance. Landscapes and Landforms of Egypt. World Geomorphological Landscapes. Springer, Cham, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65661-8_23.10.1007/978-3-319-65661-8_23 Search in Google Scholar

Garofano, M. & Govoni, D., 2012. Underground Geotourism: A Historic and Economic Overview of Show Caves and Show Mines in Italy. Geoheritage 4, 79–92.10.1007/s12371-012-0055-3 Search in Google Scholar

Gehlen, B., Kindermann, K., Linstädter, J. & Riemer, H., 2002. The Holocene Occupation of the Eastern Sahara: Regional Chronologies and Supra-regional Developments in four Areas of the Absolute Desert. In: Tides of the Desert – Gezeiten der Wüste. Contributions to the Archaeology and Environmental History of Africa in Honour of Rudolph Kuper. Heinrich-Barth-Institut, Köln, pp. 85–116. Search in Google Scholar

Golonka, J., 2004. Plate tectonic evolution of the southern margin of Eurasia in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic. Tectonophysics 381, 235–273.10.1016/j.tecto.2002.06.004 Search in Google Scholar

Guiraud, R., Bosworth, W., Thierry, J. & Delplanque, A., 2005. Phanerozoic geological evolution of Northern and Central Africa: An overview. Journal of African Earth Sciences 43, 83–143.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2005.07.017 Search in Google Scholar

Kharbish, S., Henaish, A. & Zamzam, S., 2020. Geodiversity and geotourism in Greater Cairo area, Egypt: implications for geoheritage revival and sustainable development. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13, 451.10.1007/s12517-020-05457-w Search in Google Scholar

Kieniewicz, J.M. & Smith, J.R., 2007. Hydrologic and climatic implications of stable isotope and minor element analyses of authigenic calcite silts and gastropod shells from a mid-Pleistocene pluvial lake, Western Desert, Egypt. Quaternary Research 68, 431–444.10.1016/j.yqres.2007.07.010 Search in Google Scholar

Kindermann, K., Bubenzer, O., Nussbaum, S., Riemer, H., Darius, F., Pöllath, N. & Smettan, U., 2006. Palaeoenvironment and Holocene land use of Djara, Western Desert of Egypt. Quaternary Science Reviews 25, 1619–1637.10.1016/j.quascirev.2005.12.005 Search in Google Scholar

Kirillova, K., Fu, X., Lehto, X. & Cai, L., 2014. What makes a destination beautiful? Dimensions of tourist aesthetic judgment. Tourism Management 42, 282–293.10.1016/j.tourman.2013.12.006 Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, I.D., 2019. South Australian geology and the State Heritage Register: an example of geoconservation of the Naracoorte Caves complex and karst environment. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences 66, 785–792.10.1080/08120099.2019.1608300 Search in Google Scholar

Lobo, H.A.S. & Moretti, E.C., 2009. Tourism in caves and the conservation of the speleological heritage: The case of Serra da Bodoquena (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil). Acta Carsologica 38, 265–276.10.3986/ac.v38i2-3.127 Search in Google Scholar

Lobo, H.A.S. & Boggiani, P.C., 2013. Caves as geological heritage. Boletim Paranaense de Geosciencias 70, 190–199.10.5380/geo.v70i0.31698 Search in Google Scholar

Mikhailenko, A.V., Ruban, D.A. & Ermolaev, V.A., 2021. Accessibility of geoheritage sites—a methodological proposal. Heritage 4, 1080–1091.10.3390/heritage4030060 Search in Google Scholar

Mügge, V., Rosendahl, W. & Wrede, V., 2007. On the meaning of cave and karst for the Ruhr Area National GeoPark. Mitteilungen des Verbandes der Deutschen Hohlen- und Karstforscher 53, 36–40. Search in Google Scholar

Panizza, M., 2001. Geomorphosites: Concepts, methods and examples of geomorphological survey. Chinese Science Bulletin 46, 4–6.10.1007/BF03187227 Search in Google Scholar

Paunovic, M., 1996. Vindija Cave (Croatia) – site of fossil man (proposal for inclusion in the World Geological Heritage List). Geologica Balcanica 26, 15–24. Search in Google Scholar

Plyusnina, E.E., Sallam, E.S. & Ruban, D.A., 2016. Geological heritage of the Bahariya and Farafra oases, the central Western Desert, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences 116, 151–159.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2016.01.002 Search in Google Scholar

Polkowski, P.L., 2018. Working on Rock Art in the Dakhleh Oasis: Some Thoughts on Threats to Petroglyphs and Possibilities of Research in the Western Desert, Egypt. African Archaeological Review 35, 191–210.10.1007/s10437-018-9295-1 Search in Google Scholar

Polukhina, A.N., Lyakhnitsky, Y.S. & Lezhnin, V.V., 2019. The concept of regulated use of natural heritage sites included in the tourist cluster: A Russian caves case study. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 81, 162–173.10.4311/2017SS0107 Search in Google Scholar

Prosser, C., Murphy, M. & Larwood, J., 2006. Geological conservation: a guide to good practice. English Nature, Peterborough, 145 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Reynard, E. & Brilha, J. (Eds.), 2018. Geoheritage: Assessment, Protection, and Management. Elsevier, Amsterdam, 482 pp.10.1016/B978-0-12-809531-7.00030-7 Search in Google Scholar

Reynard, E., Coratza, P. & Giusti, C., 2011. Geomorphosites and Geotourism. Geoheritage 3, 129–130.10.1007/s12371-011-0041-1 Search in Google Scholar

Reynard, E., Coratza, P. & Hobléa, F., 2016. Current Research on Geomorphosites. Geoheritage 8, 1–3.10.1007/s12371-016-0174-3 Search in Google Scholar

Ruban, D.A., 2010. Quantification of geodiversity and its loss. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 121, 326–333.10.1016/j.pgeola.2010.07.002 Search in Google Scholar

Ruban, D.A., 2018. Karst as Important Resource for Geopark-Based Tourism: Current State and Biases. Resources 7, 82.10.3390/resources7040082 Search in Google Scholar

Ruban, D.A., 2020. Geological Heritage of the Anthropocene Epoch – A Conceptual Viewpoint. Heritage 3, 19–28.10.3390/heritage3010002 Search in Google Scholar

Ruban, D.A., Sallam, E.S., Khater, T.M. & Ermolaev, V.A., 2021. Golden Triangle Geosites: Preliminary Geoheritage Assessment in a Geologically Rich Area of Eastern Egypt. Geoheritage 13, 54.10.1007/s12371-021-00582-8 Search in Google Scholar

Said, R. (Ed.), 2017. The geology of Egypt. Routledge, London, 734 pp.10.1201/9780203736678 Search in Google Scholar

Sallam, E.S., Ruban, D.A., Mostafa, M.T., Elkhodery, M.K., Alwilily, R.L., Molchanova, T.K. & Zorina, S.O., 2020. Unique desert caves as a valuable geological resource: first detailed geological heritage assessment of the Sannur Cave, Egypt. Arabian Journal of Geosciences 13, 141.10.1007/s12517-020-5176-4 Search in Google Scholar

Santangelo, N. & Valente, E., 2020. Geoheritage and Geotourism resources. Resources 9, 80.10.3390/resources9070080 Search in Google Scholar

Schmidt, C., Kindermann, K., van Peer, P. & Bubenzer, O., 2015. Multi-emission luminescence dating of heated chert from the Middle Stone Age sequence at Sodmein Cave (Red Sea Mountains, Egypt). Journal of Archaeological Science 63, 94–103.10.1016/j.jas.2015.08.016 Search in Google Scholar

Shaaban, M.N., 2004. Diagenesis of the lower Eocene Thebes Formation, Gebel Rewagen area, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Sedimentary Geology 165, 53–65.10.1016/j.sedgeo.2003.11.004 Search in Google Scholar

Stephens, M., Hodge, S. & Paquette, J.¸2013. Geoconservation of Volivoli Cave, Fiji: A Prehistoric Heritage Site of National Significance. Geoheritage 5, 123–136.10.1007/s12371-013-0075-7 Search in Google Scholar

Štrba, L, Rybár, P., Baláž, B., Molokác, M., Hvizdák, L., Kršák, B., Lukác, M., Muchová, L., Tometzová, D. & Ferencíková, J., 2015. Geosite assessments: comparison of methods and results. Current Issues in Tourism 18, 496–510.10.1080/13683500.2014.882885 Search in Google Scholar

Urban, J., 2004. Caves and karst sites of Poland as a contribution to geological heritage of Central Europe. Polish Geological Institute Special Papers 13, 89–96. Search in Google Scholar

Vermeersch, P.M., Van Peer, P., Rots, V. & Paulussen, R., 2005. A survey of the Bili Cave and its surroundings in the Red Sea Mountains, El Gouna, Egypt. Journal of African Archaeology 3, 267–276.10.3213/1612-1651-10054 Search in Google Scholar

Wanas, H.A. & Armenteros, I., 2019. Microbially-induced fluvial tufa in Gunna hills, Farafra Oasis, Egypt: Facies analysis and stable isotopes. Journal of African Earth Sciences 158, 103515.10.1016/j.jafrearsci.2019.103515 Search in Google Scholar

Warowna, J., Zglobicki, W., Kolodynska-Gawrysiak, R., Gajek, G., Gawrysiak, L. & Telecka, M., 2016. Geotourist values of loess geoheritage within the planned Geopark Malopolska Vistula River Gap, E Poland. Quaternary International 399, 46–57.10.1016/j.quaint.2015.06.064 Search in Google Scholar

Wei, Y.-L., Chen, W.-H., Luo, Q.-K., He, Z.-F. & Tan, Z.-Q., 2016. Characteristics and formation and evolution analysis of the karst landscape of Zhijindong Cave Global Geopark, Guizhou Province. Acta Geoscientica Sinica 37, 368–378. Search in Google Scholar

Woo, K.S., Kim, L., Ji, H., Jeon, Y., Ryu, C.G. & Wood, C., 2019. Geological Heritage Values of the Yongcheon Cave (Lava Tube Cave), Jeju Island, Korea. Geoheritage 11, 615–628.10.1007/s12371-018-0315-y Search in Google Scholar

Yousif, M., Henselowsky, F. & Bubenzer, O., 2018. Palaeohydrology and its impact on groundwater in arid environments: Gebel Duwi and its vicinities, Eastern Desert, Egypt. Catena 171, 29–4310.1016/j.catena.2018.06.028 Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo