A 59-year-old woman presented with flushing attacks accompanied by tachycardia and hypotension, which lasted approximately 30 to 60 minutes, underwent 18 years ago a gastrointestinal tumor resection. The histologic examination revealed a poorly differentiated mixed neuroendocrine/adenocarcinoma located in the caecum with regional metastases. Postoperatively, the patient received combined chemotherapy of 5-fluorouracil with interferon for six months and since has remained asymptomatic. Her examination revealed positivity for chromogranin A (CgA) and a-Fetoprotein (aFP) (580 ng/24 h, normal range 27–94, and 10 IU/mL, normal range 0–6, respectively). Urinary 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid excretion was remarkably high (41.8 mg/24 h, normal range 2–10 mg/24 h). An abdominal Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan revealed multiple focal loci in the liver whose histological examination revealed a carcinoid tumor confirmed by an Octreoscan. Additional uptake was noted on the right shoulder and the right sternum-clavicle joint confirmed by Tc-99m MDP scan. The patient received somatostatin analogue therapy followed by long-acting release octreotide analogue therapy (30 mg/month) showing a partial improvement of relevant biomarkers. Two years later, carcinoid syndrome symptoms reappeared and due to the tumors expression of somatostatin receptors the patient received peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 177Lu-DOTATATE that resulted in both clinical and biochemical improvements.

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Life Sciences, Molecular Biology, Neurobiology, Medicine, Basic Medical Science, other, Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Endocrinology, Diabetology