1. bookVolume 10 (2022): Edizione 1 (March 2022)
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
15 Apr 2013
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno
access type Accesso libero

University campuses as agents for urban change

Pubblicato online: 31 Mar 2022
Volume & Edizione: Volume 10 (2022) - Edizione 1 (March 2022)
Pagine: 22 - 37
Ricevuto: 22 Dec 2021
Accettato: 04 Mar 2022
Dettagli della rivista
Prima pubblicazione
15 Apr 2013
Frequenza di pubblicazione
4 volte all'anno

Thanks to the leading role of universities in cities as knowledge and innovation hubs, many cities rely on their universities to face their economic and social challenges. On the other hand, universities need their cities to fulfil the capacity needed to satisfy student and staff needs for services and facilities. Therefore, the university-city relationship is considered to be intercorrelated and overlapping. However, due to the need for expansion, universities tend to move out and build larger campuses causing different trends of studentification and de-studentification in the city. These trends impact a city’s urban growth and transformation over time. This study analyses the impact of four different campuses of Kyushu University from 1993 to 2017 to understand the morphological impact of old and new campuses on their surroundings. A spacematrix and a mixed-use index were used to produce raster maps that helped to visualize temporal trends of urban density and the mixed use of functions in areas surrounding campuses. Results have shown that moved out campuses have the potential to impact the surrounding mixed use of functions. However, new campuses have the potential to impact a city’s urban density, therefore, trends in de-studentification can impact the campus-city functional relationship. Conversely, studentification trends can impact the campus-city physical relationship. Thus, university campuses could be considered as indirect agents that contribute to the urban physical and functional change of the city.


Alexander E.R. 1993. Density measures: A review and analysis. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research, 10, 3: 181–202. Search in Google Scholar

Berg L.V. 2021. European Cities in the Knowledge Economy: The Cases of Amsterdam, Dortmund, Eindhoven, Helsinki, Manchester, Munich, Mnster, Rotterdam and Zaragoza. Routledge, London. Search in Google Scholar

Berghauser M., Haupt P. 2010. Spacematrix. space, density and urban form. NAi Publishers, Rotterdam. Search in Google Scholar

Borsi K., Schulte C. 2018. Universities and the city: from islands of knowledge to districts of innovation. The Journal of Architecture, 23, 7–8: 1143–1180. Search in Google Scholar

Buttle F.A. 1998. Word of mouth: Understanding and managing referral marketing. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 6, 3: 241–254. Search in Google Scholar

Den Heijer A.C. 2011. Managing the university campus: Information to support real estate decisions. PhD Dissertation. TU Delft, Netherlands. Search in Google Scholar

Den Heijer A.C., Magdaniel F.T.J.C. 2018. Campus–City Relations: Past, Present, and Future. [in:] Meusburger P., Heffernan M., Suarsana L. (Eds.) Geographies of the University. Springer, Switzerland: 439–459. Search in Google Scholar

Donaldson R., Benn J., Campbell M., De Jager A. 2014. Reshaping urban space through studentification in two South African urban centres. Urbani Izziv, 25: 176–188. Search in Google Scholar

ESRI. 2001. ArcGIS Spatial Analyst: Advanced GIS spatial analysis using raster and vector data. ESRI White Paper: 1–17. Search in Google Scholar

Forsyth A. 2003. Measuring Density: Working definitions for residential density and building intensity. Design Brief, 9, 1: 2–8. Search in Google Scholar

Frédéric L. 2002. Japan Encyclopedia. Harvard University Press, Massachusetts. Search in Google Scholar

Fujita K., Hill R.C. 1993. Japanese cities in the world economy. Temple University Press, Philadelphia. Search in Google Scholar

Fukuoka City Government. 2021a. Hakata Connected. Available at https://www.city.fukuoka.lg.jp/jutaku-toshi/kaihatsu/toshi/HAKATA_CONNECTED.html [In Japanese]. Search in Google Scholar

Fukuoka City Government. 2021b. Tenjin Big Bang. Available at https://www.city.fukuoka.lg.jp/jutaku-toshi/kaihatsu/shisei/20150226.html [In Japanese]. Search in Google Scholar

Fukuoka Municipal Administration. 2019. 130 years of Fukuoka City: Fukuoka City Past and Future. Available at https://dayori.city.fukuoka.lg.jp/75606/ [In Japanese]. Search in Google Scholar

Glaeser E.L. 1998. Are Cities Dying? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 12, 2: 139–160. Search in Google Scholar

Grabkowska M., Frankowski J. 2016. “Close to the city centre, close to the university”. Are there symptoms of studentification in Gdańsk, Poland? Bulletin of Geography: Socio-Economic Series, 32: 73–83. Search in Google Scholar

He S. 2014. Consuming urban living in ‘villages in the city’: Studentification in Guangzhou, China. Urban Studies, 52, 15: 2849–2873. Search in Google Scholar

Hebbert M. 2018. The campus and the city: a design revolution explained. Journal of Urban Design, 23, 6: 883–897. Search in Google Scholar

Holton M., Mouat C. 2020. The rise (and rise) of vertical studentification: Exploring the drivers of studentification in Australia. Urban Studies, 58, 9: 1866–1884. Search in Google Scholar

Kinton C., Smith D., Harrison J. 2016. De-studentification: emptying housing and neighbourhoods of student populations. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 48, 8: 1617–1635. Search in Google Scholar

Kurtulus I., Griffiths S. 2017. The effect of university campuses on the spatial cultures of two mid-sized towns: A comparative study of Nottingham, UK and Eskisehir, Turkey. Proceedings of the 11th International Space Syntax Symposium. University of Lisbon, Portugal. Search in Google Scholar

Larkham P.J. 2000. Institutions and urban form: the example of universities. Urban Morphology, 4, 2: 63–78. Search in Google Scholar

Macintyre C. 2003. New models of student housing and their impact on local communities. Journal of Higher Education Policy and Management, 25, 2: 109–118. Search in Google Scholar

Magdaniel F.T.C., Den Heijer A.C., De Jonge H. 2018. The locations of innovation described through thirty-nine tech-campuses. Competitiveness Review: An International Business Journal, 28, 1: 58–74. Search in Google Scholar

Mathur V.K. 2016. Human capital-based strategy for regional economic development. Economic Development Quarterly, 13, 3: 203–216. Search in Google Scholar

Mohammed A.M.S., Hirai Y. 2021. Utilising urban gamification for sustainable crime prevention in public spaces: A citizen participation model for designing against vandalism. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 16, 1: 25–38. Search in Google Scholar

Mohammed A.M.S., Ukai T. 2021. The Impact of University Campuses on City Urbanization: A Syntactic and Socio-Spatial Analysis of Kyushu University Campuses in Japan. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 16, 7: 1209–1220. Search in Google Scholar

Moos M., Revington N., Wilkin T., Andrey J. 2019. The knowledge economy city: Gentrification, studentification and youthification, and their connections to universities. Urban Studies, 56, 6: 1075–1092. Search in Google Scholar

Mosey M. 2017. Studentification: the impact on residents of an English city. GEOVERSE. Search in Google Scholar

Namvar N., Elnokaly A., Mills G. 2019. The role of university in city transformation. Proceedings of the 12th International Space Syntax Symposium. Beijing JiaoTong University, Beijing. Search in Google Scholar

Oliveira V. 2016. Urban morphology: an introduction to the study of the physical form of cities. Springer, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Oxford Economics. 2017. The economic impact of universities in 2014-15. NCVER’s International Tertiary Education Research Database. Available at http://hdl.voced.edu.au/10707/441869. Search in Google Scholar

Perry D., Wiewel W., Lines M. 2009. The university’s role in urban development: From enclave to anchor institution. Land Lines: 2–7. Search in Google Scholar

Rauch J. 1993. Productivity gains from geographic concentration of human capital: evidence from the cities. Journal of Urban Economics. 34, 3: 380–400. Search in Google Scholar

Rugg J., Rhodes D., Jones A. 2000. The nature and impact of student demand on housing markets. York Publishing Services, York. Search in Google Scholar

Sayed A.M. 2021. Using Urban Gamification to Promote Citizen Participation for Designing Out Graffiti in Public Spaces. MSc Thesis. Kyuhsu University, Fukuoka. Search in Google Scholar

Shapira P., Masser I., Edgington D.W. 1994. Planning for Cities and Regions in Japan. Liverpool University Press, Liverpool. Search in Google Scholar

Simon C.J. 1998. Human Capital and Metropolitan Employment Growth. Journal of Urban Economics, 43, 2: 223–243. Search in Google Scholar

Smith D.P. 2005. ‘Studentification’: The gentrification factory? Routledge, Oxfordshire. Search in Google Scholar

Stoker R.P., Stone C.N., Horak M. 2015. Contending with Structural Inequality in a New Era. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Search in Google Scholar

Van Den Hoek J. 2010. The Mixed-use index as planning tool for new towns in the 21st century. Proceedings of New Towns for the 21st Century: The Planned vs the Unplanned city. Netherlands: 98–207 Search in Google Scholar

Van Nes A., Berghauser M., Mashhoodi B. 2012. Combination of Space syntax with spacematrix and the mixed-use index: The Rotterdam South test case. Proceedings of 8th International Space Syntax Symposium. University of Chile, Santiago. Search in Google Scholar

Van Nes A., Ye Y. 2014. The theory of the natural urban transformation process: The relationship between street network configuration, density and degree of function mixture of built. Proceedings of AESOP Annual Conference. Search in Google Scholar

Way T. 2016. The urban university’s hybrid campus. Journal of Landscape Architecture, 11, 1: 42–55. Search in Google Scholar

Wiewel W., Perry D. 2015. Global universities and urban development: Case studies and analysis. Routledge, Oxfordshire.10.4324/9781315704043 Search in Google Scholar

Ye Y., Van Nes A. 2013. Measuring urban maturation processes in Dutch and Chinese new towns: Combining street network configuration with building density and degree of land use. The Journal of Space Syntax: 4, 18–37. Search in Google Scholar

Articoli consigliati da Trend MD

Pianifica la tua conferenza remota con Sciendo