International investment arbitration has the advantages of flexibility, autonomy, efficiency, neutrality, and other advantages in various methods of resolving investor and host country treaty disputes. The acceptance of international arbitration to resolve investment disputes in bilateral investment treaties concluded by China. has dramatically increased, which seems to help Chinese enterprises to go global and bring in foreign investment. Many arbitration institutions exist in mainland China, but none have ever accepted arbitration between foreign investors and host countries. This is due to legislative reasons and international cooperation at the government level. The rapid spread of information in the Internet age has led to the emergence of news. At the same time, discussions on case news have also been launched on Weibo, WeChat, Zhihu, and other major social platforms [1]. Although news about legal cases emerges endlessly in new media, such news information lacks professional legal interpretation. Therefore, more and more scholars have paid attention to the research necessity of information search in the legal field.

On October 1, 2016, the “Regulations of the Supreme People's Court on People's Courts Publishing Judgments on the Internet” came into effect. As of August 30, 2020, the relevant search websites for judgment documents include China Judgment Documents Network, Peking University Magic Treasure Website, etc. All central-local courts have corresponding official websites for document inquiries. On the China Judgment Documents website alone, the total number of uploaded judgment documents has exceeded 100 million. Since then, this kind of judgment document retrieval system has provided users with many legal research cases. This provides data protection for basic legal case searches. Judgment documents record the process and results of the trial of the people's court, and it is the carrier of the results of the litigation activities. The content includes the public prosecution, the defendant, the plaintiff, the defender, the judiciary, the evidence information, the court's judgment basis, and the referenced laws and regulations. The practical value of adjudication documents is reflected in the fact that the adjudication documents have been reviewed many times, the words are used carefully, the language is well standardized, and the case explanation is detailed. It can provide non-professional users with customized services for pushing related cases. Users can obtain relevant judgment documents according to unique case conditions.

In this paper, news-like factual texts are used as queries. In this paper, the structured and standardized judgment documents are used as the full-text corpus. This paper generalizes the professional retrieval system by using the structure and content features of the judgment documents [2]. This meets the retrieval needs of non-professional users who lack legal knowledge. This paper proposes the “news-documents” automatic recommendation system framework. The framework can be implemented to recommend relevant judgment documents for news-like authentic texts.

This paper integrates the structure information and content information of judgment documents into the information retrieval system of international investment judgment documents. This paper uses the BM25 model to calculate the similarity between feature words and documents [3]. And use the BM25 values of different feature words in factual texts as multi-dimensional features in the similarity algorithm. The overall similarity between the factual text and the international investment arbitration instrument is obtained.

The BM25 model is an algorithm for evaluating the relevance between search terms and documents. Its formula expression is

Where
_{1} and _{i,j}

This paper uses the SVM Rank and Lambda MART algorithms to fit the BM25 values of multi-dimensional feature words [4]. In this way, the overall similarity calculation between news corpus and international investment arbitration documents is realized.

Based on SVM, some scholars have proposed a ranking learning algorithm, SVM Rank. They transformed the ranking problem into a binary classification problem. The basic idea is to give a dataset {_{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{j}_{i}_{j}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}_{i}

We find a linear function

The Lambda MART algorithm has achieved good results in information retrieval. Its algorithmic nature can be widely used in sorting tasks. The content includes advertisement recommendations, automatic scoring, etc. The basic idea of the RankNet algorithm is to provide a scoring function _{i}_{i}_{i}_{i,j}

The normative texts of international investment arbitration instruments have solid qualitative expressions, such as the charges' description, the case's characterization, etc. However, the news corpus has a relatively strong event statement nature, and international investment arbitration documents only have event statements contained in the structure of the trial process [6]. Therefore, this paper explores the idea of extracting keywords from such structural content to enhance the calculation effect of text similarity.

At present, the more common feature word extraction algorithms are the TF-IDF algorithm, mutual information, and information get on. TF-IDF is a classic text keyword extraction algorithm. It mainly calculates the relative weight of the feature word to the document from two aspects: the number of times the feature word appears in all documents and the number of times the feature word appears in this document. The main idea is to weaken the influence of high-frequency words and stop words in literature. Information gain is obtained by calculating whether the feature word

The recommendation system framework of this paper is mainly divided into structured index construction of international investment arbitration documents and feature extraction of news corpus texts. The primary purpose of constructing the structure index of international investment arbitration documents is to realize the structuring of the text of international investment arbitration documents. It indexes different structural information of international investment arbitration instruments [7]. The primary purpose of news corpus text feature extraction is to represent the news corpus semantically. The algorithm extracts feature words to enhance the retrieval effect of long texts. Finally, we perform iterative learning according to the similarity ranking algorithm and output the relevant international investment arbitration document set. The specific framework is shown in Figure 1.

This paper uses the corresponding text similarity algorithm, Lambda MART algorithm, and Svm Rank algorithm to calculate the semantic similarity between news corpus and international investment arbitration documents. Users can sort the recommended referee documents according to their algorithm in descending order of relevance. According to the needs, this article refers to and acquires knowledge of highly relevant international investment arbitration documents [8]. The content includes, but is not limited to, lawyer recommendations, references to legal provisions, and evidence fixation. It meets the retrieval needs of obtaining relevant legal information using factual text content like news.

The corpus used in this paper is the structured corpus provided by open law. Cn as the full-text corpus of legal documents. It is used to provide a candidate set of relevant legal instruments. The corpus is provided by open law. Cn not only contains the corresponding crime of each case but also provides information on the structure of legal documents. This experiment focuses on the criminal case literature. The logic of this type of legal documentation is relatively straightforward [9]. Among them, there are 7320 criminal case documents. The statistics on the distribution characteristics of the types of international investment arbitration document cases are shown in Table 1.

Statistics of crime types in criminal cases

Type of criminal offense | Frequency |
---|---|

theft | 1854 |

Crime of smuggling, selling, transporting, and manufacturing drugs | 904 |

Intentional injury | 694 |

Fraud | 544 |

Dangerous Driving Offense | 454 |

Crime of picking quarrels and provoking trouble | 433 |

Offenses of illegal manufacture, sale, transportation, mailing, storage of firearms, ammunition, explosives | 419 |

Robbery | 411 |

Crime of opening a casino | 336 |

Credit card fraud | 193 |

From Table 1, it can be seen that the crime type of theft is significantly higher than other crimes. Starting with the robbery at No. 8, there is a clear downward trend in the number of paperwork for other crime types. And according to statistics, there are 175 types of crimes involved in international investment arbitration documents [10]. We can find that the categories of crimes and punishments in international investment arbitration documents are widely distributed, and the traditional classification retrieval system increases the difficulty of information retrieval for users.

In addition, the results of the statistics of the types of crimes involved in the cases recorded in the international investment arbitration documents are shown in Table 2.

Number of offenses covered by legal instruments

The number of crimes involved in the case | Frequency | Distribution percentage/% |
---|---|---|

1 | 5512 | 75.57 |

2 | 1355 | 18.51 |

3 | 219 | 2.99 |

4 | 75 | 1.04 |

5 | 35 | 0.48 |

5 | 12 | 0.15 |

7 | 5 | 0.07 |

≥8 | 5 | 0.08 |

It can be seen from Table 2 that the number of crimes involved in legal documents is distributed in steps. The number of documents involving one count accounted for 75.57%, and the number of documents involving two counts was 18.51%. The number of documents with no less than three charges is about 5%. The nature of international investment arbitration cases is mainly based on a single crime, but about 25% of international investment arbitration documents still contain two or more crimes. Therefore, the scope of sentencing involved in international investment arbitration instruments and the legal provisions vary significantly. It's unique [11]. According to the crime classification and indexing system, this method is not conducive to the indexing and retrieval of traditional search engines. This statistical result is in line with the content characteristics of the international investment arbitration documents summarized above and also confirms the importance of this experimental study from the side.

The similarity score uses the crime type of the news corpus and the crime type of the legal document for matching evaluation. The main algorithm is Hamming distance. The relevance of other corpora defaults to irrelevant literature.

This evaluation experiment is to improve the retrieval effectiveness of the retrieval system. We use NDCG to evaluate this experiment. NDCG is gradually improved according to the evaluation methods of cumulative gain (CG) and impaired cumulative gain (DCG). The cumulative gain method is the sum of the correlations at the specified location. The CG calculation formula for the specified position

Where

The evaluation index NDCG compares the predicted results with the ideal predicted results. We normalize the predicted retrieval results. The evaluation formula for the first

IDCG represents the ideal retrieval result, and we sort related documents in descending order according to their relevance.

NDCG can well reflect the difference between the similarity calculated by the model and the ideal similarity. The larger the NDCG value, the better the effect of model similarity estimation. In this paper, NDCG(1) and NDCG(5) will be selected to reflect the ranking of the most relevant documents in the system. NDCG(10) and NDCG(20) indicate the recommendation of related documents when the system returns more documents. The evaluation result of this experiment is to take the average value of multiple query NDCGs in the test set as the final evaluation index.

This experiment firstly uses the BM25 algorithm to verify the effect of the feature improvement algorithm. A bag-of-words model represents the news corpus. We use the known international investment arbitration documents to index the news corpus to extract relevant keywords—search based on indexing results. The experimental results are shown in Table 3.

The performance of feature words in the BM25 algorithm

Experimental results | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

NDCG(1) | NDCG(5) | NDCG(10) | NDCG(20) | |

Don't use features | 0 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.03 |

TF-IDF | 0.1 | 0.142 | 0.151 | 0.166 |

Our experimental results without features are worse than the text representation after feature words are extracted with TF-IDF. The text of the BM25 algorithm news corpus is long, and there are too many potential query words. This increases the difficulty of calculating the similarity of the algorithm. Lots of meaningless words in the text. This does not contribute to the similarity calculation. Therefore, we select non-low-frequency words with rich connotations after using the feature word extraction algorithm to construct the factual text's query formula. We will use the TF-IDF algorithm to extract text keywords in subsequent experiments. At the same time, we index the text to reduce the computational complexity and improve the recommendation effect of the model. At the same time, this paper also incorporates the text structure of international investment arbitration documents into considering the text matching model and designs experiments. The results are shown in Table 4.

Model results on different structures

Text structure | Model | Experimental results | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

NDCG(1) | NDCG(5) | NDCG(10) | NDCG(20) | ||

Court Opinion Section | BM25 | 0.1 | 0.142 | 0.151 | 0.166 |

Svm Rank | 0.125 | 0.169 | 0.19 | 0.199 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.366 | 0.305 | 0.269 | 0.24 | |

Part of the trial process | BM25 | 0.269 | 0.196 | 0.16 | 0.161 |

Svm Rank | 0.114 | 0.196 | 0.226 | 0.249 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.3 | 0.294 | 0.299 | 0.294 | |

Full text | BM25 | 0.211 | 0.21 | 0.169 | 0.169 |

Svm Rank | 0.114 | 0.196 | 0.223 | 0.249 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.266 | 0.232 | 0.255 | 0.254 |

From the performance results of different text matching models, the BM25 model has the worst performance, and the SVM Rank model and the Lambda MART model have improved to varying degrees. The retrieval performance of the BM25 model is higher than that of the SVM Rank model only in the evaluations of NDCG(1) and NDCG(5) when using the adjudication process and the structure-content features full-text results. In the evaluation of NDCG (10) and NDCG (20), the effect of the SVM Rank is significantly higher than that of BM25. Analysis of the reason may be that when the content of international investment arbitration documents increases, we use the method of keyword matching to facilitate the correlation of words in documents. This puts the most relevant documents at the top. The SVM Rank model is to find an optimal bound for ordinal regression in global data. The model ranks highly relevant documents ahead of less relevant documents as much as possible. Therefore, its NDCG performance results in NDCG(10) and NDCG(20) are still better than the BM25 algorithm. The Lambda MART model outperforms other retrieval models under different text structures.

The LambdaMART model performs better in evaluating NDCG(1) and NDCG(5) using only the court opinion structure content feature. The best performance in evaluating NDCG (10) and NDCG (20) is to use only the trial process structure content feature. When we combine the two, the model's performance decreases to a certain extent. The reason may be that the text of the trial process contains a lot of multi-angle statements and unclear facts. To a certain extent, the court did not recognize its content, which caused the deviation of text similarity calculation. But that content is suitable for expanding potentially related documents. Therefore, the relevance ranking of the first few results returned by the Lambda MART model is more relevant when only the structural content features of court opinions are used. The model can return more relevant text when we use the structure content feature of the trial process. When using the full-text matching method, the model effect tends to be average. This is not conducive to calculating the similarity between factual texts and international investment arbitration instruments. The BM25 algorithm can effectively improve the query effect by using the structure content features of the trial process after the feature extraction of the query formula. The possible reason is that the BM25 algorithm can obtain a more significant matching probability after using the structure content feature of the trial process. The SVM Rank algorithm has similar performance fluctuations to the Lambda MART model under different structural content characteristics.

Therefore, the Lambda MART model uses the feature word extraction algorithm to construct the document relevance matrix. Its text structure features can effectively improve the retrieval effect of only using full-text content. This experiment uses a limited corpus dataset. Given the large number of datasets currently formed by the International Investment Arbitration Documents Network, we will get better results by using the court opinions to do text recommendation work.

This paper proposes an automatic recommendation framework for international investment arbitration documents based on the characteristics of structure and content by using the characteristic words and structural content characteristics of international investment arbitration documents. The algorithm improves the shortcomings of the traditional full-text retrieval model BM25 in retrieving factual texts using a news-like corpus. On this basis, this paper uses the SVM Rank algorithm and the Lambda MART algorithm. This algorithm improves the effect of information retrieval based on factual texts of news-like corpora. This better fulfills the legal information retrieval needs of non-professional users.

#### Model results on different structures

Text structure | Model | Experimental results | |||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

NDCG(1) | NDCG(5) | NDCG(10) | NDCG(20) | ||

Court Opinion Section | BM25 | 0.1 | 0.142 | 0.151 | 0.166 |

Svm Rank | 0.125 | 0.169 | 0.19 | 0.199 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.366 | 0.305 | 0.269 | 0.24 | |

Part of the trial process | BM25 | 0.269 | 0.196 | 0.16 | 0.161 |

Svm Rank | 0.114 | 0.196 | 0.226 | 0.249 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.3 | 0.294 | 0.299 | 0.294 | |

Full text | BM25 | 0.211 | 0.21 | 0.169 | 0.169 |

Svm Rank | 0.114 | 0.196 | 0.223 | 0.249 | |

LTR lambda MART | 0.266 | 0.232 | 0.255 | 0.254 |

#### Statistics of crime types in criminal cases

Type of criminal offense | Frequency |
---|---|

theft | 1854 |

Crime of smuggling, selling, transporting, and manufacturing drugs | 904 |

Intentional injury | 694 |

Fraud | 544 |

Dangerous Driving Offense | 454 |

Crime of picking quarrels and provoking trouble | 433 |

Offenses of illegal manufacture, sale, transportation, mailing, storage of firearms, ammunition, explosives | 419 |

Robbery | 411 |

Crime of opening a casino | 336 |

Credit card fraud | 193 |

#### The performance of feature words in the BM25 algorithm

Experimental results | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

NDCG(1) | NDCG(5) | NDCG(10) | NDCG(20) | |

Don't use features | 0 | 0.024 | 0.023 | 0.03 |

TF-IDF | 0.1 | 0.142 | 0.151 | 0.166 |

#### Number of offenses covered by legal instruments

The number of crimes involved in the case | Frequency | Distribution percentage/% |
---|---|---|

1 | 5512 | 75.57 |

2 | 1355 | 18.51 |

3 | 219 | 2.99 |

4 | 75 | 1.04 |

5 | 35 | 0.48 |

5 | 12 | 0.15 |

7 | 5 | 0.07 |

≥8 | 5 | 0.08 |

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Fractional Differential Equations in Processing Computer Big Data Mathematical Modeling Thoughts and Methods Based on Fractional Differential Equations in Teaching Research on evaluation system of cross-border E-commerce platform based on the combined model A mathematical model of PCNN for image fusion with non-sampled contourlet transform Nonlinear Differential Equations in Computer-Aided Modeling of Big Data Technology The Uniqueness of Solutions of Fractional Differential Equations in University Mathematics Teaching Based on the Principle of Compression Mapping Financial customer classification by combined model Recognition of Electrical Control System of Flexible Manipulator Based on Transfer Function Estimation Method Automatic Knowledge Integration Method of English Translation Corpus Based on Kmeans Algorithm Real Estate Economic Development Based on Logarithmic Growth Function Model Design of Tennis Mobile Teaching Assistant System Based on Ordinary Differential Equations Financial Crisis Early Warning Model of Listed Companies Based on Fisher Linear Discriminant Analysis High Simulation Reconstruction of Crowd Animation Based on Optical Flow Constraint Equation Construction of Intelligent Search Engine for Big Data Multimedia Resource Subjects Based on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation 3D Animation Simulation of Computer Fractal and Fractal Technology Combined with Diamond-Square Algorithm Analysis of the Teaching Quality of Physical Education Class by Using the Method of Gradient Difference The Summation of Series Based on the Laplace Transformation Method in Mathematics Teaching Optimal Solution of the Fractional Differential Equation to Solve the Bending Performance Test of Corroded Reinforced Concrete Beams under Prestressed Fatigue Load Animation VR scene mosaic modeling based on generalized Laplacian equation Radial Basis Function Neural Network in Vibration Control of Civil Engineering Structure Optimal Model Combination of Cross-border E-commerce Platform Operation Based on Fractional Differential Equations The influence of accounting computer information processing technology on enterprise internal control under panel data simultaneous equation Research on Stability of Time-delay Force Feedback Teleoperation System Based on Scattering Matrix BIM Building HVAC Energy Saving Technology Based on Fractional Differential Equation Construction of comprehensive evaluation index system of water-saving irrigation project integrating penman Montei the quation Human Resource Management Model of Large Companies Based on Mathematical Statistics Equations Data Forecasting of Air-Conditioning Load in Large Shopping Malls Based on Multiple Nonlinear Regression Analysis of technical statistical indexes of college tennis players under the win-lose regression function equation Automatic extraction and discrimination of vocal main melody based on quadratic wave equation Analysis of wireless English multimedia communication based on spatial state model equation Optimization of Linear Algebra Core Function Framework on Multicore Processors Research on classification of e-commerce customers based on BP neural network The Control Relationship Between the Enterprise's Electrical Equipment and Mechanical Equipment Based on Graph Theory Mathematical Modeling and Forecasting of Economic Variables Based on Linear Regression Statistics Nonlinear Differential Equations in Cross-border E-commerce Controlling Return Rate 3D Mathematical Modeling Technology in Visualized Aerobics Dance Rehearsal System Fractional Differential Equations in Electronic Information Models BIM Engineering Management Oriented to Curve Equation Model Leakage control of urban water supply network and mathematical analysis and location of leakage points based on machine learning Analysis of higher education management strategy based on entropy and dissipative structure theory Prediction of corporate financial distress based on digital signal processing and multiple regression analysis Mathematical Method to Construct the Linear Programming of Football Training Multimedia sensor image detection based on constrained underdetermined equation The Size of Children's Strollers of Different Ages Based on Ergonomic Mathematics Design Application of Numerical Computation of Partial Differential Equations in Interactive Design of Virtual Reality Media Stiffness Calculation of Gear Hydraulic System Based on the Modeling of Nonlinear Dynamics Differential Equations in the Progressive Method Knowledge Analysis of Charged Particle Motion in Uniform Electromagnetic Field Based on Maxwell Equation Relationship Between Enterprise Talent Management and Performance Based on the Structural Equation Model Method Term structure of economic management rate based on parameter analysis of estimation model of ordinary differential equation Influence analysis of piano music immersion virtual reality cooperation based on mapping equation Chinese painting and calligraphy image recognition technology based on pseudo linear directional diffusion equation Label big data compression in Internet of things based on piecewise linear regression Animation character recognition and character intelligence analysis based on semantic ontology and Poisson equation Design of language assisted learning model and online learning system under the background of artificial intelligence Study on the influence of adolescent smoking on physical training vital capacity in eastern coastal areas Application of machine learning in stock selection Comparative analysis of CR of ideological and political education in different regions based on improved fuzzy clustering Action of Aut( G ) on the set of maximal subgroups ofp -groupsThe internal mechanism of corporate social responsibility fulfillment affecting debt risk in China: analysis of intermediary transmission effect based on degree of debt concentration and product market competitive advantage Study on transmission characteristics in three kinds of deformed finlines based on edge-based finite element method Asymptotic stability problem of predator–prey system with linear diffusion Research on loyalty prediction of e-commerce customer based on data mining Algebraic Equations in Educational Model of College Physical Education Course Education Professional English Translation Corpus Under the Binomial Theorem Coefficient Geometric Tolerance Control Method for Precision Machinery Based on Image Modeling and Novel Saturation Function Retrieval and Characteristic Analysis of Multimedia Tester Based on Bragg Equation Semiparametric Spatial Econometric Analysis of Household Consumption Based on Ordinary Linear Regression Model Video adaptive watermark embedding and detection algorithm based on phase function equation English Learning Motivation of College Students Based on probability Distribution Scientific Model of Vocational Education Teaching Method in Differential Nonlinearity Research on mobile Awareness service and data privacy Protection based on Linear Equations computing protocol Vocal Music Teaching Model Based on Finite Element Differential Mathematical Equations Studying a matching method combining distance proximity and buffer constraints The trend and influence of media information Propagation based on nonlinear Differential equation Research on the construction of early warning model of customer churn on e-commerce platform Evaluation and prediction of regional human capital based on optimised BP neural network Study on inefficient land use determination method for cities and towns from a city examination perspective A sentiment analysis method based on bidirectional long short-term memory networks A study of local smoothness-informed convolutional neural network models for image inpainting Mathematical Calculus Modeling in Improving the Teaching Performance of Shot Put Application of Nonlinear Differential Equation in Electric Automation Control System Higher Mathematics Teaching Curriculum Model Based on Lagrangian Mathematical Model Computational Algorithm to Solve Two–Body Problem Using Power Series in Geocentric System Decisions of competing supply chain with altruistic retailer under risk aversion Optimization of Color Matching Technology in Cultural Industry by Fractional Differential Equations The Marketing of Cross-border E-commerce Enterprises in Foreign Trade Based on the Statistics of Mathematical Probability Theory Application of Linear Partial Differential Equation Theory in Guiding Football Scientific Training Nonlinear Channel Estimation for Internet of Vehicles Some Necessary Conditions for Feedback Functions of de Bruijn Sequences The Evolution Model of Regional Tourism Economic Development Difference Based on Spatial Variation Function System Model of Shipping Enterprise Safety Culture Based on Dynamic Calculation Matrix Model An empirical research on economic growth from industrial structure optimisation in the Three Gorges Reservoir area The Inner Relationship between Students' Psychological Factors and Physical Exercise Based on Structural Equation Model (SEM) Analysis and Research on Influencing Factors of Ideological and Political Education Teaching Effectiveness Based on Linear Equation Study of agricultural finance policy information extraction based on ELECTRA-BiLSTM-CRF Fractional Differential Equations in Sports Training in Universities Examination and Countermeasures of Network Education in Colleges and Universities Based on Ordinary Differential Equation Model Innovative research of vertical video creation under the background of mobile communication Higher Education Agglomeration Promoting Innovation and Entrepreneurship Based on Spatial Dubin Model Chinese-English Contrastive Translation System Based on Lagrangian Search Mathematical Algorithm Model Genetic algorithm-based congestion control optimisation for mobile data network