1. bookVolume 70 (2022): Edizione 2 (June 2022)
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1338-4333
Prima pubblicazione
28 Mar 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
access type Accesso libero

Experimental investigation of hydrophobic bentonite effects on reducing evaporation from water surfaces

Pubblicato online: 19 May 2022
Volume & Edizione: Volume 70 (2022) - Edizione 2 (June 2022)
Pagine: 170 - 177
Ricevuto: 25 Jun 2021
Accettato: 27 Dec 2021
Dettagli della rivista
License
Formato
Rivista
eISSN
1338-4333
Prima pubblicazione
28 Mar 2009
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
Lingue
Inglese
Abstract

In recent years, due to the occurrence of water shortage and drought problems, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions of the world, new methods to reduce evaporation from the surface of dam reservoirs, lakes, and other water-free surfaces are investigated. This study aimed to use hydrophobic bentonite to reduce water evaporation from water surfaces, on a laboratory scale, and field conditions for the first time. Bentonite initially became hydrophobic by stearic acid (SA). Under such conditions, hydrophobic bentonite floats on the surface of water and forms a thin coating layer. The produced hydrophobic bentonite had a contact angle of 150°, indicating its superhydrophobicity. Evaporation reduction was measured under laboratory and field conditions and it was compared to hexadecanol as the reference material. The results demonstrated that the hydrophobic bentonite efficiency under laboratory conditions was similar to that of hexadecanol and prevented water evaporation by 36%. However, under field conditions, hydrophobic bentonite and hexadecanol efficiencies were 40% and 23% to reduce evaporation for 30 days, respectively. In terms of stability, hexadecanol needed to be re-injected after three days, while hydrophobic bentonite was stable and remained on the surface for more than 100 days under laboratory conditions and for more than 15 days under field conditions without needing re-injection. This coverage with method can be used to reduce evaporation from lakes, tanks, and reservoirs of small dams.

Keywords

Aminzadeh, M., Lehmann, P., Or, D., 2018. Evaporation suppression and energy balance of water reservoirs covered with self-assembling floating elements. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 22, 7, 4015–4032. http://doi.org/10.5194/hess-22-4015-201810.5194/hess-22-4015-2018 Search in Google Scholar

Barnes, G.T., 2008. The potential for monolayers to reduce the evaporation of water from large water storages. Agricultural Water Management, 95, 4, 339–353. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2007.12.00310.1016/j.agwat.2007.12.003 Search in Google Scholar

Benzaghta, M.A., Mohamad, T.A., 2009. Evaporation from reservoir and reduction methods: An overview and assessment study. International Engineering Convention. Domascus, Syria and Medinah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 11, 18. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood, K.A., 2013. Reduce evaporation losses from water reservoirs. IOSR Journal of Applied Physics, 4, 13–16. http://doi.org/10.9790/4861-046131610.9790/4861-0461316 Search in Google Scholar

Grundy, F., 1957. Reduction of evaporation from reservoirs. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Congress of Surface Activity, London. Search in Google Scholar

Gugliotti, M., Baptista, M.S., Politi, M.J., 2005. Reduction of evaporation of natural water samples by monomolecular films. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society, 16, 6a, 1186–1190. http://doi.org/10.1590/s0103-5053200500070001510.1590/S0103-50532005000700015 Search in Google Scholar

Han, K.-W., Shi, K.-B., Yan, X.-J., Cheng Y.-Y., 2019. Water savings efficiency of counterweighted spheres covering a plain reservoir in an arid area. Water Resources Management, 33, 5, 1867–1880. http://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-019-02214-x10.1007/s11269-019-02214-x Search in Google Scholar

Harbeck, G.E., Koberg, G.E., 1959. A method of evaluating the effect of a monomolecular film in suppressing reservoir evaporation. Journal of Geophysical Research, 64, 1, 89–93. http://doi.org/10.1029/jz064i001p0008910.1029/JZ064i001p00089 Search in Google Scholar

Herzig, M.A., Barnes, G.T., Gentle, I.R., 2011. Improved spreading rates for monolayers applied as emulsions to reduce water evaporation. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 357, 1, 239–242. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2011.01.07110.1016/j.jcis.2011.01.07121353230 Search in Google Scholar

Hong, Y., Yan, W., Du, J., Li, W., Xu, T., Ye, W.-B., 2020. Thermal performances of stearic acid/sepiolite composite form-stable phase change materials with improved thermal conductivity for thermal energy storage. Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry, 143, 5, 3317–3329. http://doi.org/10.1007/s10973-020-09299-210.1007/s10973-020-09299-2 Search in Google Scholar

Huang, W., Wang, Y., Qiu, Z., Leong, Y.-K., Cui, M., Zhong, H., 2015. Synthesis and characterisation of strong hydrophobic bentonite. Materials Research Innovations, 19, 6, 428–434. http://doi.org/10.1179/1433075x15y.000000006610.1179/1433075X15Y.0000000066 Search in Google Scholar

Isalou, S.K., Ghorbanpour, M., 2019. Catalytic activity of Fe-modified bentonite in heterogeneous photo-Fenton process. Desalination and Water Treatment, 162, 376–382. http://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2019.2427210.5004/dwt.2019.24272 Search in Google Scholar

Jajin, R.G., Feizi, A., Ghorbanpour, M., 2021. Reduction of water evaporation from dam reservoirs using hydrophobic silver doped titanium dioxide nanoparticles coating. Water Resources Research, 57, e2020WR029231. https://doi.org/10.1029/2020WR02923 Search in Google Scholar

Johansson, C., Clegg, F., 2014. Hydrophobically modified poly(vinyl alcohol) and bentonite nanocomposites thereof: Barrier, mechanical, and aesthetic properties. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132, 13. http://doi.org/10.1002/app.4173710.1002/app.41737 Search in Google Scholar

Langmuir, I., 1917. The constitution and fundamental properties of solids and liquids. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 39, 9, 1848–1906. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja02254a00610.1021/ja02254a006 Search in Google Scholar

Ogunlaja, S.B., Pal, R., 2020. Effects of bentonite nanoclay and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide modified bentonite nanoclay on phase inversion of water-in-oil emulsions. Colloids and Interfaces, 4, 1, 2. http://doi.org/10.3390/colloids401000210.3390/colloids4010002 Search in Google Scholar

Panjabi, K., Rudra, R., Goel, P., 2016. Evaporation Retardation by Monomolecular Layers: An Experimental Study at the Aji Reservoir (India). Open Journal of Civil Engineering, 6, 3, 346–357. http://doi.org/10.4236/ojce.2016.6302910.4236/ojce.2016.63029 Search in Google Scholar

Piri, J., Amin, S., Moghaddamnia, A., Keshavarz, A., Han, D., Remesan, R., 2009. Daily pan evaporation modeling in a hot and dry climate. Journal of Hydrologic Engineering, 14, 8, 803–811. http://doi.org/10.1061/(asce)he.1943-5584.000005610.1061/(ASCE)HE.1943-5584.0000056 Search in Google Scholar

Saggaï, S., Bachi, O.E.K., 2018. Evaporation reduction from water reservoirs in arid lands using monolayers: Algerian experience. Water Resources, 45, 2, 280–288. http://doi.org/10.1134/s009780781802015x10.1134/S009780781802015X Search in Google Scholar

Saki, S., Senol-Arslan, D., Uzal, N., 2020. Fabrication and characterization of silane -functionalized Na-bentonite polysulfone/polyethylenimine nanocomposite membranes for dye removal. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 137, 36, 49057. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/app.4905710.1002/app.49057 Search in Google Scholar

Shah, D.O., 2018. Reducing water evaporation and enhancing plant growth using a hydrophobic capillary layer formed with hydro-phobic soil. Google Patents. Search in Google Scholar

Shayegh, R., Ghorbanpour, M., 2020. A new approach for preparation of iron oxide-pillared bentonite as adsorbent of dye. Desalination and Water Treatment, 183, 404–412. http://doi.org/10.5004/dwt.2020.2532210.5004/dwt.2020.25322 Search in Google Scholar

Verlee, D., Zetland, D., 2015. Extending water supply by reducing reservoir evaporation: a case study from Wichita Falls, Texas. In: Proceedings of Mine Water Solutions in Extreme Environments, Vancouver, Canada. Search in Google Scholar

Wu, L.M., Liu, Q.X., Wang, X.L., Cao, S.Y., Tang, N., Wang, Q., Lv, G.C., Liao, L.B., 2020. Preparation of two-dimensional nano montmorillonite/stearic acid energy storage composites with excellent stability and heat storage property. Applied Clay Science, 191, 105614. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2020.10561410.1016/j.clay.2020.105614 Search in Google Scholar

Yao, X., Zhang, H., Lemckert, C., Brook, A., Schouten, P., 2010. Evaporation reduction by suspended and floating covers: overview, modelling and efficiency. Urban Water Security Research Alliance Technical Report. Search in Google Scholar

Zipper, L.E, Aristide, X., Bishop, D.P, Joshi, I., Kharzeev, J., Patel, K.B., Santiago, B.M., Joshi, K., Dorsinvil, K., Sweet, R.M., 2014. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids. Acta Crystallographica Section F: Structural Biology Communications, 70, 1707–1713. http://doi.org/10.1107/s2053230x1402512610.1107/S2053230X14025126425924525484231 Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo